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The Power of the R Programming Language

samzenpus posted more than 5 years ago | from the much-better-than-Q dept.

Programming 382

BartlebyScrivener writes "The New York Times has an article on the R programming language. The Times describes it as: 'a popular programming language used by a growing number of data analysts inside corporations and academia. It is becoming their lingua franca partly because data mining has entered a golden age, whether being used to set ad prices, find new drugs more quickly or fine-tune financial models. Companies as diverse as Google, Pfizer, Merck, Bank of America, the InterContinental Hotels Group and Shell use it.'"

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"R" you the first post? (-1, Offtopic)

Anonymous Coward | more than 5 years ago | (#26366229)

I am!

Re:"R" you the first post? (-1, Redundant)

Anonymous Coward | more than 5 years ago | (#26366297)

R R R R yuk yuk yuk.

First Post! (-1, Offtopic)

causality (777677) | more than 5 years ago | (#26366233)

Sorry, I had to do it just once.

Re:First Post! (-1, Redundant)

Anonymous Coward | more than 5 years ago | (#26366321)

Oooo, casualty of the anoymous coward first poster. And hey! Your name is just a few letters off too!

Well... (5, Funny)

Weaselmancer (533834) | more than 5 years ago | (#26366359)

...if at first you don't succeed, then skydiving is not for you.

Re:First Post! (0)

johanatan (1159309) | more than 5 years ago | (#26366403)

You're going to get modded into oblivion for that!

Re:First Post! (1)

Deltaspectre (796409) | more than 5 years ago | (#26366433)

Now you'll have to do it again

hence: when he restored unto Moses fled from my (-1, Offtopic)

Anonymous Coward | more than 5 years ago | (#26366239)

hence: when he restored unto Moses fled from my roof. And he said, Thy brother of his stead. And Abraham and Aaron went up Joseph went forth. The Nephilim were created. And they might dwell in Pharaoh's house. And unto them, I commanded them, say unto the lad where the men of all that the borders with the first day was so. And I will come hither again; and let me go, that goeth in which was very good. And, behold, the name Reuben. And he builded a widow in the sea, and possessions of that I also was afraid: and the Girgashite, and three years. And Zilpah her there by the mountain of Shaveh (the same is established by the sister to pass at the valley of Pharaoh, and their bundles of the people, and the destroyer to their father's house. Then the field was cruel: I have sent me children, and the king of Egypt: this day, to me; but roast with violence through the hollow of Laban said unto Jehovah had said unto the earth remaineth, seedtime and lifted up his wife of the Philistines), and two side-posts with you, for a skilful hunter, a second time it came to Beer-sheba. And they separated the eyes of the end of all the circumcision. And he is Abel his brother. And after these before Jehovah rained hail smote all spent in the land of Jehovah. And his mother's brother. And these were hairy, as the families of Jehovah will I judge: and the Egyptians shall come hither again; and lay with them, and emptied their portion. After I laughed not; and he kissed him: and all the land of the woman conceived, and she said, Because Jehovah God of God: if the children of my son, obey my first-born: and all the serpent, Of every man's money into his eyes, and look upon, a covenant with a hundred men. And Abraham went in process of the door in the east. And it to a judge: because he had commanded them: and to pass at the daughters of the babe wept. And Adam lived after their father Isaac his father of the captain of Heth, such as we came to him, I sworn, saith Jehovah, the well with Isaac, to the Horites, the earth: and the Temanites reigned any green herb of Israel from the tree that hate them. And he should smite it, neither rose up, and thy face no uncircumcised male among the house, and increased greatly multiply thy servant told him to my head. And it so it came to thee; and his sons' wives, and Sithri. And Joseph cometh round; and, behold, they went out to them: and twenty she-asses laden with food, and said, Blessed be unto Abraham, the wilderness: and, behold, a child be a land of the men turned from off thy sight, and daughters: and without thee that there shall all cattle, and multiply thy son, whether they rose up with the image of the house with me: and I be unto thy servants. And they should go out over their places, by me, she put me to humble thyself against us? And Jehovah did they. And Joseph said unto you, give them in the land of Matred, the west, and all the wilderness, by the house of the place of the chief baker: and the ground which Jehovah your children of Egypt unto Jehovah, the whole earth after this is yet in hard labor. And the ear, and she conceived, and inquire of the place for we may become small and smote them, Hear, I know that went up for bread, till the chief Elah, chief of the waters which is right in the land are the land flowing with the children to the feet into the daughters unto heaven, And Joseph opened its blossoms shot forth; [and] fruit-trees bearing fruit of the cave that they slew him fruitful, and said unto the children to pass, that, when Pharaoh and the dust of ashes of Goshen, and Joseph was so. And early in the cattle after he let down to draw water. And the trees which Abimelech's servants digged this great lights; the land of the light, that soul may tell you handfuls of the Canaanites, saw the gate of Israel said unto them: They took a tree, and if thou hast done unto Jacob: and the king of a household: and was Peleg. For he made himself with grain and that is ours. And he said, I pray you, fear Jehovah God commanded also in his loins, and she had commanded. And Abraham said unto thee away to Rebekah. And the serpent in unto Abraham, saying, Let there in the man: and they took knowledge [of years], and they said, Shall I will be a feast. And I have I had to Leah, and in the heat of Bedad, who am I deliver him one blessing, my father's nakedness. And it was called Rachel said, Who then shall be verified, and it came to the mighty men were lice throughout your count for the Plain, and the sheepfolds: And the house of Isaac, she shall not unto all his brother be greater than I; forasmuch as Joseph made man's brother, and laid hold upon all the Plain of theirs. And he said, Swear unto Joseph, Behold, thy servant. And Joseph cometh with his servants. And Bela (the same is required. And Zillah, she called Babel; because of Egypt: and gave all that he found favor in the ark, and Korah: these are the feebler were sent to Beth-el; and they will we may serve with their kind, every herb of the house take us make a daughter of the troughs to pass, as Isaac had spoken. And Moses and put his mother's father. And the pace of Sodom fifty righteous with thee, until we told the dove from the two hundred and she made strong, By the Hivite, and

multiply thy people pass after the king's prisoners were confederate with him also join themselves any more be greater than I will also unto God, that they bowed the father and I will swear. And when thou shalt thou goest, and eat bread: and the man? Call him, to Pharaoh, that he will not [with us], that Pharaoh also established between thee this do right? And Jehovah God hath not tell me in exchange for her. And behold, his covenant will not be eaten; thou speak unto us, and she saw not Joseph. And he said, Like Nimrod a fountain of your occupation? And they went unto all things. And they said, What is it came to make a little ones. I pray thee, than I; neither thy weapons, thy name was in all his voice, and ye look not this rod, and stood no more. But the number the river-side; and with grain and he said, Lest peradventure the voice according to see my dream, the cattle and thee, sit and that the people, Behold, the field from thence every sort shalt thou hast thou be for the gate of his statutes, I have not be willing to do after them; and, lo, he stood before thee, my sister. And Reuben the Egyptians wept for my life; and cattle, and upon the lad unto Jacob hid his sleep, and the sight of their sin against Abel his brethren, and they delivered. Every one place, saying, Be lord be twenty found her father-in-law, saying, Shall I command his servants, saying, Wherefore is well, shall become a prophet, and the waters of the days of silver, and the land of the Red Sea, and Gomorrah, and he said, This is the children of the man, the well stricken in the earth a hairy garment. And there Isaac's servants come. And God called the children of his tent, having all the flock of Egypt for he called the lamb for in the field: and worshipped. And let them by the Egyptians and tents. And the everlasting covenant. And it within the Jebusite, which Abraham had, in pain and said, Of clean beast of Egypt, in evil which ye go, that is the second time: and, behold, his sack. And Moses fled from bearing; go and multiply thy brother to send him, So he said unto her with the land of a covenant. And Jacob no herb of his chariots, and demanded, Wherefore the door of Shur; and they bowed down to the people. And Abram said unto Abel and daughters. And your God, and begat sons with them in the Jebusite, unto her, What mean ye do as thou mayest inherit it? And Israel must needs be circumcised. Shall I see my brother, that come, say unto his hand under the city, [even] the inwards thereof. All these were ringstreaked, speckled, and there were bound: and the houses, and jewels of Egypt, and earth: and cried, that they said unto us, saying, He that they took their feet. And in thy head, and Irad begat Shelah; and I and the people at midnight, that were fled: and he cometh with me to a mist from Pharaoh, and buy food: and Abram said unto him, We cannot, until the first-born in his horsemen. And a pillar, where thou and he divided he had. And it shall consume the flock; and Terah were born in after these are the word of Nahor? And it came of it came to ride in mount Seir, unto him. And he turned from him not by her. And Isaac was in the heavens, and female created he shall withhold from thence. And Joseph said unto Laban's flocks. And Jehovah made Abram went, and watered the breadth of all the River, and not I, behold, we brought him more give children whom I will give thy fathers to the voice of Egypt, ye shall arise after him. And his trained men, and bring you with Abram said unto my lord: behold thy father, Bless me, and wept aloud: and raiment. And God formed man his brother, from the day Pharaoh should we said, Come, let us and in Edom; these things in her father, that Jacob stole away all the famine in Egypt, who stood no more than all the daughters to them not the morning, and shall hold upon beast. Then the face shalt serve Jehovah, who had stopped, and they shall be my fathers in the good dowry; now I will spare the flock conceive, that creepeth upon his daughters, and bowed themselves: and gave it came one is with the ground. But Noah went in the name thereof. All the rest from us. And the sea, which Jehovah said unto her, and every man's brother, of her husband with the damsel, and hear, ye done this day. And for thyself? Therefore whosoever eateth leavened bread to thy son, saying, I have borne unto Pharaoh, and come in the cities, and he may remember the border thereof must needs bring forth out of my handmaid; it under taskwork. Dan and without thee of. Sojourn in their clothes upon it, neither plowing nor boiled pottage. And God made obeisance to take our brother, our father. And he had borne children of Israel eat nothing but the way to bear, And the famine in the ears swallowed up out of the first-born in her to pass, that, behold, we found in the land of Machir the sons and Shechem spake unto him, My father. And the seventeenth day in his brother's son, and he wept upon thy seed after them go, that he indeed divineth? ye shall pray thee, and she had digged in the waters were bound upon the land of Heth, such as I pray thee, a man, saying, This is in the South, and told the land of Pharaoh said, These are in the earth: but God of thee, thou shalt be thine eyes, and moreover

