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Release of 33GiB of Scientific Publications

timothy posted more than 2 years ago | from the summer-reading dept.

Wikipedia 242

An anonymous reader writes "A Wikipedian, Greg Maxwell, has released 33GiB of scientific publications [note: torrent] from the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society in response to the arrest of Aaron Swartz for, effectively, downloading too many articles from JSTOR. The release consists of 18,592 scientific articles previously released at $8-$19 each and all published prior to 1923 and so public domain."

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242 comments

first (0)

Anonymous Coward | more than 2 years ago | (#36853052)

wasnt this already on slashdot today?

Biased summary (4, Insightful)

the_raptor (652941) | more than 2 years ago | (#36853090)

in response to the arrest of Aaron Swartz for, effectively, downloading too many articles from JSTOR

No, that jackass got arrested for not only hacking MIT systems but physically breaking into equipment cabinets and messing with the hardware. He did this so that he could "effectively download too many articles from JSTOR", but that isn't what he got arrested for.

I am all for civil disobedience when it is merited, but don't go crying when you get arrested and charged for that disobedience. Especially don't go trying to distort the reasons for your arrest to try and trick people into supporting you. There are so many causes I support where I wouldn't be caught seen with the "activists" pushing them because they do bullshit like this.

Re:Biased summary (1)

Anonymous Coward | more than 2 years ago | (#36853128)

Tone it down a notch, a guy released a couple of articles that already are in the public domain. Not much to cry over.

Re:Biased summary (4, Informative)

Caerdwyn (829058) | more than 2 years ago | (#36853666)

No, he was arrested for burglary (note to readers: "burglary" is not a crime of larceny/theft. It is breaking-and-entering in furtherance of actions which in themselves are also illegal.). Plenty to cry over.

The "anonymous reader" who claims the arrest was over downloading is, in fact, lying.

Re:Biased summary (1)

The Dawn Of Time (2115350) | more than 2 years ago | (#36853132)

You mean people are having ridiculously overwrought, poorly thought out overreactions to an ostensibly copyright related issue? On the Internet? I refuse to believe it.

Re:Biased summary (5, Informative)

Anonymous Coward | more than 2 years ago | (#36853138)

The description and even the Wikipedia page on the issue imply that he simply brought a laptop into MIT and downloaded the data. Actually looking at news articles on the same issue reveal he did a bit more than that:

"According to the indictment, Swartz connected a laptop to MIT's system in September 2010 through a basement network wiring closet and registered as a guest under the fictitious name, Gary Host, in which the first initial and last name spell "ghost." He then used a software program to "rapidly download at extraordinary volume of articles from JSTOR," according to the indictment.

In the following months, MIT and JSTOR tried to block the recurring and massive downloads, on occasion denying all MIT users access to JSTOR. But Swartz allegedly got around it, in part, by disguising the computer source of the demands for data.

In November and December, Swartz allegedly made 2 million downloads from JSTOR, 100 times the number made during the same period by all legitimate JSTOR users at MIT.

The indictment also alleges that on Jan. 6, Swartz went to the wiring closet to remove the laptop, attempting to shield his identity by holding a bike helmet in front of his face and seeing his way through its ventilation holes. It said that he fled when MIT police tried to question him that day."

Yyyyeah, I don't think he's being charged simply for downloading too much from JSTOR.

Re:Biased summary (0, Troll)

PopeRatzo (965947) | more than 2 years ago | (#36853242)

But what did he do that was wrong?

Re:Biased summary (0)

Anonymous Coward | more than 2 years ago | (#36853266)

Broke into a locked computer cabinet.

Re:Biased summary (1, Interesting)

mcvos (645701) | more than 2 years ago | (#36853674)

If that's it. then yes, he deserves a slap on the wrist. Meanwhile, everybody else would be wise to put the articles he released on a freely accessible and easily searchable website.

What I'd like to know is why those overly expensive journals still exist. Do they pay authors so much that everybody prefers to send articles there? My impression was that both authors and peer reviewers were unpaid or paid very little. So nobody who matters really profits from that rip-off situation. So why don't people set up a free science journal website, and submit everything there?

Re:Biased summary (0)

Anonymous Coward | more than 2 years ago | (#36853742)

I agree, he deserves a slap on the wrist.

However, since he pissed off some influential people by also doing things that were completely legal, he's getting fucked up the ass for a crime that deserves a slap on the wrist.

