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A Chilling Effect on Music

yerricde (125198) writes | more than 11 years ago

Music 16

Here's what I know about music copyright and why I believe it is impossible to write songs without getting sued.

DISCLAIMER: This legal information is not legal advice. If you want legal advice, please contact an attorney who practices in your jurisdiction.

Given:

Here's what I know about music copyright and why I believe it is impossible to write songs without getting sued.

DISCLAIMER: This legal information is not legal advice. If you want legal advice, please contact an attorney who practices in your jurisdiction.

Given:

  • Title 17, United States Code, as of June 2003.
  • Interpretation of Title 17 in case law, including how case law defines originality.
  • The properties of Western music.

Prove: It is impossible for a person of modest means to write completely original music from Western principles.

1. Introduction to Copyright

1.1. Congress enacted the Copyright Act of 1976 "[t]o promote the [P]rogress of [S]cience and useful Arts" (U.S. Const., Art. I, sect. 8, cl. 8).

1.2. Copyright law grants specific powers of exclusion to the author of an original musical work, in a package called "copyright" (17 USC 102). A work in which copyright subsists is called a "copyrighted work". However, the author can assign a copyright to another person or may grant another person a "license" (guarantee that exclusion will not be asserted against an act, that is, permission to perform the act).

1.3. The creative expression in a musical work lies primarily in its melody, not in its arrangement for instruments (Jollie v. Jacques) nor in the lyrics (Blume v. Spear).

1.4. Ideas and facts embodied in a copyrighted work do not fall under the work's copyright (17 USC 102). However, a musical work's melody cannot convey facts and thus carries more pure expression than a literary work, which may convey facts (citation omitted).

1.5. In general, only the owner of copyright in a work may reproduce it, prepare derivative works from it, perform it publicly, or authorize others to do so (17 USC 106).

1.6. A fair use exception to copyright exists (17 USC 107), but it is quite narrow. Reproducing a musical work or preparing derivative works based on a musical work, and distributing the result commercially to the public, generally does not qualify (citation omitted).

1.7. Transformative use of a work tips the scales in favor of fair use. Direct parody may qualify as transformative (the "Oh, Pretty Woman" case, Acuff-Rose Music v. Luther Campbell et al.), but other humorous uses of a work generally do not (Walt Disney Productions v. Air Pirates).

1.8. In any case, whether or not a use is fair is decided case-by-case in a court of law (Harper & Row v. Nation). This means that the owner of copyright in a work can go lawsuit-happy, accusing anybody who even remotely copied his work of infringing. In addition, courts are likely to favor slightly the established author over the rookie author (Heim v. Universal Pictures; Allen v. Walt Disney).

1.9. Because a typical law firm charges over forty times minimum wage, Americans of modest means often cannot afford to defend a copyright infringement case. Therefore, Americans of modest means must steer clear of any action that might even remotely trigger the ire of a wealthy publisher that owns copyrights.

1.10. Courts have defined that D's work is a "copy" of P's work if D has had access to P's work and D's work is similar enough to P's work (Laureyssens v. Idea Group). Here, "D's work" refers to a work whose author is D.

1.11. Having heard a musical work publicly performed on is sufficient to establish access to the work (Bright Tunes Music v. Harrisongs Music). In practice, given the ubiquity and heavy rotation of commercial radio, it is nearly impossible to avoid hearing a given popular musical work on the radio. This may effectively give the plaintiff a presumption of access in a suit alleging infringement of the copyright in a popular song.

1.12. A striking similarity between two songs lends evidence that the author of one had access to the other (Wilkie v. Santly Bros.), especially when there is no reasonable way (in the judge's opinion) that chance or independent creation could have produced such a similarity.

1.13. Copyright infringement is a strict liability tort; the plaintiff in an infringement case does not have to prove intent or negligence, and the defendant can be held liable for infringement even when both sides agree that copying was an accident (Bright Tunes Music v. Harrisongs Music; Three Boys Music v. Michael Bolton).