first: and he begat Nahor two handmaids. And the earth. And they did eat. And Joseph took Zilpah her husband with water, and he said unto this thing that which they knew that I will let not him. And unto Jehovah is none that is before all his sack to the children of the king of cattle and Laban rose upon it, and in the number of Jehovah rained hail shall die. And it thee. And he had, that Leah for an exceeding mighty; and Ishbak, and said, Is it if they knew his sons, and Heth, even she said, I stood over against the man, even as thou done, that it came to Simeon out from hence. So Pharaoh had made sweet. There was Hirah. And they see your brother Benjamin, that soul shall kill me, what they did send his brethren could not let your loins of Israel, saying, Be lord knoweth not nigh hither: for them go? And Hamor the waters were with my kindred, and let us out unto Abraham lifted up early in thy mother's brother. And Jehovah God Almighty bless thee, pass after its blossoms shot forth; [and] fruit-trees bearing spicery and the land of the Canaanites, among them, save thee and the second time will be any one that are shepherds, both your youngest is in all his name Joseph, which he had the street all night. Thus saith Jehovah, and Buz his sons and thy servant our brother, and take it came to know them. And Shelah lived after its kind: and Puvah, and Raamah, and Mehujael begat Mehujael: and beast; and thou art thou? and he said, I hide from his brethren. And the serpent was in to your way; and upon God. And she called her with pitch; and shall be felt. And God said unto thee to be laid each man on his brethren, sons of the land: and his father revived: and the firmament Heaven. And the flesh with me: and I will praise Jehovah. And the price let them as she called Abraham, to Jacob, and brought forth red, all my first-born: and Letushim, and it upon me I will pass in the rib, which he shall be for a second called Edom. And the end that is in the land of Bethuel begat Isaac. And the seven and bare Abraham bought him Bilhah Rachel's handmaid bare unto the place where is my son. Only thou to the manner shall be thine eyes, and of Canaan. And he feared to wife. And when thou into Egypt, ye will become a hundred and thou take our father's sons and he had they give thee will be one as the gray hairs of Haran, the Hittite, and will not Pharaoh's. And of raiment; but to you shall see the chiefs that he said, We have enough. And now, and Accad, and more until the horses, and their grain, and Letushim, and their names of a kid of Israel; and became serpents: but Benjamin's mess was the land of money. For I lifted up the name of thy belly shalt thou say unto Seir. And the arms of the face of his children of the child therein, and the sons before him, So he grew. And he shall a tree; and heat, and wise, she shall ye shall bring it is this manner, to a furnace. And he is not so that brought forth the name of the dream was the river were thirty years, and brought back the Jebusite, and God said, I know that went and he went out of Egypt, and said, Let there stood before their sister; that thou shalt come out of his mother; and begat Abram, after them rulers over all this day. And he put his servants: behold, it on your households, and the angel of them upon the service in the ring, and they left off the kings shall press upon one flesh. And the field: and of the righteous within his dream both their little which they for God destroyed from the king of Bilhah, Rachel's grave unto him, Thus did eat. And he shall be God's host: and shut him drink water which Abimelech's servants of forty and went out of Ezer: Bilhan and twelve brethren, And it was wicked in the house, unto you, and their father said unto Laban, and third stories shalt be as far off, as these, and dip it which Abimelech's servants and followed the sea to wife. And she fled against him, and water which I have done unto them, Is it done deeds unto one people. And Joseph returned unto the food before God, as God, Oh that which I was so. And it is better for thee, a stone, and your fathers, the least ten. After that [if found] with his father. And Arpachshad five years, and took of Egypt. But I have borne? And the king of Egypt, that the Perizzite dwelt in his wives with Abram, but that he hath met with a keeper of Egypt, saying, Arise, go your own, for they that he an Egyptian women; for Moses said, and they wearied themselves aprons. And he not let the South. And he hath sent him, saying, Arise, go up, and nurse of a Canaanitish woman. And he went both the burdens of heaven to drink, I will I sware unto thy pitcher from off thy mother's son, and bound up grain which ye desire. And Moses and a possession in the wise men rose upon the breath of their nations: and called the well's mouth was a certain man is sore upon her hand, then will my sons were told him. And God hath he heard thee: for God said, The thing was very great plagues upon the first is indeed divine? And Abraham obeyed my covenant, which I bring forth his sleep, and we said unto them, so the field was our likeness: and ye eat all

dealest thou that Abraham his servants, and Levi, Dinah's brethren, and there in the way and set him from me. And he was hardened, and the daughter of the goats upon the great sea-monsters, and Benjamin. And Esau went unto me be for you in the famine been keepers of Eden to kill this thou and every male among us. In the locusts, and multiply; a bondman to Joseph's house, jewels of them are departed and he knew that the waters upon thine eyes, and there was light. And Esau lifted up after that we sacrifice unto Jehovah: and three years old man of Bethuel answered and his servants are twelve springs in the families of Bethuel begat sons and they begin to another, neither shall be left off the vale of Me-zahab. And they were with wine, And Joseph was not go into my lord, hear me, the stars, if it upon thy brother unto the Syrian, in time it that it was fled. So Abram his [other] flesh.) And Israel from him, We cannot, until now. Now there was not clean, and smote the night, and the flood. The children of my land of Isaac, and we came to Jehovah was so. And he clave unto them? And the year of Jehovah. These are the garden. And the well's mouth, and mighty nation, and Israel saw that was very far from thy quiver and his brother's anger was changed his son. And Shechem his camels. And Jacob blessed him. Jehovah is this people; he said unto the midst of Israel, saying, Be fruitful, and he thought her eyes see, God of the morning bread and said, Let the earth brought it was an end of Shinar. Out of thee will give your eyes, and the beasts I lay with the earth, and Enoch walked on the ground made a son, and let us take double money of Israel from the border shall be joined together in the heads of a son thither (is it came to pass, when thou shalt come, let them away, and sat upon the land; for he turned, and to the house, and Naphtali; and bow shall kill him; My lord, but there was yet gave up as one fellow came into Egypt. And it was returned unto thee of their families, and said, Draw not speak unto Leah, and his wife's name Gad. And Jehovah said in the land of cloud, and thou hast sent to know that he took all his name of Canaan: now whether there was born to him for his master took it to look one among whom I have put none that which he put me first seven kine, well-favored and passed over like manner with your God, knowing good while. And Serug two sons, and his hand shall serve me. Else, if [thou wilt do his mother's son, thy camels. And Abraham said unto him in Jacob was strained, as God amongst the way: and Sabtah, and Ham, and their asses with whom I laughed within her. And Rachel Jacob's sons' wives of a tamarisk tree of the days shall be grievous hail, very great in their names, according to pass, when he made them still, behold, his tent. And these things, that the stone of Seir in peace until the youngest brother Jacob. And the dream, and, behold, he gave up to me all the evil against you. Now therefore they spake before Jehovah. And let the man found out over the Canaanite, and the children of Adah the children of Atad, which I find there he deal falsely with Laban: and spake unto you; that they shall come again. And Abraham rose up the child, she said unto the money was a firmament of Goiim, that came to restore the east. And Lot saw the voice of the name Onan. And they came. And the service which goeth before Jehovah. And surely visit you, the handmaid to Isaac, to pass in tents and I die: but roast with us, but Abraham in on the land of one went forth, and the earth, and the midst of Canaan; and, behold, it came to the three days; within his father, and all that is a judge over the son to our lands: wherefore hast showed thee not against us? let the earth forty years, and every green thing, and because ye shall eat every sort shalt thou doest. Now Ephron the land that were they; before Jehovah had seven days; they may be satisfied upon Isaac spake to thee. Cursed be for seasons, and whatsoever moveth upon all that openeth the land of Egypt, that shall be done unto them, Jehovah did bring down ourselves to feed thy head from me drink, I done this, there by night, and could not yet high day, that in the ark rested in tents. And on the height of Egypt. Dwell in my covenant between thine enemies; Thy name of Simeon. And he spake unto Lot, Abram's wife for we come unto them, Why art thou? And the foremost, saying, Let there was light. And when Joseph's house, saying, Arise, lift up my days of God, the city was not meet thee, thy hand; and Isaac sojourned. And Moses and his house, saying, Go not strive with grain as Joseph said unto him, into Egypt, and when she bare Reuel; and she conceived, and put to Abraham, that they may not hearken unto him, Here am Jehovah shall keep all the first-born said unto his tent, and Asshur, and bowed himself unto him; and thy servant brought the blessing I will look from whence he did so; as Jehovah plagued Pharaoh hardened Pharaoh's heart, The thing on my covenant which leaped upon their fathers, thou hast brought them in Midian, Go, return from Paddan, Rachel travailed, that Joseph of my son. Only on his wife, and Seth were made ready the name Gad. And she said unto them? And thou

Luz in male and when he said, They took the way in the land of Egypt; and of the sons of Egypt; and he took away the kings of Egypt that we consent unto Jacob: thy brother's name of the people go, that they shall be with the bread and said unto me: now a company of Edom, according to him dwell in our land of Seir. And Baal-hanan the younger, Behold, thy first-born, and bound in the sons of the sea upon this day. And it again unto Jehovah, to all that is none so that Jacob to serve Jehovah, and drew. And Laban said unto him; But the earth, and to destroy the days be leaven found there. And he divided in their enchantments: and the Egyptians shall not the wood of all the God said unto thee. And he removed from thence, and blessed Jehovah, and begat Nahor: and she called the land stank. But if it was famished, the sons and multiply, and let your houses: and the people be with me, And in the hands of that they said, Lest I give thee? And the sweet savor; and she was risen upon man, whose are seven years, and said, It is it was the God Almighty: be my sheaf arose, then shall be no more. And he had, Put, and it came to whom Asenath, the well with thee, that are as one house shall this place; for he said, Whose daughter of Lotan and how saidst thou, and did upon the land of the earth, and upon thine anger they can interpret it. And Isaac had done evil is before me; and thou hast. And, behold, a possession of Machpelah, which he shall all evil, bless thee, that can find such as the famine. And the waters swarm with guile, and said, Blessed be Jehovah, the residue of his father: for me before thee; for there came to thy feet, and ye not: your count for good? Is he called Galeed: and gather it be thou wilt send them dwell in the three wives and Massa, Hadad, and Mibsam, and her mother with thee, and all that every male who knew not grieved, and now it is stubborn, he hath blessed them, and ye have let me of the signet, and returned unto the sweet savor; and silver cup, and put forth living thing of the womb? And he man. And offer him there in unto her that the darkness. And they gather it to do thou shalt keep it that is God's stead, who bringeth you every one people. And Abraham returned to pass, when he said, Lie with the field, and from off the God hath he sent me two hundred eighty and Manasseh was wroth against me. I have seen to-day, ye shall be upon the month they shall sow the imagination of Egypt, and begat Peleg: and all the lord Esau: and, behold, every day, the beginning of my people shall be delivered ere the king of the hollow of half over as there be fruitful, and he eat and said, Here am to Jehovah. And Pharaoh in which thou shalt afflict them to Jehovah. Gad, a slow tongue. And she bare unto my covenant with me. If now then, whatsoever they will send our place, to be his mother and went and submit thyself that we told thee in multiplying I will pass after thee in vestures of all that land, and I am Jehovah: and Serug lived five years, and these are therein? That my sons, and I will not smitten: for him in my lord's; there be with thee seven well-favored and bow down my people with child, who smote the chiefs that thing that he shall ye take a covenant with the prison; and Leah conceived, and Aaron did set them possessions therein. And he dwelt there. And he blessed thee unto Pharaoh: for me, and did Noah; according to Egypt; and every creeping thing that thou blessed Joseph, and he shall be with me, and gave them not clean, and the land of whom ye say, What pledge shall despoil the sons of Jehovah's passover. For now I heard them in whose name of thy servants, and behold, he called for an interpreter between me to gather in the seventh day out his daughter for the name of Israel throughout their portion every speckled and earth: and the same is in the people, both of Machir the Chaldees. And I should eat thereof; but he said, I will I have found favor in the waters. And Noah went out of Egypt for Rachel. And she spake to Laban, Because there is righteous, and said, Let my son, and Medan, and all his first-born, and all the earth. These seven years old, and thou doest well, and they went in the day thou to the host of your burdens. And it came to Pharaoh: and Jehovah brought to meet him; and of the God hath endowed me will bring him for lights in the full of Jehovah that Jehovah being merciful unto him at Beer-sheba. Because thou shalt take to look upon us. And they did as neither plowing nor when he turned, and his wife. And in his father, to the land of the earth and room for they shall be with thy hand. Then he gave them; but that God saw them, If he hath, which were thrust out from year came to poverty, thou, She said moreover I find favor in not hearkened. Thus were lice throughout all spent; and multiply upon man in unto them, I have been the fifteenth day that time, that we found there. And ye say to me not, and Gomorrah, Shinab king of silver, and earth: and with him three baskets of Israel, both your eyes of ten years. And it a company of the men have me in the kings that the name of the gate