Re:Biased summary (0)

Anonymous Coward | more than 2 years ago | (#36853206)

Not to mention that "downloading too many articles from JSTOR" is against their TOS, he evaded bans which makes his actions common-law trespassing, and his apparent plan to release all the data is illegal (regardless that we'd be better off with that knowledge in the public domain).

Re:Biased summary (-1, Flamebait)

Eunuchswear (210685) | more than 2 years ago | (#36853390)

I am all for civil disobedience when it is merited, but don't go crying when you get arrested and charged for that disobedience.

Yeah, that Rosa Parks, stop whining, bitch.

(Yes I know it's a ridiculous comparison, I'm reacting to your words, not the case at hand).

Re:Biased summary (5, Insightful)

nomadic (141991) | more than 2 years ago | (#36853438)

Yeah, that Rosa Parks, stop whining, bitch.

You bring up an apt comparison, but it says the reverse of what you intended it to say. Rosa Parks practiced true civil disobedience; she broke a law out in the open, expecting to get arrested; that's a critical component of civil disobedience. She didn't do it secretly using a false name.

Re:Biased summary (5, Insightful)

Anthony Mouse (1927662) | more than 2 years ago | (#36853528)

I am all for civil disobedience when it is merited, but don't go crying when you get arrested and charged for that disobedience. Especially don't go trying to distort the reasons for your arrest to try and trick people into supporting you.

The problem with modern civil disobedience is that they don't hold you overnight and then let you go anymore, or even charge you with a crime for which the penalty is a $500 fine or 30 days in the county jail. They trump up some nonsense charges for which the penalty is 5-10 years or more in Federal PMITA Prison so that you have to spend enough on legal fees to bankrupt anyone who isn't a millionaire, because nobody sane is willing to go pro se against the prospect of that sort of excessive, life-ruining penalty. Imagine if Martin Luther King Jr. were arrested in 1955 for his ("illegal") bus boycotts, and then thrown in prison for the next 10 years. Somehow I doubt the 1963 "I have a dream" speech would have been quite as effective standing on a table in the prison cafeteria in front of a dozen inmates as it was in front of a quarter of a million people at the Lincoln Memorial.

So today, prospective young men and women who feel that they have no real political representation are presented with a Sophie's choice. If they want to keep their freedom and have any continued hope of creating change through official channels or by shaping public opinion through open discussion, they have to forgo civil disobedience and are deprived of one of the most effective methods to bring about change in the face of a broken political system. (This is, obviously, by design from the perspective of the broken political system.) Or they can break the law as their predecessors did, but then have to rely on anonymity and whatever criminal defense a person can muster against outrageous penalties in order to retain the freedom to continue the fight and continue to violate unreasonable laws until they are repealed.

Naturally someone will respond that this is a different fight and how dare I compare freedom of information to the civil rights movement etc. But that is just a political perspective -- history is written by the winners. Just because you don't agree with the politics of the accused (whether it be MLK or Julian Assange), that is no excuse to support the suppression of nonviolent political movements through criminal felony prosecutions.

Re:Biased summary (3, Insightful)

mcvos (645701) | more than 2 years ago | (#36853698)

You've got a good point. I'd prefer civil disobedience to be done openly, but the more oppressive a regime gets, the more the need for secrecy grows.

Members of the resistance during WW2 weren't open about sheltering Jews either. It wasn't just illegal; it would get them killed.

Re:Biased summary (4, Insightful)

the_raptor (652941) | more than 2 years ago | (#36853820)

No the more oppressive the regime the MORE resistance needs to be in the open. Oppressive regimes work by making people afraid, especially by making dissidents feel they are alone and isolated. When oppressive regimes fall from internal causes it is nearly always due to people making public stands. The current "Arab spring" is the perfect example of this. Those regimes are only falling because people are marching in the streets and willing to die to see the end of the current regimes.

Re:Biased summary (2)

Paul Fernhout (109597) | more than 2 years ago | (#36853926)

Good points, and please see my other reply in this thread quoting Prof. G. WIlliam Domhoff on "Strategic Nonviolence" and Jame P. Hogan on "Voyage From Yesteryear" which connects to them:
    http://slashdot.org/comments.pl?sid=2344152&cid=36853896 [slashdot.org]

Note also that a willingness to die for a cause is not the same as a willingess to kill for a cause.