1.14. A match of the eight most significant notes (Bright Tunes Music v. Harrisongs Music), or possibly as few as four key notes (the "Yes! We have no bananas!" case, citation omitted; the "I Love New York" case, Elsmere Music v. NBC), has been found to constitute probative similarity.

1.15. Musicians make fine distinctions when actually performing melodies, but judges are looking for similarity rather than an exact match (citation omitted).

1.16. When a judge doesn't see a long interval-to-interval match between two melodies, he will look for harmonic structure, melodic shape, question-answer structures and deviations therefrom, and possibly other aspects that musicologists bring up (Allen v. Walt Disney).

1.17. I have no evidence of the existence of a publicly available service that can detect which existing copyrighted works a given melody matches so that a songwriter can clear a supposedly original song before publishing it.

1.18. A compulsory license for musical works exists but is limited to exact reproduction of the character of the melody (17 USC 115). A musical work that "borrows a bit" from an existing musical work but is otherwise different does not qualify.

1.QED. Therefore, copyright prevents an author of a musical work (hereinafter, a "songwriter") from creating a musical work that contains more than a few notes of a popular musical work.

2. A Combinatoric Model of Music Theory

2.1. The following model is designed to approximate the model that a judge may use to assess the probative similarity of melodies of two musical works as in 1.13 and 1.14.

2.2. A "note" is a musical event with a definite pitch.

2.3. Two notes with the same pitch are the same note.

2.4. A "duration" is an interval in time between the onset of a note and the onset of the following note.

2.5. A "melody" is a sequence of intervals in time and pitch between notes. Intervals may be repeated.

2.6. Two melodies that start on the different notes but have the same intervals are the same melody. Thus, the pitch of the first note does not matter. Only intervals *between* notes count in the melody.

2.7. Two melodies that have the same intervals but played at a different overall rate are the same melody.

2.8. The Western musical scale contains twelve (12) pitches, named C, C#, D, D#, E, F, F#, G, G#, A, A#, and B, in ascending order of frequency. These pitches have standard frequencies in any of the several tuning systems.

2.9. Two frequencies close to the same pitch's standard frequency have the same pitch.

2.10. Western rhythm typically distinguishes about three (3) durations of notes in melodies: short, medium, and long.

2.11. A note in a melody can be played "staccato", or silenced before its duration is over; however, playing notes staccato does not change the fundamental character of the melody.

2.12. Because the last note in a melody does not have a duration, it is impossible to distinguish a short note at the end of a melody from a long note played staccato. Only intervals *between* notes count in the melody.

2.13. By 2.6 and 2.12, for a positive integer value of n, a melody with n notes has n - 1 intervals.

2.14. Twelve pitches times three durations equals thirty-six intervals.

2.15. First rule of combinatorics: For positive integer values of x, y, and z, if there are x ways to make a first choice, y ways to make a second independent choice, and z ways to make a third independent choice, there are x*y*z ways to make all three choices put together.

2.16. Thus, a melody with n notes, that is, n-1 intervals, has n - 1 choices to make. With 36 possible intervals, there are 36 to the power of (n - 1), or 36^(n - 1), ways to make a melody.

2.17. The plaintiff's musicologist should be able to mention enough "other aspects" of similarity (as described in 1.16 above) that occur by chance to get the judge to lower the threshold by one note.may occur by chance as often as one more note in the match. For example, an isolated eight-note match should occur as often as a seven-note match plus chance similarities.

2.18. Take six notes (five intervals) as the threshold for similarity. Inevitable chance similarities will lower this threshold to five notes, or four intervals. Thus, two random six-note melodies will match one out of 36^4 (one out of 1,679,616) times, and the probability of NOT matching is (1 - 1/1679616), or about 0.9999994046.

2.19. Bernoulli probability: If the probability of success of one independent trial is p, then the probability of n successes in n trials is p^n.

2.20. A performance rights organization known as BMI administers performance rights in 4.5 million copyrighted musical works. I could not quickly find the repertory size for ASCAP and SESAC; I'll optimistically assume that ASCAP and SESAC combined control only as many songs as BMI, for a total of nine million songs among the three of them.