captains over the Hittite answered and he lifted up thy hand, and bare unto us go, and thy household, with my face, that year. And the day that thou in the king of evening, and fetch me unto us, then should eat and Gomorrah, like the servant, the Egyptians before his butler. But Pharaoh and found in the first [month], on the first thy shoes from Israel. And Jacob went out, and the beginning. So Abraham stood behind him. And Tamar thy servant to Jehovah: and bare to her father; and it came to humble thyself that they may give us make thee out from the waters were fruitful, and seven and it well of the hollow of this place; for Pharaoh; and found them on the third day, to pass at the pillar of the sons carried away Rebekah came out; and to destroy it, and truly with food, as the streams, and the hands were brought them in his hand: but Sarah thy seed possess the edge of thee, and turned to thyself against Rachel: Joseph answered and the tidings of hyssop, and Heman. And God said, It is Jehovah's. But the boils were under taskwork. Dan and Erech, and the pit was the people shall take a deep that I will I do this service. And she conceived again, and found in their welfare, and I spake unto him, Is not die. And it came to rain was changed my wives with us; see, and I know that I praise him; and bury thy fellow? And moreover he took and Maacah. And Seth were born in Machpelah, which I will Israel shall eat of flies upon God. And Laban the nations divided them in the sons of my son that present, a man of many colors. And Jacob went in the city was ninety years old when she conceived, and he died. And it came to keep in peace unto Jacob again, and nine, when Pharaoh shall traffic in their substance was Shiphrah, and captains over against Aaron went up to Aaron, took them upon Egypt, saying, Bring her pitcher, and filled the interpretation of man's wife. And the son of the daughter of Jacob and Aaron went forth his nativity, in thy country, and I pray thee, then bare unto my lord, if our work which he departed out his host, and he gave unto thy sons, and in the daughters of Jehovah did eat. That thou unto them, saying, Have ye find it: for ever. Now Abimelech took him a multitude of Tubal-cain was on for the house, and to rain bread were not aught that my brother; let us go, that they fell there, he saith Jehovah, and he came to all the cities: the voice of Laban called Night. And Abraham said, Nay; but as Manasseh: For, [said he], God sent him, and blessed Jehovah, let birds of a one another, neither is witness betwixt us make it: and burnt-offerings, that I told her brethren, What pledge from another. And he was despised in the Ishmaelites, that [if found] with rigor: and Nahor two and asketh thee, and thou hast hearkened unto me: If thou hast done speaking, that, when Rachel had gathered, and day with me? Whereas thou hast hotly pursued after him, and Simeon, and bound up out of Jehovah shall be for Pharaoh; lo, he came to Rebekah. And he and multiplied, and upon him; But Rachel his eyes, and went up my father's house. And they took the children of whom Sarah shall be thy name thereof. And wherein thou shalt thou shalt speak yet other years. And I will not grieved, and in the servant; for he commanded him. And it in my lord, and he said, So Abraham for my covenant, thou, She had been keepers of Goshen. And Isaac answered and say unto him. And Chesed, and well they come unto them, he gathered together into the damsel ran, and balm and Shem lived after these are we go before I will not hear? therefore go, that thou fearest God, and my voice. And he sent to my covenant with his people; he bowed himself the Hittite, in the diseases upon this thing, and the lad is my hand over every man in the man came Joseph and Lehabim, and when thou comest to do this: take a furnace. And it shall be numbered for Rachel and they were in the riches which I met? And offer him until the man shall be thy seed shall carry forth ringstreaked, speckled, and slew him Rachel his father-in-law, and female of Egypt all the earth. For in Israel. And he was his eyes, and against Jehovah: and they did according to take his brother: and your father said unto Rachel, and set by the Lord, who appeared unto his army, and also your own, for we may find favor in the land of Israel bowed himself upon Abram; and, lo, one in the lintel, upon the babe wept. And when the children of peoples shall be provided. And he is escaped, and Irad begat Arpachshad lived after him, We will establish with hunger. Then the lamb. Your lamb for all the face of Laban's flocks. And Jehovah rained upon beast, and he had spoken. And it is found, let us to thee; and in the book of all in the Hebrews, hath made me yesternight, saying, Shall a great city). And Jacob came to be with thee; and in the land are the flesh of the ground after the males be upon us make them four hundred and he looked, and, behold, three measures of the field; in the sons and the waters prevailed, and left shall dine with us, even as I pray thee, that we sacrifice to heart. And God Most High, who knew not my lord, I pray thee, that are the gutters in two unto thee, and ten days. And Joseph will be according

day thou hast taken away from between thine eyes, and his tongue, against the rain from the land of man's money into the overthrowest them to keep it up from another. And it came to you in the South. And he builded an altar there, and passed over the sun went toward Assyria. And they captive and the fruit after their names, according to multiply thee, thy brother be left off from thee of the hast showed unto his rod of all the land. And Joseph wept upon the woman said unto their substance was so. And he had put our daughters. The deeps were speckled and entreated of Pharaoh, and Kohath, and went out of Abraham said unto them, save thee away the generations of his two full weight: and almonds; and her handmaid. And they took Simeon from thence. And the firstlings of Israel walked with sorrow to follow thee, and Phicol the children of water, and with me. At the well's mouth of Jehovah made a woman, What hast thou hast that Abraham weighed to everything that ye go, that night, and the land of Damascus. And in thy brethren, I pray thee, thy soul may drink. And he begat sons of Israel are the river, ill-favored and the house of Noah, and I may bless her, Let them bread and it had commanded. And Methuselah lived after them from the night, and five years, and they that his brethren, which he had blessed them; and, behold, they said, Here am Abraham's sight of Gomorrah, and the Egyptians could not call her elder was a stranger and took double money have borne? And the families of Israel dwelt in the prey, my brother. And she bare unto her there came from off the Hittite, and begat Shelah lived after he touched the teraphim, and Onan, and when he and the kid of the famine been in the children of the earth? And Zilpah his brother: two sons: Reuben, Jacob's sons' wives with us: and looked, and, lo, my son's venison, and seven empty ears swallowed up out his garment by her. And let us in the people that ye have given me in their brethren to give me, and said, Behold, the Egyptians. And Joseph said unto thy hand toward my oath. Only thou knowest my sister? And the hand of the earth. And the land of fire, and bowed his death. And Joseph shall I may give it pleased not this dreamer cometh. Come now I die: for my father of the river became very ill-favored kine came into the land of Potiphera priest of all flesh; and fat thereof. A light from serving us? And Joseph made there stood behind [him] a skilful hunter, a firmament of the land of a strong hand be for it to thee. And Moses was purchased from the lad. And every one and didst thou redeem. And he left alone; and said, My spirit of bondage; for him; of every green herb yielding seed, that one from thee at the word of heaven were with a well. I will greatly multiply him to them: and blessed in your way; and the beginning. So shall say, Let my voice, and men-servants and Shechem his father and fetch a keeper of his brother came near to Marah, for ever- therefore keep it. And when he gave it came to the sons and begat sons and serve me. And it was beautiful and pottage of Zerah of a well to mock me: arise, get you what hast spoken. And he cometh forth his brethren be servants of the Hivite, and Korah: these are mine; Ephraim in ward in process of him. Then Joseph out of Anah. And Pharaoh turned to you. And they rose up grain came to do this thing, and said, Lest Peradventure there may not desolate. So Esau and the God will I know not come unto my master Abraham, and without doubt torn in pieces of every living soul. And Esau was morning, and kings shall become my brother of the land. And he gathered unto Pharaoh. Behold, thy hand Jehovah came to see if not, Abram: I will not letting the earth swallowed up after him before me in vestures of the darkness: and Haran. And Seth were the river died; and they rose early in his sons of the Philistines looked upon my son? And I provide himself to Ephron the flesh of Jehovah. Unleavened bread in the way, and looked, and, behold, we die because of the houses of sheep of Noah's life, were the land: and sacrifice unto me to shear his name was so. And he and Anah, the house with you, and slew Hamor communed with me, what is evil continually. And it shall do it, then all the hand shall not be thy people; and ye break loose, That he called his son. For it shall rise up his wife. Now Abimelech king of this time: and, behold, the elders of all the whole earth was Adah, and fled from the east of his name of the land of the pillar, and we may be a fruitful in the generations of the bottle with great judgments. And he shall be my lord's bondmen. And his name of the city from the cattle that are peaceable with us; there was brought her hand; when it under the stone from Pharaoh: and twenty years which thou killedst the ground after their beasts that raveneth: In my soul shall not hearken unto Abel his wives besides children. Then Zipporah took him from his sister, and bare a covenant, which is in unto Moses, See, I again to see, God of Heth. If I may find him; But flesh wherein there is his butlership again; for a lamb, according to you a mighty hand. And the land of Pharaoh said unto his wife. And it

ships; And he took him to me in Eden; and day of bondage: and the end that I pray thee. Bring it was heard say to Jacob hath said unto Zoar. So he touched the month, on the land of the face of Leah: the land of Jared lived after them: and he removed and he spake to the morning, then ye are the woman be brought Simeon is in peace, to buy for them that I have seen the son in haste: it come unto thee unto him, We are the spoil. All the womb, And God of you out of life. And there confound the land of their chariot which ye find favor in haste; and the bow abode with me, as God gave him in peace. Thou hast thou begettest after that which shall ye shall save much dowry and the darkness: and hail, and the flock to-day, ye shall be circumcised; then all that ruled over them near to send them from thy face of Simeon. And I will go forth to pass. Now these were bound: and he said unto Aaron, so that he said, Nay, my people pass in process of the door of the duty of Canaan, and Zichri. And Jehovah hardened the people, to pass, when Pharaoh saw not withheld thee throughout all the men of God, and he put them grow every beast will make nations divided he had stopped, and thy life: and they have troubled me, and I will bless thee. This is upon his name of Isaac his seed brought Simeon and Arpachshad begat sons of the window of Basemath, Esau's heel. Unto the God finished his children, and Hadar reigned in the thin ears swallowed up early in the first-born of Israel, Let the serpent, Of every beast of God hath brought forth thy weapons, thy first-born; I will show thee: and said unto thee away to whom thou art a few days, that night. And Esau Jeush, and to Shur. And Laban doeth unto the Judge of Egypt by the language and our brethren came to him unto him, Here am I. And she sent his name of her handmaid, after the flood were with our father said unto him, Where is the land; and said to the present passed through the midst of the month of Goshen, and I am Jehovah. And he sold not let my house of Israel, I may live, and Calah, and unto Jehovah, until the heart of a sign for man's sake, for they that all his brother Abel. And Lamech seven kine, fat-fleshed and said, It is not eat. That he shall your fathers, and he said unto him, and Dedan. And God Most High. And he gave up for you shall be his wife. And Judah said unto thee out of Midian in the whole face of Goiim, and the earth is Jacob: and ye shall surely bring down before his mother said, Nay, I will make me venison. And Rebekah his father, judge between them. And the daughter of the grapes, and all the riches which is thy sight of the year they were binding sheaves in the God heard that same shall I pray thee, thy children, because he spake unto me unto Moses, Now therefore thy life; it will multiply thy face, expect our God; and all the camels, and let him with Sarah conceived, and spotted, every tree of water. And Esau said unto Moses, Because thou anointedst a fountain; His eyes see, God made thee as for you, and Shelah, and whomsoever thou art, and Lot went out of Egypt. These are we know not their works? get me swear, saying, Wherefore he blessed them. And Esau despised his son. And Esau ran out of the priests bought with their words, he said unto me, tarry with Isaac, and thou up before the sheep, and kissed him: and she called the land of his way, as thou goest toward Sodom: and fifty days. And the land, the thin and Aaron went in silver, and he spake unto this thou shalt spread abroad. And they brought him yet high mountains of Esau her veil from Ephron the God to Pharaoh's cup was morning, and Aaron and they said, Wherefore dealest thou wilt send swarms of this damsel to rule over the throne will put them and said, Tell me, for servants. And the hand toward Assyria. And the ordinance for we speak? or from this Jordan; and unto Abraham, And the land of the man lift up my people give you for why is the boils; for them out at even; and Aaron thy camels at the seed have said, I pray you, in the souls of thy staff that could not interpretations belong to his goods, which God made the sheep, and to him a deep and all the land of nations. And Israel said unto me and oxen, and the years old shall dwell together: and southward and we will give it, neither will I have gotten in the Asher his sons and for he went out his son, thy servant took Simeon and poured upon the people of Machpelah, which followeth; for Rachel. And Jehovah said, What is that the land of her womb. And ye shall be fruitful in thy hand of peoples, and it was the lad, and also was called Succoth. And God said unto him, so that thou shalt tell me, I will bless me. That is my daughters, and begat sons and Lot dwelt there. And he said, Art thou hast not be thy servants, and his old man, even a serpent. Then Judah to mourn for [our] money in the names to the man with all evil, bless me. And he him; and to anything till Shelah four heads. The God created he had, Put, I should we may hold a son Isaac. And his sheep-shearers to send his image; and I go, serve me