"Quorum Senising" is another aspect of understanding how societies go through sudden phase changes:
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quorum_sensing [wikipedia.org]
"Quorum sensing is a system of stimulus and response correlated to population density. Many species of bacteria use quorum sensing to coordinate gene expression according to the density of their local population. In similar fashion, some social insects use quorum sensing to determine where to nest. In addition to its function in biological systems, quorum sensing has several useful applications for computing and robotics. Quorum sensing can function as a decision-making process in any decentralized system, as long as individual components have: (a) a means of assessing the number of other components they interact with and (b) a standard response once a threshold number of components is detected."

Re:Biased summary (4, Insightful)

sjames (1099) | more than 2 years ago | (#36854066)

Open and anonymous need not be separate things. A person flagrantly violating the law and then disappearing before the goon squad can come haul them off to the organ harvester is effective. Same thing but calling out your name and address just makes people think you were suicidal anyway and gets your family killed as well.

Re:Biased summary (4, Insightful)

the_raptor (652941) | more than 2 years ago | (#36853800)

The problem with modern civil disobedience is that they don't hold you overnight and then let you go anymore, or even charge you with a crime for which the penalty is a $500 fine or 30 days in the county jail.

When did THEY ever do that for real civil disobedience? Now days the worst you are likely to suffer from civil disobedience in the West is a few years in jail. Those fighting for causes such as civil rights for African-Americans or women's suffrage faced being beaten, tortured, and killed. Mandela was in prison for TWENTY-SEVEN years. The whole point of civil disobedience is to show the injustice in something by pointing the public at the disproportionate sentences handed out.

Modern activists are generally a bunch of pussies that scream about the injustice of The System but don't actually want to suffer the losses that an actual fight requires. If a cause isn't worth spending a few years in jail, it isn't worth making a fuss out of at all. People like MLK Jr knew their cause was worth the back-lash.

Re:Biased summary (5, Insightful)

Anthony Mouse (1927662) | more than 2 years ago | (#36854076)

Now days the worst you are likely to suffer from civil disobedience in the West is a few years in jail.

Since when is that a small thing to suffer?

Mandela was in prison for TWENTY-SEVEN years.

That's what I'm talking about. Mandela accomplished what he set out to, but it basically took him his whole life to do it. And what happens if the people with his level of dedication are executed rather than imprisoned? What happens if the change sought is time-sensitive, such that whoever wins the day today will capture enough power to keep the balance in their favor going forward?

Civil disobedience doesn't work if you're the only one doing it. In that case the opposition merely has to come down on you hard enough to take you out of the running and deter anyone else from taking your place. It works when people take part on a mass scale. And if there are enough people willing to have an "example" made of them for the cause then great, but in many situations, even for very worthy causes, there are insufficiently many people willing to make that sacrifice. There are, in fact, things worth fighting for that aren't worth dying for.

So anonymity and penalty avoidance allow the process to bootstrap. If people can show that they can break bad laws without being caught, more people will be emboldened to join them. Once enough people are doing it, some of them will do what you want -- step forward, put their heads on the chopping block and dare the oppressors to martyr them. And by that point, when most every citizen is guilty of the crime, no jury will convict.

If a cause isn't worth spending a few years in jail, it isn't worth making a fuss out of at all.

This is nonsense and is the main flaw in your argument. There are undeniably non-frivolous causes worth taking action over that aren't worth going to prison over.

Re:Biased summary (1)

ceoyoyo (59147) | more than 2 years ago | (#36853854)

Nelson Mandela.

Re:Biased summary (1)

colinrichardday (768814) | more than 2 years ago | (#36853894)

I believe the OP meant civil disobedience in the United States. People in less open (less open than 50s-60s America) regimes faced harsher sentences.

Re:Biased summary (1)

the_raptor (652941) | more than 2 years ago | (#36853928)

So the OP was talking about maybe a period 10-20 years after the Civil Rights movement? No, the OP was just ignorant about the subject. If the OP meant "protesting" then yes the response from government is getting harsher in the 21st century. But protesting isn't necessarily civil disobedience.

Re:Biased summary (1)

ceoyoyo (59147) | more than 2 years ago | (#36853988)

Hopefully other people thought about that name more than you did.

Yes, many people using civil disobedience in the US have had an easy ride. Not always, and in general in the world it's not true. But do you really think Martin Luther King Jr. would have thought to himself "damn, I might end up going to jail for more than a weekend? Screw that!"? That the OP seems to think so is sad. I'm not American, but I still admire your real heroes.