2.21. At one million published songs, the probability that a random song is different from every other song is (1 - 1/1679616)^1000000 = 0.55, or about 55 percent. At two million songs, the probability of uniqueness worsens to 30.4 percent. At nine million songs, the estimated repertory size of the major U.S. performance rights organizations, the probability of uniqueness worsens to the longest of longshots: about 1 out of 212 according to this model that a song isn't similar to another song.

2.22. That was a bit pessimistic, so let's use a seven-note base threshold instead. Chance similarities will again lower this to six notes, or five intervals, and two random five-interval melodies will match in one out of 36^5 = 60466176 cases. For nine million songs, the probability that a song is unique rises to 86.2 percent, but a 13.8 percent chance of remaking someone else's melody remains significant.

THEOREM: A Chilling Effect on Songwriting

3.1. As explained in part 1, copyright law sets a standard for copyright infringement at copying (access plus probative similarity) plus unfair use.

3.2. Because heavy rotation may imply a presumption of access, and non-parodic appropriation of a melody is likely to be considered unfair, similarity alone may suffice to prove copying.

3.3. Given the model of part 2, it's nearly impossible to guarantee that one will avoid a chance similarity that a judge might find substantial.

3.QED. Therefore, it's nearly impossible to write an original song.

If you disagree with any of this analysis, please describe specific steps that a songwriter can take to make sure that he has in fact created an original musical work.

WORKS CONSULTED include the following:

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So that's why Justin Timberlake Sounds like MJ (1)

D+iz+a+n+k+Meister (609493) | more than 11 years ago | (#6180160)

I've enjoyed this idea since I first read it on E2.

Do you have any information, or comments about the relevance of harmony as it applies legally to the creative expression of a musical work. Point 1.3 is clear enough, but let's say I have an 8 note melody that sounds good over the progression

C G C,

that same melody will sound good over the progression

Am7 G C,

both in theory and in practice. The second song, though containing the same melody, will have a distinct mood from the first. Doesn't that imply a distinct creative expression? And if it does, what does that do to the combinatorics part of your proof?

Re:So that's why Justin Timberlake Sounds like MJ (1)

yerricde (125198) | more than 11 years ago | (#6184065)

Some of the cases in the Columbia Law Library's collection of music cases state that harmony is not as important as melody ( Northern Music v. King Record [columbia.edu] ) and in fact dictated in part by melody (can't find citation at the moment), but the court that decided Bright Tunes also decided Herald Square Music v. Living Music [columbia.edu] , which found infringement in the harmony and instrumental arrangement even without much melodic similarity.

Musicologists (1)

MulluskO (305219) | more than 11 years ago | (#6184279)

1.17. I have no evidence of the existence of a publicly available service that can detect which existing copyrighted works a given melody matches so that a songwriter can clear a supposedly original song before publishing it.
This is how musicologists earn thier keep. Of course, whether or not this is publicly availible is open for debate.

Re:Musicologists (1)

yerricde (125198) | more than 11 years ago | (#6185040)

This is how musicologists earn thier keep.

Is it considered standard practice among writers of popular songs to consult a professional musicologist before publishing each song? Are forensic musicologists certified by a regulatory body?

Of course, whether or not this is publicly availible is open for debate.

I was thinking of something more like this classical music search engine [znet.com] , except loaded with the repertories of BMI, ASCAP, and SESAC.

Re:Musicologists (1)

jstroebele (596628) | more than 11 years ago | (#6187957)

I'd like to kick your fairy ass

Re:Musicologists (0)

Anonymous Coward | more than 11 years ago | (#6188172)

Faeries can kick your ass.

Re:Musicologists (1)

tqft (619476) | more than 11 years ago | (#6271680)

If there was an "... available service that can detect which existing copyrighted works a given melody matches ..." it would be soon be declared illegal. In the RIAA's eyes it would be an ideal database for facilitating music swapping - see how fast it gets pulled down when a conspiracy charge gets levelled against the site (conspiracy to do almost anything even mildly illegal is a felony).

This also ignores the practical aspects - unless iTunes gets a submit and check button added, as well as a few million other songs.