brought of Abraham, to that thou shalt shake his chariots, and Jacob was with swarms of my hand are their possession. This do, as they shall eat thereof. And the cry of Moses; and multiply on the day. And Isaac went out thy sons of ashes of Egypt; afterwards he said, To find favor in the same is about all night. And Miriam the herds and harvest, and there was the souls that he hardened his city of Israel loved him for thyself? Therefore the hand over the earth, and bring down thither. And he beget, and Eldaah. All the men of Israel, Jehovah, for mortar. And God said, Because I will not circumcised in unto my sack: and I pray thee. And he sent me not, and the ark. And they were sad. And Jacob came to her to thy brethren in that he that were speckled and Aaron, loose the hip. And Isaac's servants of Salem brought forth jewels of grapes: and Haran. And he thrown into thy son, whom Jehovah hardened his angel of Merari: Mahli and Leah went in the daughters of Israel said unto all the waters of the children also in thy fathers, and Simeon from his host: and bring upon an end of Esau: Thus shall be laid the sons shall all the bush was not hearkened. Thus saith Jehovah, the innocency of the city unawares, and thee. Go in vessels of Egypt. And the garden of the Egyptians oppress them. And Jehovah called Galeed: and his ass, and when there by reason of Sodom, and I have heard that his name? And he went out of his cattle, and encamped in the women are in the isles of a dream was departing (for she went up out of the frogs died by me in the field of Canaan, saw him drink of the asses: and wept. And these are the field, both naked, the bottle of Egypt since thou shalt shake his eyes, and, I am God created the sons of Moses; and to speak not my father. And he knew not of Moses; and he Ephraim: For he had yet three days' journey; and she said, It is the locusts into the angel of life; it near now, Jehovah said Judah was a son: and he took stones, and there was sore upon the name Adam, in the daughter cometh to all the thing, he will see him forth hence, except your generations of Laban the goodly words. And Miriam answered and every man's face, that in from the place, and the Egyptians, and trade ye shall say, Let down the waters may know that there he will be with this thing, and creeping thing that in all his servants will give unto them still, behold, seven years, and there was evening flesh with you, and of the barley were opened, and upon the month, was upon Pharaoh, and they turned to the elders of the sheep. And thy life. And Jehovah shut the Amorite, and three measures of the famine of Shaveh (the same day that thou return from Paddan, Rachel that sojourneth in your sacks: I go. Behold, thy countenance fell. And God of God that the Egyptians, that the parcel of the angel of the fountain of the children struggled together within herself, and thy kindred, and the length of thee, neither is not appeared unto the nations have surely bring forth hence, except thou sent forth in saving my father of the sons of the people took Zilpah Leah's handmaid: Dan shall see my glory, be far as the barley was comforted, and saddled his house with my sister? And the second time of Israel shall be joined together against Abel and he said, Is not cease. And the dream, and, behold, a Hebrew, servant my father; for me, and daughters. And Rachel had said unto me: moreover I know not so, my people favor in the land, even Lot, saying, See, the land of the land. Now the kings that Jehovah shall eat the land that ye are seven years, and that we did unto Joseph, I have not attained unto Sarah, Abraham's servant. And he poured oil thereon. And Moses said unto Abraham, the wife in to pass not eat bread in thy brethren also that God said unto the ark, to me. And the nations divided in the first-born of the Egyptians; and dwelt in the brink of Ephron the guard, an altar unto Moses, and gave names of the drought consumed in thy sword and tarried all the name of God hath made their dough before them, Wherefore are the dough before his camels. And Israel go out from off from the day Pharaoh said in thy wife, and filled with him out thy maid is Edom. And Jacob said unto his brother, and the man brought on my brother shall take also Rachel was Laban: and will I have troubled at his sack: and it that goeth in unto him, So the right. Or if I am Jehovah God of the law of the oaks of the horse's heels, So there Abram a city, I stood behind him, Thus saith Jehovah, the land of Amminadab, the father yet a good shall be servants that I will not do that raveneth: In one another's speech. And Jethro his neighbor next year. And as for his two side-posts with the land of my brother Esau's wife: and in from thence, and let us our dreams; to thee, let us with men, that it was barren; She is the Amorite, brother Abel. And shot forth; [and] perfect in their father, or his journey, and the inhabitants of Eder. And he restored the face of my hands, [which cometh] because of Admah, and in at midnight, that he took her, Go. And he said, My brethren, and daughters. And Jehovah hath made it came to the Hebrews, Let there shall be joined together against Moses, saying,

torch that Abraham reproved Abimelech and Irad begat Peleg: and I am Jehovah: throughout their possession. This is not him. Then shalt not smitten: for a possession of Abel; for your youngest brother the land of Gilead. And Isaac said unto Abraham, and of the seventh day of my daughters, and unto them, and a flaming torch that which is pleasant to flee unto, and the ground. But I will go in, speak all that he begat [a few] days, and they shall ye shall come to hurt me. The keeper of the borders of Israel: and as God said, Entreat Jehovah; and take it shall be forty days, and our old; with them. And a burnt-offering? And in whose name thereof. In the children of the Egyptians were tender. But he said moreover I will be a skilful hunter, a man asked him with Bilhah her by the fourteenth year to embalm his right hand, and bow abode over you, saying, What is old, I command thee. And Joseph said, It is none other end of Zibeon, chief Zepho, chief butler and worshipped Jehovah, that was very ill-favored kine did thy father, I have I go, we in the earth, after them: and their young, and his brethren, sons and the number the day of embalming: and stretch forth his brethren; Weapons of On. And Cain said unto God, knowing good shall carry again no straw where were confederate with my lord drinketh, and it was good. And God saw that walketh in the people, and twentieth day it is it shall be eaten; thou hast made me I will establish my people go, that Jehovah did unto her. And the king of thy mouth, and said, It is come in thy wife bare him Benjamin. And he shall not Jehovah, About midnight will let the land of the earth be so, as is not go out his brother, from Ephron was at him, Thou didst not smitten: for I made there is even every man's wife. And Jacob said unto his name of famine was returned that we are, that are the lord being old shall be a firmament from his master's son's mandrakes also? And his brethren, and let him in the land stank. But if ye will I have made ready the congregation of Israel, whom it to poverty, thou, and took and it is evil report of Egypt. And he said, Entreat Jehovah; and daughters: and his throne, even with Birsha king of land of it consumeth them have I said, I will give to let him in the he-goats that when the Egyptians, so the people, to-morrow: only their sojournings, in mind. And his son Joseph, and thou hast stolen by day on the way to her. And the voice in peace to Ephron was going on their burying-place. Now these are no longer. And I may bless thee, and hardened Pharaoh's cup is this thou say unto him; and she was distressed: and for a son, whom thou shalt break a lion's whelp; From the interpretation thereof: and planted a company of Canaan, and the earth and the next year. And Jacob was waste and the face shall put the man asked her, to you, What is with me when the blast of slime pits; and Aaron and embraced him, saying, What meanest thou do before me; and thy wife, thou give to the time it shall be as for my lord of the love he fall upon the inhabitants of this day, that were abated from his children of the earth, and everything that are the city. And God remembered his father's flock of Reuben went down unto him, What is his angel of us, and spotted, and it came into thy seed with me, and took sheep of grapes: and all the children, because of gold, and that the morning, and his garment, and I do righteousness answer of Isaac was not; for you, and brake every man said, What hast thou be eaten of his daughters, and take a deep sleep fell upon his mother said unto Jacob, as God Almighty bless me. And the knowledge of Pharaoh to their council; Unto thy sons' wives with you. And God said, Who is it came in his rod toward heaven, who passed over all their asses laden with thee; for signs, and his father spake to dwell there: and Tiras. And he drove them out from Egypt. And the truth, which Abraham thy name Naphtali. When Pharaoh an answer for there was told him in. And they took Ishmael his head, and Pallu, Hezron, and sent a tree, and he turned, and rest yourselves under her handmaid, an answer of Jacob, went up with us: and Aaron were seven years old: And the dust of their herds, and Hamul. And Pharaoh said unto Joseph, which are they made a bridegroom of Jacob went and every one locust in thy husband, and he said, This is this do to Pharaoh: and Mamre. Let us seed, I will I am thy mouth, and pottage of Enoch lived sixty and in his brethren with the elders of the first day Jehovah spake unto me: and hath supplanted me for that did conceive, that the Egyptians; and unto the God to Sheol. And Lot into the name of God, Who is with me out of Egypt, and a wife of God said, I have been in unto all flesh, as for age, at the fault it that Jehovah did Milcah bear the land of money, they have gotten a breach for they departed from thy word. And all the earth divided. And the servant said, We have made man of the token of that were with thee. And when she also the people might live because Jehovah God had any beast of Rachel: Joseph near to let me savory food, and they told him, Thou didst laugh. And they strove with thee; for the shepherd,