I can name that tune in x notes (1)

yerricde (125198) | more than 11 years ago | (#6273744)

If there was an "... available service that can detect which existing copyrighted works a given melody matches ..." it would be soon be declared illegal.

Name-that-tune service illegal? Labels would welcome it! Imagine going to riaa.com, punching in the melody of any song in its labels' catalog, and having the title of the song appear, along with the names of the songwriters and every act that has recorded the song, with links to CDNow to buy the albums. This would be useful for instrumentals, where the current lyrics-based name-that-tune infrastructure [google.com] fails.

Re:I can name that tune in x notes (1)

tqft (619476) | more than 11 years ago | (#6281371)

Then why do they not do it, or you/me/we could be total pricks and patent it and then submarine the riaa when they do it.

But how do you convince the labels to give you all their songs?

idea (for free - go make the world a better place)- don't ask for the songs, pass them code which slices and dices the music and spits out a bit string (eg for all small time slices is this freq range present - would that work - IANAM) and ask for the bit strings back - the tracks should be sufficiently categorized to uniqueness but reconstructing the original would be hard - no volumme data. There is also less data to host at name-that-tune.com.

Then all that name-that-tune.com has to do is distribute out the program and/or have a submit song entry.

Excessive theorem complexity (1)

Minna Kirai (624281) | more than 11 years ago | (#6209033)

The goal, to "lawfully write completely original music", is excessively wordy. Given copyright law, "completely original" implies legality. But as many works based on Western music theory are already Public Domain, being unoriginal doesn't mean you're illegal. (Ironically, the easiest way to ensure legality is to intentionally copy a PD score)

Suggestion for future revisions of this screed:
If you want an easier case to prove, drop "lawfully" and you're left with a creative math problem, with no copyright issues for baggage. If you want an attention-grabbing title, drop "completely original" to get a bolder assertion: "It is illegal to write Western music"

Re:Excessive theorem complexity (1)

yerricde (125198) | more than 11 years ago | (#6215305)

The goal, to "lawfully write completely original music", is excessively wordy.

oops... Thanks.

If you want an easier case to prove, drop "lawfully" and you're left with a creative math problem, with no copyright issues for baggage.

The very definition of "original" relies on copyright case law. I tried to use the copyright angle to make the essay seem important in order to avoid "so f****** what?" jeers from trolls. The copyright issues are also why I investigated the problem in the first place, because I had written three songs, and just before publishing them, I caught myself on all of them.

"It is impossible to write original music" would conjure up "Damn right about *NSYNC", "But if $MYFAVORITEBAND can do it and not get sued, then..."

"It is illegal to write Western music"

And risk having most people dismiss the assertion as outlandish before even clicking through to arguments supporting it?

Assertions (1)

thermostat42 (112272) | more than 11 years ago | (#6253953)

Interesting, but I have to question a few assertions. First, "Western Principles" is a bit ill defined. By that do you mean what I learned in my first year music theory class? I guess I have an idea of what "Western music" is so, for now I'll assume I just "know what you mean." Anyway, on to the assertions.


2.10. Western rhythm typically distinguishes about three (3) durations of notes in melodies: short, medium, and long.

Really? only 3? I've always felt that western music has always had too little formal emphasis on rythim, but the music theory I was taught made the distiction between more than three intervals. And in fact I think popular music would bear that out. (Aphex Twin might disagree with you at the very least).


2.8. The Western musical scale contains twelve (12) pitches, named C, C#, D, D#, E, F, F#, G, G#, A, A#, and B, in ascending order of frequency. These pitches have standard frequencies in any of the several tuning systems.

I have two comments on this. One, you make no mention of a tonal system. I think you would agree that most western music is within a tonal system. Of courses applying the tonal system would reduce the number of combinations, thereby strengthen your case -- but then it would limit your prove to tonal western music (and the serial composers would be in the clear).

Two, you later go on to say that its the interval, not the pitch that distigushes the melody, but you are noticably silent on the question of different intervals to the same pitch. starting at C and going up a fifth or down a forth, you still end up at G, but those are noticably different intervals.
Now, I don't know the case history, and I imagine that a judge would rule that if I just "took the octave" on the last note of Silent Night, that would be a copyright violation, but if there was two songs in completely different genres with the same sequence of 6 tones but different intervals, that would make a difference.


2.21. At one million published songs, the probability that a random song is different from every other song is (1 - 1/1679616)^1000000 = 0.55, or about 55 percent. At two million songs, the probability of uniqueness worsens to 30.4 percent. At nine million songs, the estimated repertory size of the major U.S. performance rights organizations, the probability of uniqueness worsens to the longest of longshots: about 1 out of 212 according to this model that a song isn't similar to another song.

These calculations assume that all the songs in BMI (et. al.)'s library are unique. If there not, that might be a copyright violation, but that would be BMI's problem, not the problem of the person creating a new song. And as I said before, since the vast majority of pop music is tonal, I'm almost certain BMI has some internal copyright violations (I swear on of Britten Spear's songs sounds just like the undergroud music in the orginal Super Mario Bros.).

Anyway, definintely an interesting subject, and I would agree with the assertion that its nearly impossible to write an original tonal song, but then "art" musicains have known that for years :)

Re:Assertions (1)

yerricde (125198) | more than 11 years ago | (#6254366)

Really? only 3?

If one song used a half note, while another used a dotted quarter note, the plaintiff's musicologist would probably still testify that the durations are "substantially similar," especially in some bullfeces context. The goal is not to win the lawsuit but rather to have the plaintiff not even file the suit at all.

One, you make no mention of a tonal system. I think you would agree that most western music is within a tonal system.

The method I suggested handles accidentals. If you want to distinguish octaves but ignore accidentals, change the twelve note names to C D E F G A B c d e f g, and you're back within the Ionian mode we call "major".

if there was two songs in completely different genres with the same sequence of 6 tones but different intervals, that would make a difference.

Within pop, you can use the diatonic amendment I just gave, and now you're treating octaves but ignoring accidentals.

These calculations assume that all the songs in BMI (et. al.)'s library are unique.

Actually, they don't. My combinatorics assumed random selection with replacement as opposed to random selection without replacement. Random selection with replacement does not care whether the original songs are unique.

If there not, that might be a copyright violation, but that would be BMI's problem

The major publishers seem to license-pool their songs, which is why you don't see plagiarism lawsuits between songwriters on the same publisher.

(I swear on of Britten Spear's songs sounds just like the undergroud music in the orginal Super Mario Bros.).

You're thinking of "Crazy" (stop remix) performed by Britney Spears. Another Mario-alike is part of "Shake Your Groove Thing" performed by Peaches and Herb. Or listen to "Centerfield" performed by John Fogerty and "La Bamba" performed by Los Lobos.

I would agree with the assertion that its nearly impossible to write an original tonal song, but then "art" musicains have known that for years

All I wanted to do was write music for my next video game. After trying, failing, trying, failing, trying, and failing once more to write an original song, I decided to investigate further. A couple days later, I ended up with the essence of this proof [everything2.com] , which I first explained at Everything2.com in a writeup under "Yes! We have no bananas!", a song that was the subject of a case that established the four-note rule. The proof you just read is a more rigorous development of the same ideas.

Re:Assertions (1)

thermostat42 (112272) | more than 11 years ago | (#6255049)

If one song used a half note, while another used a dotted quarter note, the plaintiff's musicologist would probably still testify that the durations are "substantially similar," especially in some bullfeces context. The goal is not to win the lawsuit but rather to have the plaintiff not even file the suit at all.
I was thinking of more complex polyrhythmns, and to a lesser degree syncopation. If you have a 5/4 polyrhytmn, I'm pretty sure you end up with more than three distinct internal intervals, and also a different "feel" than something similar with that only makes a few rythmic distictions.

Actually, they don't. My combinatorics assumed random selection with replacement as opposed to random selection without replacement. Random selection with replacement does not care whether the original songs are unique.
You're, of course, right. I realized that soon after posting. But there is a related point there, which is that they have to be independent (correct?). So, I don't know what consistutes BMI (et al)'s libraries, but I assume Cake's "I will survive" is a different entry than the orginal. These are obviously not independent. Beyond that, there is definitely a western aesthetic, which causes us to "like" certain intervals better than others, so I think that could weaken the claim of independence (and why randomly generated melodies are generally awful).