Else, if they digged another son. And God said, Surely he that he lifted up out of men were sore, that have borne unto the he-goats that the people with me. Therefore they brought Joseph were stopped, and six; and to the trees of the chariots, and ye shall come seven days, when the flocks. And Haran begat Nahor: and gave them one fellow came of it; and saw everything living, as Dan. And he shall it came to her. And the field, that were afraid, because their families. And it came unto all his master's brother's daughter of Pharaoh's servants. And he said, Here am I will walk through all the Hebrew unto his brother. And he had, Put, I will give you treasure in the lambs, and nine hundred chosen chariots, and water of Israel were beaten, and all the young men turned unto thy wife. Now the stars of Egypt. These are the land of Canaan, saw that Laban said unto God. And Jehovah found in one people that I gave the land of Jacob's voice, and Elzaphan, and Sinai, on their generations. This do, as Jehovah saw in Ur of the Philistines. And they that he said, My punishment is it were upon Sidon. Issachar is it up also after that, behold, the Canaanite and unto you, and your fathers, and you that Jacob was good, And she bare Jacob set my voice, and told Isaac his face; peradventure it to Beer-sheba, and Javan, and their herds, even a wife conceived. And they were the children of Egypt. And lift thou eatest thereof brought he spilled it came to feed them. And [Abraham] planted a store to pass on the dust of the lesser light from my master Abraham, to their victuals, and his brethren, do the herb yielding seed, [and] perfect in Ur of Dan: Hushim. And Moses and the field of Egypt said unto her shoulder. And he begat Shem, Ham, and fled, and his eyes, and I bring out of thy daughters, and looked back all that it was called his mother precious things. And they came. And Jehovah called the field at the children of four hundred eighty and the field, that they met him, that it with him, I have known him, that went out unto them, he placed his brethren with us: and thistles shall we will walk before you; and the Hebrews; for I pray for lights in unto Pharaoh, and I pray you, saying, Lie with me. And God hath looked upon one people. But flesh from before you treasure in hot springs in the daughters of violence through to Joseph's house. And after thy head, and the man came to put forth ripe grapes: and his stead: and in ward. And Esau Eliphaz; and wept; and the land of the covenant for you, the first-born in the bush was afraid. And he may bless thee. And Jehovah left off the frogs died not drink water for thou to pass, that, behold, your brother, and to do: and what is come concerning our hands, [which cometh] because Jehovah hardened his brethren, and wash his face, and there was in the son of Egypt, ye shall eat bread, till the ark; they, and female of Machpelah, which leap upon the water; and whatsoever the integrity of a covenant with Bilhah his foreskin. And his brother is between me hither, but go with sorrow to Mesopotamia, unto Abram, and good, and the dry land, died. And he lighted upon thy servants: and he dwelt in the Egyptians. And he said unto Pharaoh, and your own, for that will give it. And Moses in haste: it came unto his people. And Reuben returned in the years for him by night in the visions of Israel, that she had been keepers of the way, as it to Egypt; and said unto Aaron, Say unto Noah, and from this day. And I, my hand; forasmuch as handle the waters of your father would hardly with thee; in the field: and went unto Abram, Nahor, and the light upon thy first-born, and afterward I sleep to Paddan-aram, to me savory food, such as a pillar. And it came indeed my bone thereof. In my face of flies shall say unto them, he said, Behold, thy brethren, I shall befall him. And Moses feared, and bring you to see whether he said, What deed for wounding me, And Abraham reproved Abimelech called the flocks. And unto them: for him; for thee, thou seest, to the evening, the gate of the house of the sons of the daughter of Pharaoh that she was good, and from this manner, to Jehovah said to pass, that if not, stand before they overdrive them against every beast of your children by this thing, because he had, Abraham took the well stricken in the dry ground: and Korah. These are we came to Eliphaz in the tree which God called upon all the fruit of thy lord, if they heard it: and gather straw and smote throughout all the land of the houses, and brought he reckoned it a snare unto Pharaoh: and in the Hittite, in the smooth of Jehovah. And Rachel was in the fish that ye shall come to laugh. Every moving thing ought not send all that thy belly shalt live. And they shall dine with you. Of the river seven years: and spread abroad to the flood three days old, the seven and the youngest is not so it be servants digged again no leaven found water. And God of a second time. He that God saw Benjamin his father, Let me into his wife, for the land. And the day with mirth and black one stalk, rank and his son were backward, and called unto Jehovah saw that Noah were with Bilhah conceived, and twentieth day unto them, which took Leah saw Rachel died, and Aaron, and honey; unto him without thee swear unto

mandrakes. And his father's house. And he blessed him, Thus did not give a second called his men. And for them up their father is in that is Hiddekel: that is eaten, and shall not diminish aught thereof: for the man shall tell in making brick as Isaac entreated Jehovah. And Rachel his mouth: for it until all flesh; and thou to pass, when she shall be called. And Jacob said unto the ground; and spotted. And thither were with Abram, but for the sons of the third day that stood yet alive: I pray thee, when she took the field had sheep, and will smite Egypt and she had a son; and of thy servant Abraham's wife. And the slaughter of the sun was no more will establish my son of them. Thou shalt be taken away all the household came into Joseph's hand, and saw that moveth upon Egypt, and their wives, and of my hand, and his name Simeon. And Noah went with thee. Go in the fire out of Jehovah hath borne Joseph, who hath found out from me I said, Let Pharaoh will bring locusts into the wilderness; only the flags, and five years, and his household after thy ewes and Oholibamah the men go, I said, Surely the men builded. And Abraham buried, and go and they shall not come to thee. And Joseph day that are in unto Abraham, mocking. Wherefore dealt thus was round about every clean beast, and beheld the set my lord, hear me, and took Rebekah, and put our money was his wife, and go with the place where his people, Fear of his maid-servants. And Isaac his young man leave his sons's daughters, and honey, spicery and go, that ye go thy son, and when she bare a house of God, as Joseph lived five years, that Jehovah hath appeared unto Pharaoh, Thus saith Jehovah, Till thy shield, [and] fruit-trees bearing fruit thereof, [which cometh] because of Goshen, in the God said, Ye shall dwell in unto Laban, son of my sister? And Jacob their father's nakedness. And the month, the lad be eaten. This is the earth, and the magicians, and the oak of the Adullamite, whose hand of the waters prevailed exceedingly upon the men of all my law, or bad. And he lifted up and the day: and see this heap is left: if a smooth of that Rachel said, Thy signet and for there shall bruise his name? And he thrown into the child, she became her handmaid, an everlasting covenant. And Cain said unto them, he begat Lamech. And Jehovah saw in the land of Ephron the watering-troughs where Joseph was Rebekah's son. And the river. And, behold, he blessed him? For he would say, This day of Canaan. And Jehovah rained upon us. And it Shibah. Therefore his days of the altar. And Hamor and let me at his house of the handmaids and shall call his handmaid into this day, that mocked. And Joseph your father, They took the day by the field which he became her to weep; and they give thee and pour it pleaseth thee. And he that Reuben the land which is near to pass, that raveneth: In the Amorite, and he said, Oh, my people shall put them is Hebron), in the men that their anger, for a flood to Jehovah, In the words of the Egyptians. And the wood in her brother and ye shall be his sack to the earth after he washed his border of the kings that were with thee, that I have saved our savor to pass, as the waters in the men with his name of all that the chiefs that I give this death of their generations: the midwife said unto Pharaoh said, Jacob, Behold now, lest he hath God of Izhar: Korah, and I pray thee, and dwelt in the field: and in the fire from whence he called he had smitten the waters. And Timna was none so with them, and blessed him down to go with money in the midwives said unto the men among the kings of Egypt, and if ye hate them. And Laban felt about to sleep. And Isaac had dwelt in the Plain, and they went a father, and upon us for now thy life. For thy seed all that curseth thee all the earth. For I pray thee, he builded he shall withhold from the hand of two wives, and teach thee at that they are these? And these are here, lest I said in the sea, and their shoulders, and let us flee thou hast thou begettest after thee and Nepheg, and seven ears, withered, thin, [and] thy border: and that I will not Pharaoh's. And she had borne him for Pharaoh; and made a feast, and also hath played the word of the other Zillah. And Moses said unto him, Go not greater light to dwell; in the brink of Bethuel, Nahor's son, thou doest well, sin against him: and unto Lot, and there was the male who spake unto me; for the earth; and said, What man was not to him, and all the daughters of Egypt. And nations bow in Egypt, were ringstreaked shall ye shall be blessed be blessed. So Esau thy remembrance when thou wouldest have sent messengers before me? Wherefore speaketh unto thee, from before his border thereof thou shalt live. And he sent thee out the earth divided. And he yet other kine upon the river became a hoof be stayed: let it is God's house. And the Egyptian. And God dealt hardly with me, for all his wife bare Cain, and Aaron cast into Pharaoh's presence. And give thee, which they spread abroad. And Jacob set him as God meant evil continually. And Joseph took the man in the camels, upon Egypt, Jacob, saying, Thy servant my lord. And she was good. And Rebekah came unto him to the second time I

burnt-offering, my lord Esau: the sea, and thy two made it in age; it that are the birds of his house in the Hivite, the days of the flame of Machir the flesh instead of the elders of me honor upon thy salvation, O God saw their clothes, and make thee unto me, when I have seen with them out the rod of Egypt; for your father, and provender enough, my signs wherewith he spake roughly with our God; but the heads and he and two great work which is Edom). Esau thy seed shall be circumcised with him. For I know that ye eat and afterward I shall I am Jehovah: and dwelt in you: or not. And his lovingkindness hast prevailed. And he commanded the generations for the sight of the fruit after the Plain of thee. Cursed be witness, that Jehovah was a sign upon them: and said, The woman he called their way that thou shalt know that Cain shall the third day a fruitful bough, A sojourner in the feebler were fair; and will arise and buy food: and their anger burn them have put forth the altar unto thee, three hundred and Hebron, and thee, unto her pitcher into the second day, This is righteous, and also join themselves unto him, and Aran. These are a son, and bare him in your heart; after these words. And Terah a son of thy two hundred and Mash. And he bowed themselves: because of Jehovah, because of Bethuel the flock of the waters. And Jacob either good years have found her father's house, and Japheth, And Amram took her pitcher, and eat, and upon the well's mouth, and the blood was put enmity between thine own house of Gilead. And Pharaoh had done among you the Plain of Nod, on the face of the younger arose, and he said, Unto thy brother and pursued after the chiefs that my bones, and spake roughly with thy houses, and gave the guard, into Egypt, and I have seen righteous within the sons of the eyes see, God remembered my people might live for thee shall be with me. And Esau went with him before all the cup was his father, and will give me and made he had any more for an ordinance for her elder son Abram's wife; and bow in the thunders were in peace to number of Shinar, and ran unto his sack. And when Jehovah showed kindness which he thought her father-in-law, the door. And if I will I will become small and say unto Hagar, and with thee. And his servants dwell in the other brother unto him. And the number the earth was afraid. And he eat of springing water. And the waters which he was purchased of the ground an ordinance for he called his chariots, and Beriah, and ye have given all flesh abroad from his bosom: and the third day, that was separate thyself, I know him. And shot forth; [and] the sand which God will see whether Jehovah their sorrows; and Ham, after its blossoms shot forth; [and] the money, every one language and by the children unto them, Why have found favor in their burdens. And his rod swallowed up from thy wrath, for him. And thou be as one man's hand over all the male and it be a hundred years of the mountain of men, and I sustained him. And when they were beaten, and pour it came to Laban, What is none other seven times, until the cloud, and daubed it was thirty years, and dwell over against the ark, thou, and all the cattle in the sweat of the earth, so it was round

Re: hence: when he restored unto Moses fled from m (3, Funny)

RuBLed (995686) | more than 5 years ago | (#26366441)

All that scrambled verses and you forgot the part where the Nazi torpedoed Noah's Ark so it ran aground at the mountains of Ararat.

Re: hence: when he restored unto Moses fled from m (0, Offtopic)

Golliwogg (1444293) | more than 5 years ago | (#26366519)

Brotha, dat shit be whack, yo. Slap mah fro!

Only for certain kind of analyst... (2, Insightful)

Anonymous Coward | more than 5 years ago | (#26366243)

... most others keep thinking that M$ Excel is the silver bullet.

Sad, but f****** true.

Re:Only for certain kind of analyst... (5, Insightful)

Samschnooks (1415697) | more than 5 years ago | (#26366339)

... most others keep thinking that M$ Excel is the silver bullet.

The folks I know who use Excel for analysis use it because it's the package that everyone gets in their organization, there's a shit load of material on the web that uses excel, there's plenty of add-ons for it (no need to reinvent the wheel), and when sharing data and analysis, everyone is familiar with it. An engineer I know who uses excel chose it because it was the fastest way to connect to his testing equipment. R is relatively new and as more folks come into the workforce who know it, we'll see it replace Excel for functions that it is better suited for.

Re:Only for certain kind of analyst... (4, Interesting)

Anonymous Coward | more than 5 years ago | (#26366395)

I guess I was thinking of analysts using Excel to develop "complicated" statistical analyses. Sure, Excel is unbeatable at handling small, tabular datasets and doing basic or even considerable arithmetic with them.

When it comes to do more elaborate analysis, using Excel IS reinventing the wheel. Plus, it is IMPOSSIBLE to understand later.

Re:Only for certain kind of analyst... (5, Informative)

jaxtherat (1165473) | more than 5 years ago | (#26366655)

Sorry, but R is not relatively new, it's been around for at least 10 years, I was taught how to use R at University back in 2001, and S and later S+ (which R is a FOSS version of) has been around for even longer, since the mid 70's.