You're thinking of "Crazy" (stop remix) performed by Britney Spears.

Thats the one. Ah, I laugh every time I hear that.

All I wanted to do was write music for my next video game.
I wish you the best of luck. Although I still think you'd have better luck in a non-tonal setting (free triads, fourth chords, serial, etc). I wish I could recommend my 20th century theory book, but for the life of me I can't remember it.

Re:Assertions (1)

yerricde (125198) | more than 11 years ago | (#6257010)

If you have a 5/4 polyrhytmn, I'm pretty sure

I'm pretty sure that turning a 5/4 rhythm into a 4/4 rhythm would not change the fundamental character of the melody, as Limp Bizkit demonstrated in its cover of the "Mission: Impossible" theme song. Remember that most syncopation involves eighth notes (short notes in my formulation) and quarter notes (medium notes).

but I assume Cake's "I will survive" is a different entry than the orginal

I'm not familiar with this recording by Cake, but there are two possibilities: If Cake did not change the melody, then the recording falls under the arrangement clause in the compulsory license established by 17 USC 115 [cornell.edu] and would not constitute a separate derivative work.

If, on the other hand, Cake did materially change the melody, I'm assuming Cake had enough money to pay Perren and Fekaris, the songwriters of "I Will Survive" performed by Gloria Gaynor, for the right to make a derivative work. Most rookie songwriters don't have that luxury.

there is definitely a western aesthetic, which causes us to "like" certain intervals better than others

I admit the influence of culture, but acoustics predicts that octave and perfect fifth are universally good (small fractions), and anything major second or closer is universally bad (dissonance within a critical band).

Although I still think you'd have better luck in a non-tonal setting (free triads, fourth chords, serial, etc).

Once I brought home a rented video game with atonal music. People asked if my console was broken. And if "fourth chords" are what I think you're talking about (example: d + g + c'), yes, I do make use of fourth chords, which are the same things as inversions of suspended triads, right?

Re:Assertions (1)

thermostat42 (112272) | more than 11 years ago | (#6258012)

I'm pretty sure that turning a 5/4 rhythm into a 4/4 rhythm would not change the fundamental character of the melody

I was thinking more along the lines of this [xs4all.nl] , but admittedly thats heavily influenced by African drumming, and maybe outside the scope of western music.

octave and perfect fifth are universally good (small fractions), and anything major second or closer is universally bad (dissonance within a critical band).

I'm not sure I would make the same value judgements -- I had a prof who refered to octaves and fifths as having "less tension," whereas seconds and tritones have "greater tension." Then really its western culture who makes the value judgement that less tension is good.
But really, thats beside the point. The point was going from 2.18 -> 2.21. In 2.18 the example is 2 random songs (i.e. completely independent). The probability you used means that those two random songs are just as likely to have an opening interval of a dimished fifth (tritone) as it is to have an opening interval of a perfect fifth. When applied to BMI music catalog in 2.21, we know that thats not the case -- its much easier to find songs with opening intervals of a perfect fifth then a dimished fifth (West Side Story's Maria being the only example I can think of).

Once I brought home a rented video game with atonal music. People asked if my console was broken. And if "fourth chords" are what I think you're talking about (example: d + g + c'), yes, I do make use of fourth chords, which are the same things as inversions of suspended triads, right?

*Disclaimer* I'm not a real musician - I had a semester of classical theory and a year of 20th Century composition - but that was a lifetime ago :). But, as I recall, fourth chords are the same as inversions of suspended triads, yes. However, once you get into them, they're not usually thought of in that regard. As for the broken console, yes sometime atonal music can be harsh, but not always. Take a look at Randall Thompson or Vaughn Williams' choral music. They're what I would call "on the edge of tonality." Certainly you can analyze their music classically, but often it gets too complex (within the classical standards) to be worthwhile.
And as I implied earilier, I firmily believe, if you open a song with a dimished fifth, the probabily of infringing on copyright decreases drastically. :)
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