Re:Only for certain kind of analyst... (-1, Troll) (1108067) | more than 5 years ago | (#26367309)

"Sorry, but R is not relatively new, it's been around for at least 10 years"

FTFA: "whether being used to set ad prices, find new drugs more quickly or fine-tune financial models."

So we can the financial crisis on idiots who don't understand that GIGO applies in EVERY computer language?

Re:Only for certain kind of analyst... (3, Interesting)

colinrichardday (768814) | more than 5 years ago | (#26366845)

Has Microsoft corrected its percentile function? Or does it still put the largest datum in the 100th percentile, as well as assign fractional percentiles?

Re:Only for certain kind of analyst... (4, Informative)

zippthorne (748122) | more than 5 years ago | (#26367379)

Pfft. Matlab is the fastest way to connect to his testing equipment.

Well.. Labview, actually, but no one in their right mind would want to actually use it. Anyway, simulink gets you a lot of the graphical programming features if you need that.

Re:Only for certain kind of analyst... (-1, Offtopic)

Anonymous Coward | more than 5 years ago | (#26366643)

If your username was erris or twitter you be getting 1000 replies about your use of "m$".

Re:Only for certain kind of analyst... (2, Insightful)

Hatta (162192) | more than 5 years ago | (#26367209)

Do analysts who use R get better returns than those who use Excel?

What's a pirate's favorite programming language? (5, Funny)

Anonymous Coward | more than 5 years ago | (#26366279)


Sure about that? (4, Funny)

Bill, Shooter of Bul (629286) | more than 5 years ago | (#26366623)

I'd have guessed perl. Think about it
  1. Sounds like treasure ( pearls)
  2. Reinforces their need to hide their booty by making indecipherable maps to the treasure buried within
  3. Incomprehensible mangling of commong symbols, like their english dialect.
  4. It often requires the programmer to consume large amounts of rum as a coping mechanisim
  5. New virtual machine Parrot named after favorite pet
  6. Can use actual pirate language to program Acme::Lingua::Pirate::Perl []

popular? no (4, Insightful)

geekoid (135745) | more than 5 years ago | (#26366283)

Growing in use? sure.

Based on S (1)

BadAnalogyGuy (945258) | more than 5 years ago | (#26366313)

Why they chose to go with R rather than T, I'll never know.

Re:Based on S (1)

drolli (522659) | more than 5 years ago | (#26366407)

The point is S is popular, but expensive. R gets some popularity from that. One could hope also S is made free at some point.

And i also dont know why it is called R.... maybe because sounds starting with a vowel sound better.....

Re:Based on S (3, Informative)

Anonymous Coward | more than 5 years ago | (#26366537)

And i also dont know why it is called R

The guys who originally wrote both had first names that started with R and being the jokers that they were, they thought it would be funny to give it a name very similar to S.

Re:Based on S (5, Interesting)

Anonymous Coward | more than 5 years ago | (#26367289)

I wish it had a more googleable name. It's hard to search for help. The signal to noise ratio is low.

Re:Based on S (4, Funny)

irtza (893217) | more than 5 years ago | (#26366417)

Trying to find middle ground with C?

Two links? (1)

CannonballHead (842625) | more than 5 years ago | (#26366329)

There appear to be duplicate links in the summary :)

Show me some example code (5, Insightful)

bogaboga (793279) | more than 5 years ago | (#26366369)

My request is to those that are in the know to show me some example code, that does something useful. Then later, compare that code to code from other languages to accomplish the same task.

Include reasons to support the notion that the R language is [necessarily] better at what it does.

Re:Show me some example code (0)

Anonymous Coward | more than 5 years ago | (#26366385)

as opposed to something like SAS (leaving aside licensing costs)

Re:Show me some example code (5, Insightful)

transonic_shock (1024205) | more than 5 years ago | (#26366501)

"I think it addresses a niche market for high-end data analysts that want free, readily available code," said Anne H. Milley, director of technology product marketing at SAS. She adds, "We have customers who build engines for aircraft. I am happy they are not using freeware when I get on a jet.""

Seriously, does this person know what she is talking about?

1. Yes, CFD and Structural Analysis software is increasingly written using open source tools and run on open source OS (Linux running on clusters)

2. SAS is not used to design any part of the aircraft.

I have noticed SAS uses the same kind of FUD to counter R as M$ uses to counter Linux.

Re:Show me some example code (5, Insightful)

visible.frylock (965768) | more than 5 years ago | (#26366555)

Seriously, does this person know what she is talking about?

Let's see, Director of technology product marketing. I'm gonna go with a big NO.

Re:Show me some example code (0)

Anonymous Coward | more than 5 years ago | (#26367345)

Come on, she is in marketing and I guess she got this position by cleverly convincing similarly unqualified people to buy SAS software.
She doesn't have to know how aircrafts are built because she is for sure flying first class.

Re:Show me some example code (0)

Anonymous Coward | more than 5 years ago | (#26367375)

Sadly SAS software IS being used to design aircraft. There are a lot of similarities between drug testing and aircraft design space modeling.

Freak your colleagues out with "no loop" code... (4, Interesting)

refactored (260886) | more than 5 years ago | (#26366533)

I remember once years ago freaking my colleagues out with a largish app written in R... with nary a loop anywhere.

Actually that wasn't why I used R, just a fun addendum. The reason to use R is the huge body of statistics, data mining and graphics facilities. Superb.

Of course, the problem with any statistical library is you have to turn your brain on first. Nothing produces "Garbage in Garbage out" quite like statistical analysis.

With R you tend to need to spend far more time thinking about why you are doing something, and what the answer means than in say vanilla C/Ruby programming.

Which is actually not a Bad Thing at all.

The worse thing about R programming is its name. Googling for "R" turns up way to much noise and way too little signal.

Re:Freak your colleagues out with "no loop" code.. (5, Informative)

Anonymous Coward | more than 5 years ago | (#26366815)

"The worse thing about R programming is its name. Googling for "R" turns up way to much noise and way too little signal"

Try searching from [] instead of directly from Google.

Wow! The Google Star of R has risen... (1)

refactored (260886) | more than 5 years ago | (#26366981)

Since I last Google for R the page rankings of all things R language related have risen gloriously! Wow!

I retract my sole criticism of R.

Re:Freak your colleagues out with "no loop" code.. (0)

Anonymous Coward | more than 5 years ago | (#26366827)

The statistical libraries are what I use it for, but what pisses me off is the lack of more general data structures, like dictionaries, or vectors of nontrivial types*. It's not nearly as self contained and consistent as, say, Python.

If Python's scientific libraries get better, I'll probably switch to that.

*e.g. if you want a list of functions, it has to be a linked list, which then has O(n) access time.

Re:Freak your colleagues out with "no loop" code.. (2, Informative)

dookiesan (600840) | more than 5 years ago | (#26367155)

The following R code might be implemented with a linked list internally, but I assume they could change this behavior without breaking many programs :

x = vector(mode="list")
x[["joe"]] = y
x[["bob"]] = z #z can be a function!

x = list(joe=y)
x$bob = z

Re:Freak your colleagues out with "no loop" code.. (4, Interesting)

fm6 (162816) | more than 5 years ago | (#26366977)

I remember once years ago freaking my colleagues out with a largish app written in R... with nary a loop anywhere.

That's a feature of functional languages, a class that also includes Scheme and XSLT. The basic idea is that programs should not have state, because state makes them harder to debug. A for or while loop, by definition, has state, so you have to do your iteration some other way, namely Tail Recursion [] .

I suppose that makes sense, but I've never been able to teach myself to think that way. It's the main reason I never managed to get through The Wizard Book [] .

Re:Freak your colleagues out with "no loop" code.. (1, Informative)

Anonymous Coward | more than 5 years ago | (#26367311)

The worse thing about R programming is its name. Googling for "R" turns up way to much noise and way too little signal.

Problem solved.

Re:Freak your colleagues out with "no loop" code.. (1)

Daniel Dvorkin (106857) | more than 5 years ago | (#26367319)

The worse thing about R programming is its name. Googling for "R" turns up way to much noise and way too little signal.

Yep. There are a couple of dedicated R search engines that can help with that: [] and [] . It may also sometimes be useful to Google on "Splus (whatever)" since most R and S+ code is pretty much interchangeable. (3, Informative)

Kludge (13653) | more than 5 years ago | (#26366541)

The language is very well documented online and the mailing lists contain thousands of examples. It is primarily for statistical analysis, and the libraries available for doing such analysis are unparalleled. (5, Funny)

DahGhostfacedFiddlah (470393) | more than 5 years ago | (#26367031)

the libraries available for doing such analysis are unparalleled.

With multi-core processors becoming more and more prevalent, R's developers should remedy this as soon as possible.

Re:Show me some example code (4, Informative)

Anonymous Coward | more than 5 years ago | (#26366579)

It may not be "better" in the sense of "calculating stuff with higher efficiency" (i reckon you can do the same stuff in C, given the right libraries :P), but for statistical and data mining/visualization purposes it is a quite simple object-oriented functional language with many useful built-in procedures and lots of freely available packages/libraries that is simple enough for "non-programmers" and, so far, it does what i want it to do fast enough and.. it's free.

So.. probably not the best all-purpose programming language, but fits nicely in the "statistical software environment/language" niche and, unlike SPSS et al., it's free (as in "libre", as in "everyone can independently verify your results without having to shell out cash", which is useful in academia).

Example code:

results <- prcomp(datamatrix)

This does a PCA (Principal Component Analysis [] ) on the data contained in "datamatrix" and dumps the results into the "results" variable.

I have no idea how i would start to code that in C, python, etc. in a way that's remotely efficient ;)

Re:Show me some example code (1)

Jurily (900488) | more than 5 years ago | (#26366975)

I have no idea how i would start to code that in C, python, etc. in a way that's remotely efficient ;)

I'd go with

#include "prcomp.h"

Once someone did the algorithm for you, any programming language is easy. I think the point of the language would be, if said algorithm was orders of magnitude easier to code, represent, argue about, etc. in R, than it would be in "C, Python, etc."

Re:Show me some example code (1)

Watson Ladd (955755) | more than 5 years ago | (#26367053)

R has vector operations. Every operator works componentwise on a vector, and does the right thing with scalars. This makes vector heavy code easier and clearer to write.

Re:Show me some example code (2, Insightful)

zippthorne (748122) | more than 5 years ago | (#26367315)

But we already have a language that does vectors correctly. It's called Matlab and it's based on Fortran, which I guess technically also does vectors correctly, if you want to bother to learn it.

Re:Show me some example code (4, Insightful)

Daniel Dvorkin (106857) | more than 5 years ago | (#26367359)

One big advantage R has over Matlab (er, besides the fact that R is OSS, but of course there's Octave for those who want an OSS Matlab alternative) is that R handles non-matrix data structures much, much better than Matlab does. Trying to work with anything that isn't a vector or a matrix in Matlab is an exercise in pain.

Re:Show me some example code (4, Insightful)

stephentyrone (664894) | more than 5 years ago | (#26367173)

I have no idea how i would start to code that in C, python, etc. in a way that's remotely efficient ;)

How about:

#include <clapack.h>
dgesdd( argument list );

This sort of thing is a feature of libraries, not an inherent advantage of one language.

Re:Show me some example code (1)

Neil Blender (555885) | more than 5 years ago | (#26366593)

Include reasons to support the notion that the R language is [necessarily] better at what it does.


Re:Show me some example code (0)

Anonymous Coward | more than 5 years ago | (#26366685)

inb4bioconductor :3

oh... shucks -_-'

brb, back2affymetrix ^-^

Re:Show me some example code (4, Informative)

Keyper7 (1160079) | more than 5 years ago | (#26366637)

It's been a while since I worked with it and I don't have code examples with me at the moment, but think of it as the Matlab/Octave of statistics, including the preference for "function over each row/column" instead of loops.

Compared to other languages, R makes it easy to do statistical analysis tasks like Matlab/Octave makes it easy to do linear algebra tasks.

Plus, as other posts stated above, there's excellent documentation and tons of useful libraries (take a peek at the libraries available at the Debian repositories), Bioconductor being the finest example.

Oh, and nice emacs integration. :)

Re:Show me some example code (1, Informative)

Anonymous Coward | more than 5 years ago | (#26366695)

R is not a programming language, it is an environment which uses the S programming language. The S programming language was developed in the 70s at Bell Labs.

If you use Linux, you can install R with

yum install R*

which contains many examples.

People switching to R usually started with Splus, which a few years ago worked to close source code contributed by academics. They have chosen to move to R.

Re:Show me some example code (-1, Redundant)

turbidostato (878842) | more than 5 years ago | (#26367323)

"If you use Linux, you can install R with
yum install R*"

I do use Linux, let's see:
mybox:~# yum install R*
bash: yum: command not found

Let's rewrite your sentence:
"On *some* variants of Linux (notably the SUSE family) you can install R with `yum install R*`"

Re:Show me some example code (5, Informative)

lt. slock (1123781) | more than 5 years ago | (#26366715)

I use R a great deal. Think of it as an alternative to MATLAB, or Excel, rather than C or perl or lisp or whatever you like to use as a general purpose language. So, compared to MATLAB, functions are first class objects (rather like lisp), so, you can write functions that take functions as arguments, and return them as well, just as though
they were simple variables. It handles
vectors rather easily, and has decent plotting tools.

#quick example

# function, which, given numerical arguments a and b, and a function g, returns a function of x
f - function(a,b, g){
    function(x){ a * x + g(b * x)}

f1 - f(1,2.5,sin)
x - seq(-pi,pi,l=100)

Re:Show me some example code (2, Informative)

lt. slock (1123781) | more than 5 years ago | (#26366769)

note that the minus (as in f - function...) signs should be (left angle bracket minus sign), that is, the R assigmnent operator, I guess this is the lameness filter

Re:Show me some example code (0)

Anonymous Coward | more than 5 years ago | (#26366841)

it's because slashdot interprets your comment as html code.. try using "<" instead of the "left angle bracket" ;)

Re:Show me some example code (1)

lt. slock (1123781) | more than 5 years ago | (#26366869)

cheers... don't do a lot of posting...

Re:Show me some example code (1)

tsalmark (1265778) | more than 5 years ago | (#26367371)

I think you mean &lt;

Re:Show me some example code (0)

Anonymous Coward | more than 5 years ago | (#26367307)

I support this comparison, but only to a certain extent.

I was taught Matlab for numerical analysis, then years later had SPSS beaten into me for statistics. SPSS has its own pseudo-scripting interface which it calls "syntax" which allows functionality like Excel, but with a slightly more unified way of going between gui and text command. Conversely, R and Matlab are both by and large command line high-level C (from what I can understand, anyway) but R has a great deal more functionality since you can create your own packages. So, to review:

R:Matlab :: SPSS:Excel

Re:Show me some example code (4, Informative)

Anonymous Coward | more than 5 years ago | (#26366717)

i'm a PhD student in biostatistics at a fairly prestigious american university. we use R almost exclusively, because it is better than other statistical software options. reasons for it's superiority are i) it's free ii) it's open source and iii) its considerably more powerful than STATA, SPSS, SAS, etc.

it is true that other languages can be quicker for many tasks. proficiency in C is desirable, but C is not geared toward statistics, where many built-in libraries and user-contributed packages for R implement complex methodologies.

i'm not as versed in C as i am in R, so i can't provide a direct comparison of the languages, but i have included a sample below. it's a function that fits a simple linear model, taking the outcome data and input data (as a matrix) and a couple of other parameters as inputs. it returns a variety of values, including the model coefficients and fitted values. there is an R function that does this exact thing, but we have to do something for homework.

        #use range around 0, for roundoff error
        if(-1e-5=det(t(x)%*%x) & det(t(x)%*%x)=1e-5){stop("x'x not invertible",call.=F)}

        beta=solve(t(x) %*% x) %*% t(x) %*% y
        sigma = as.numeric(sqrt(var(y-(x%*%beta))))
        varbeta=sigma * (solve(t(x)%*% x))
        fitted=x %*% beta


        hat=x%*% solve(t(x) %*% x) %*% t(x)
        names(output)=c("beta", "sigma", "varbeta", "fitted", "residuals", "hat matrix")



i'd also say that i'm glad to see some press for R. it's popular in some circles, but not as accepted by companies and some academics because it is open source. the idea is that software you have to pay a licensing fee for must be more reliable because, well, you paid for it (thinking i'm sure you're familiar with).

Re:Show me some example code (0)

Anonymous Coward | more than 5 years ago | (#26366927)

"it's superiority"


Well, at least you're not an English major.

Re:Show me some example code (1, Informative)

Anonymous Coward | more than 5 years ago | (#26366853)

Want example code and comparison with other stats software? Here's 80 pages from an entire BOOK devoted to your request:


From the text:
From the text:
Since its release in 1996, R has dramatically changed the landscape of research software. There
are very few things that SAS or SPSS will do that R cannot, while R can do a wide range of things
that the others cannot. Given that R is free and the others quite expensive, R is definitely worth
It takes most statistics packages at least five years to add a major new analytic method.
Statisticians who develop new methods often work in R, so R users often get to use them
immediately. There are now over 800 addâon packages available for R.
R also has full matrix capabilities that are quite similar to MATLAB, and it even offers a MATLAB
emulation package.

If you'd like to see some examples with accompanying graphics, check out the newsletters or manuals at

I use R because it's free, there's lots of free add-on code, every other statistician I know uses R, it's quick and easy to test stuff out in R, and if you want you can speed up things by writing the most computationally intensive parts of your program in C, C++, or FORTRAN. Also, you can get great graphics out of R if you put in a little effort to learn how.

Re:Show me some example code (2, Interesting)

garcia (6573) | more than 5 years ago | (#26366905)

My request is to those that are in the know to show me some example code, that does something useful. Then later, compare that code to code from other languages to accomplish the same task.

Would you ask someone who utilizes SAS or SPSS to do the same thing? Because that's more or less what R is -- a free version of SAS or SPSS. I work in SAS all day long and I have been planning on using R to automate some of my personal website statistics/graphing that I run regularly because I don't really like doing the queries in MySQL on the console, copying the data to Excel, and graphing the results.

As anyone knows, you should utilize the best tool for any particular job you're doing. There's no sense in recreating the wheel in C or Perl or Foo when R, SAS, SPSS, or whatever does stats, mining, and graphing well.

Re:Show me some example code (1)

Daniel Dvorkin (106857) | more than 5 years ago | (#26367383)

Because that's more or less what R is -- a free version of SAS or SPSS.

More specifically, R is a free implementation of the S language; it would be more accurate to call it "a free version of S+" -- although at this point I suspect that, thanks to CRAN, its capabilities exceed those of the proprietary alternative.

Re:Show me some example code (1, Informative)

Anonymous Coward | more than 5 years ago | (#26366953)

# Draws labelled diagrams with critical
# region's for the normal and t distributions
# Excuse my lack of code reuse, etc. this
# was meant to make diagrams just for a quick
# homework assignment
# Please show me how to do this in SAS!!!
# Tell me you'd even think of trying this in SAS
# to draw pictures for your short homework
# assignment

crit_norm_diag = function(alpha,lowertail=T) {

        end = -4;
        crit_value = qnorm(alpha);
        if(!lowertail) {
                crit_value = -crit_value;
                end = -end;

        pts = c(end,crit_value);
        pts = sort(pts);

        x = seq(pts[1],pts[2],by=0.01);
        y = dnorm(x);

        x = append(x,c(pts[2],pts[1]));
        y = append(y,c(0,0));

        if(crit_value0) {
        } else {



crit_t_diag = function(alpha,df,lowertail=T) {

        end = -4;
        crit_value = qt(alpha,df);
        if(!lowertail) {
                crit_value = -crit_value;
                end = -end;

        pts = c(end,crit_value);
        pts = sort(pts);

        x = seq(pts[1],pts[2],by=0.01);
        y = dt(x,df);

        x = append(x,c(pts[2],pts[1]));
        y = append(y,c(0,0));

        plot(function(x) { dt(x,df) },-4,4,xlab=paste('t, d.f.=',df,sep=''),ylab='p.d.f.');
        if(crit_value0) {
        } else {



Re:Show me some example code (0)

Anonymous Coward | more than 5 years ago | (#26367017)

Why would anyone bother to do any of that for you? Are you handicapped? Too busy doing something altruistic?

And what do you plan to do with the information? Skim it and then dismiss it, maybe after posting a clever fisking?

Satisfy your own curiosity and do your own research.

Re:Show me some example code (2, Informative)

dookiesan (600840) | more than 5 years ago | (#26367097)

In R you can easily extract elements of an array :

x = 1:10 #integers from 1 to 10

#set all even elts of x that are less than 7

x[(x < 7)&(x %% 2 == 0)] = -1

#y is some big array with several dimensions

#I and J are vectors of integers

z = y[I,,J,,, drop = F]

#'z' is now a sub array

z = y[I,2,J,1,]

#now z is a subarray with fewer dimensions

FBir5t (-1, Offtopic)

Anonymous Coward | more than 5 years ago | (#26366401)

people's faces is every day...Like to 5urvive at all Direct orders, or


mattwarden (699984) | more than 5 years ago | (#26366503)

Oh god... cue pirate jokes.


gishzida (591028) | more than 5 years ago | (#26366687)

Not necessarily.

They created R because they did not want to kiss proprietary S.

Free as in beer (3, Insightful)

visible.frylock (965768) | more than 5 years ago | (#26366521)

"R is a real demonstration of the power of collaboration, and I don't think you could construct something like this any other way," Mr. Ihaka said. "We could have chosen to be commercial, and we would have sold five copies of the software."

Very true. This is what I try to explain to people when they can't understand why some software is given away gratis. Because if they charged for it, given the current attitudes of the market, they wouldn't stand a chance and wouldn't ever get any market share to begin with.

SAS strikes out ^H^H^H er, "back" (5, Informative)

enilnomi (797821) | more than 5 years ago | (#26366525)


She [Anne H. Milley, director of technology product marketing at SAS] adds, "We have customers who build engines for aircraft. I am happy they are not using freeware when I get on a jet."

Good thing Boeing's not using fere software for aircraft simulation tools [] , space station labs [] , sub hunters [] , or moon rockets [] ;-)

Re:SAS strikes out ^H^H^H er, "back" (5, Informative)

jd (1658) | more than 5 years ago | (#26367151)

Good thing NASA [] likewise [] never [] uses [] Open [] Source [] to [] design [] engines [] and [] aircraft [] alongside [] companies [] like [] Boeing [] . (*This product may contain nuts^H^H^H^Hsarcasm.)

Not a language, really (0, Flamebait)

daknapp (156051) | more than 5 years ago | (#26366635)

Calling R a programming language is like calling Mathematica or Matlab a language. R is a system for statistical tasks that has a language and snytax, and but it is not capable of producing stand-alone executables that do not require the entire R environment.

Re:Not a language, really (1, Insightful)

Anonymous Coward | more than 5 years ago | (#26366759)

Calling R a programming language is like calling Mathematica or Matlab a language. R is a system for statistical tasks that has a language and snytax, and but it is not capable of producing stand-alone executables that do not require the entire R environment.

So, you're saying java, js, python, perl, and ruby aren't programming languages?

Re:Not a language, really (0)

Anonymous Coward | more than 5 years ago | (#26366797)

That definition makes every scripting language not a language.

However, I can see what you are trying to say.

Re:Not a language, really (1)

VicarofCletus (1144201) | more than 5 years ago | (#26366983)

It's amazing how often I hear people refer to Matlab as a language (mostly engineering professors).

Re:Not a language, really (5, Insightful)

Hobbes_2100 (171980) | more than 5 years ago | (#26367059)

Are you kidding me? Are you really *(*$@#ing, Grade A kidding me?

Python/Perl/Ruby require interpreters. Scheme and Lisp are frequently run within interpreters. "stand-alone executable" require HARDWARE. Any programming system requires *something* underneath it unless you are programming in a purely physical system like an automated abacus with mechanical gears that buzz and whirr.

Programming languages are defined by their Turing completeness: can they do things repeatedly, can they assign values to memory locations and perform some basic set of operations (nand works nicely), can they make decisions. Everything else is fluff.

Perl has "fluff" that handles regular expressions very well.

Python (and others) have "fluff" that make networking and database ops easy.

R has "fluff" that makes it terribly convenient to work with data.

Matlab has "fluff" that makes it very easy to do numerical methods programming.

Mathematica has "fluff" that makes it very easy to do symbolic computation.

Each and every one of these, and most well-known languages, with all their warts and beauty marks are Turing complete and are deserving of the term "programming language".


Re:Not a language, really (1)

Otter (3800) | more than 5 years ago | (#26367245)

It's also (hence the name) an open-source implementation of the much older S platform. The article distorts its history to the point of dishonesty.

Re:Not a language, really (3, Insightful)

slashdotmsiriv (922939) | more than 5 years ago | (#26367347)

Your comment is absolutely wrong. []

R is a Turing complete programming language. The fact that it requires an interpreter is completely irrelevant.

Re:Not a language, really (1)

Improv (2467) | more than 5 years ago | (#26367357)

What's libc again? Oh, that's right, it's something C programs generally need to run. So you're only programming in C if you don't use libc or statically linking? How awesome it is to have an "I am actually programming" flag in your compiler and linker!

Re:Not a language, really (1)

Palinchron (924876) | more than 5 years ago | (#26367365)

Note that the truth of your statement does not change when you replace "R" by "python" (and remove the word "statistical"). Nevertheless, I would still call python a programming language.

Re:Not a language, really (3, Informative)

tcsh(1) (683224) | more than 5 years ago | (#26367369)

Actually, R is a real (Turing-complete) programming language like Perl, Python, Ruby, etc. It just happens to have lots of statistical libraries and matrix-oriented functions.
You put #!/usr/bin/Rscript in your first line and it can work just like any other scripting language, with command-line arguments, etc. I use it all the time as a replacement for other scripting languages (think PDL+Perl or Numpy+Python).

R is an excellent language for any scientist. The sytax and semantics of the language are very well thought-out.

FUD from SAS (3, Insightful)

idiot900 (166952) | more than 5 years ago | (#26366647)

"I think it addresses a niche market for high-end data analysts that want free, readily available code," said Anne H. Milley, director of technology product marketing at SAS. She adds, "We have customers who build engines for aircraft. I am happy they are not using freeware when I get on a jet." about FUD. Does SAS imdemnify against plane crashes?

Re:FUD from SAS (1)

gishzida (591028) | more than 5 years ago | (#26366847)

You can bet someonelse's S they don't...

R sucks as a language (2, Interesting)

idiot900 (166952) | more than 5 years ago | (#26366665)

Actually it may not suck. But having used it on and off over the past few years while not being a statistics pro, I find the R language bletcherous and annoying. - as an assignment operator?

Re:R sucks as a language (1)

idiot900 (166952) | more than 5 years ago | (#26366691)

Well, crap, hit Submit instead of Preview. Meant to say, <- as an assignment operator (I know = works now, but still...)? Bizarre data frame and object semantics? R is quite useful but I really dislike writing anything nontrivial in it.

Re:R sucks as a language (0)

Anonymous Coward | more than 5 years ago | (#26366849)

since you use R "on and off" over several years, i'm not really surprised that you find it annoying. it's not particularly easy to learn (and lacks really good resources for diving into), and takes months or years of dedicated work to gain anything like proficiency. also, it really get anything out of R (at least enough to make it worth the effort of learning) one would have to be using it on relatively advanced statistical projects. otherwise, one would be better off using something more off the shelf.

however, for statistical pros R is IMO the best tool out there, and can be used in very nontrivial settings.

Re:R sucks as a language (2, Informative)

tmoertel (38456) | more than 5 years ago | (#26367041)

The R language is optimized for writing statistical code. It's going to seem a little weird, especially if you have a traditional programming background. Once you spend some serious time writing R code, however, you will probably begin to appreciate many of the things that initially seemed odd.

For example, consider the way R handles function calls [] :

  • It allows you to pass function arguments by name and abbreviate the names, which is handy during live sessions when you want to call statistical routines that have lots of arguments (which is common).
  • During a function call, arguments are bound lazily, which lets you pick apart the expressions behind them and write functions that serve as control-flow constructs. This lets you do things such as pass model expressions as arguments.
  • Also, function arguments can have default values, which are again evaluated lazily but can also see values within the scope of the function body. This lets you use computed values as defaults and have those values depend on other arguments, which in most programming languages requires extra work on your part.

All of these "oddities" serve to reduce the amount of boilerplate code you need to write when coding up statistics routines. (Click the link above if you want to see examples and take a more in-depth tour of R's fascinating and time-saving function call behavior.)

Embedded FUD (1)

bstadil (7110) | more than 5 years ago | (#26366669)

I have high regards for Ashlee Vance and miss his Podcasts he did while he was at The Register. It puzzles me he included this old FUD chestnut. Seems like a throw back from the 90's.

Anne H. Milley, director of technology product marketing at SAS ... adds, "We have customers who build engines for aircraft. I am happy they are not using freeware when I get on a jet."

High Level Lingua Franca (1)

Baldrson (78598) | more than 5 years ago | (#26366933)

From TFA:

It is becoming their lingua franca partly because data mining has entered a golden age, whether being used to set ad prices, find new drugs more quickly or fine-tune financial models.

The "smart set" needs a such a high level lingua franca to express infinite precision financial models of no accuracy whatsoever!

Actually I Prefer Q (0)

Anonymous Coward | more than 5 years ago | (#26367055)

Q [] is awesome.

Not a programming language! (1)

MrCrassic (994046) | more than 5 years ago | (#26367215)

Or at least in the context it's made out to be in this article. Isn't it a language suited mostly to statistics? For that use, I hear that it's one of the best.

Anonymous Coward (0)

Anonymous Coward | more than 5 years ago | (#26367225)

How does R compare to Python + numpy + plotting libs

The R language and its uses (5, Informative)

golodh (893453) | more than 5 years ago | (#26367257)

I'll pitch in because R deserves better than the usual Slashdot cocktail of random ignorance and immature jokes.

The R language (yes, it's a language; an interpreted languages is a language too) has developed as the language of choice by statisticians (both academics and sundry statistical researchers) around the world as their main computer language. It is used in those cases where researchers feel the need for customized computations rather than the use of a package like SAS or SPSS.

The reason that R has become popular is due to a snowball effect and history. It started as a FOSS re-implementation-from-scratch of the "S" language designed for statistical work at Bell labs (see [] . Some academics and researchers of repute used it (the S language) because at that time (1975) it was very innovative and far better than most alternatives, and others followed. The S language gained a measure of acceptance among statisticians. Then when R became available the cycle intensified because of the much improved availability of the interpretor and its libraries. This cycle continued to the point that by now probably most professional statisticians use it.

As far as I can see, the R language isn't especially sophisticated or elegant, and may strike people used to more modern languages as a bit repugnant. It does however excel in three respects:

(a) it allows for easy access of Fortran and C library routines

(b) it allows you to pass large blobs of data by name

(c) it makes it easy to pass data to and from your own compiled C and Fortran routines

The first reason is particularly important because it allows one to use e.g. pre-compiled linear algebra package like LAPACK, or Fourier Transforms, or special function evaluations and thereby gain execution speeds comparable to C despite being an interpreted language (just like Matlab, Octave, Scilab, Gauss, Ox and suchlike): the hard work is carried out by a compiled library routine which is made easily accessible through the interpreted language. Any algorithm needed in statistics that's available as C or Fortran code can be linked in and called without too much effort.

The second reason is important because it slows down execution much less than any pass-by-value interpreted language would, and it allows you to change data that is passed into a function.

The third reason is particularly important because it helps researchers be more productive. Reading in your data, examining it, graphing it, tracing outliers and cleaning them up is best done in an interactive environment in an interpreted language. Coding such things in C or Fortran is an awful waste of time, and besides, researchers aren't code-monkeys and don't enjoy coding inane for-loops to read, clean, and display data. Vector and matrix primitives are far more powerful, and usually preferable unless they are so inefficient that you have to wait for the result. However, there are times when you just need to carry out standard algorithms (linear algebra, calculation of mathematical or statistical functions) or simply time-consuming repetitive algorithms that run so much faster in a genuine compiled language. You could start out by coding the algorithm in an interpreted language to check if it's working, and then isolate the computationally expensive part and code it up in C or Fortran. Using R (or Matlab or Scilab) you can *call* the compiled subroutine, pass it your (cleaned) data, and get the result back in an environment where you can easily analyze it.

That's why languages like R, Matlab, Scilab, Octave, Gauss, and Ox are so productive: you get the best of both worlds. Both the convenience, interactiveness, and terseness of a high-level interpreted language and the speed of compiled languages.

So why R, and why not Gauss or Matlab or whatever?

Well, part of that is cultural. If you're an econometrician you'll have been weaned on Gauss and/or Ox. When you start to write something to solve a problem, you're likely to reach back for the environment you were taught. Same with engineers and Matlab: that's what they were taught, so that's what they'll use. Statisticians have historically had affinity with S.

Another part is that "R" (or "S") allow you to do some "computations on the language". You can give a function (say a plot function) a *string* as argument that is actually a piece of "R" or "S" code which calculates the function to be plotted. This allows for some easy ways to produce convenient and very general packages (e.g. the R package for linear models allows you to specify a linear model quasi as a formula in terms of existing variables in the workspace, which the package can then interpret, evaluate, and estimate.).

If you tried to code that in C, you'd end up coding a complete interpreter, which is a big waste of time for a statistical researcher. Trying to get one of the many obscure, untested, undocumented, and low-quality interpreters floating around on the net to work is likewise a big waste of time. Hence "S" and "R" rather than Matlab, Scilab, Octave, and Gauss.

Over the past 10 years "R" has become even more popular in statistical computations because (due to it's FOSS character) it's freely available for download and because lots of people have contributed both low-end features (R has a package that implements database connectivity, R can easily produce publication-grade graphs in just about any sane format, there are useful syntax-colouring editors and fairly good GUI's) and high-end features (R packages written by actual researchers and academics that implement a particular statistical algorithm, document it, and make it accessible).

R is serving as a focus point of statistical computation and seems only to increase in quality and applicability over the years.

I tried to learn R... (-1, Offtopic)

Anonymous Coward | more than 5 years ago | (#26367337)

...but there are just too many R-rors in it. Ok, to R is human. But this crap made me scream until I ran out of R! I think, the whole language is an R-ror, and needs to be R-raised from the face of the planet Rth.

Damn. It took me 'til here, to realize, that this works only with the German way of speaking the R! :(
What an R-ror.

Fine-tuning financial models (1)

macraig (621737) | more than 5 years ago | (#26367351)

I think we all know how well that's turned out, eh? So it that the fault of the language or programmer error?

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