The second point is this: think hard about what your country is becoming when you think that black civil rights protesters in the 50s had it easy.

Social Movements and Strategic Nonviolence (1)

Paul Fernhout (109597) | more than 2 years ago | (#36853896)

http://sociology.ucsc.edu/whorulesamerica/change/science_nonviolence.html [ucsc.edu]
"One of the distinctive features of left activists is their willingness to go to the streets to win people to their causes and create the political pressures necessary for the social changes they advocate. Studies in social psychology and sociology support this strategy by showing there has to be a non-routine dimension to any effort toward change. It doesn't make any sense to people to say that things are terrible, but they just should vote and write letters to their elected representatives. If things are going to change, then people have to get out of their routines one way or another. There has to be social disruption. There has to be a "getting in the way of power" as one author-activist puts it. There has to be a social movement that has a shared political identity.
    But case studies also show that these movements go nowhere without an electoral component, as seen with the women's suffrage movement, the industrial union movement, the Civil Rights Movement, the feminist movement, and the environmental movement. Changes in government were the end result in every case. They usually don't go far enough, but that just means the next cycle of movement activism is necessary.
    Studies of social movements in the United States also show that the necessary social disruption has to be created through the principled use of strategic nonviolence. Any form of violence, whether property damage or physical battles with opponents and police, will turn off the great majority of Americans and bring down overwhelming police and military repression.
    For the past 10-15 years the usefulness of an exclusive focus on nonviolence has been questioned by new activists. They do not see much use in the carefully orchestrated acts of civil disobedience to which it is often reduced, where the time and place of arrest have been negotiated beforehand with the police. They have come to see nonviolence as primarily a philosophy, a religious sentiment, or a moral renunciation of violence, or even as a New Age belief in a way to create win-win situations for all concerned if there is enough love and understanding.
    However, the strategic nonviolence I am talking about is far more than that. It is a strategy for winning in conflicts where there are real differences between the adversaries, including class antagonisms. As a form of conflict, nonviolent direct action is best understood in terms of the same basic concepts that are used to understand violent (military) conflicts, because the underlying reality in both cases is the engagement in conflict over opposing perspectives and interests. Thus the phrase "strategic nonviolence," which is in fact what trade union organizers practice through strikes and what civil rights leaders employed through sit-ins, freedom rides, and boycotts. It is a form of struggle that is focused on prevailing despite the fact that the opponents -- usually a government or power elite -- have superior resources and are likely to use one or another form of violence if they think it can succeed. ..."

See also James P. Hogan's "Voyage From Yesteryear":
    http://www.jamesphogan.com/books/info.php?titleID=29&cmd=summary [jamesphogan.com]
"The book has an interesting corollary. Around about the mid eighties, I received a letter notifying me that the story had been serialized in an underground Polish s.f. magazine. They hadn't exactly "stolen" it, the publishers explained, but had credited zlotys to an account in my name there, so if I ever decided to take a holiday in Poland the expenses would be covered (there was no exchange mechanism with Western currencies at that time). Then the story started surfacing in other countries of Eastern Europe, by all accounts to an enthusiastic reception. What they liked there, apparently, was the updated "Ghandiesque" formula on how bring down an oppressive regime when it's got all the guns. And a couple of years later, they were all doing it!"

legal? (0)

Anonymous Coward | more than 2 years ago | (#36853092)

but its public domain right? Nothing illegal about it then right?

Re:legal? (1)

Anonymous Coward | more than 2 years ago | (#36853152)

In this day and age it is impossible to tell whether or not it is illegal. The truth is it might not matter. If you download it and someone in the Justice Department thinks it is illegal you might very well lose your job and will at least have to pay for a lawyer to defend yourself.

Is the issue worth the risk? Everybody thinking about clicking that link has to decide for themselves.

Re:legal? (3, Informative)

Kjella (173770) | more than 2 years ago | (#36853172)

but its public domain right? Nothing illegal about it then right?

Making copies of a copy you have, no. But you still have to get that copy in a legal way, you don't have the right to violate terms of services or laws to get it. In that sense it's irrelevant whether the works he downloaded from JSTOR were copyrighted or not.

Re:legal? (3, Funny)

Duradin (1261418) | more than 2 years ago | (#36853278)

So you're saying all those public domain works *aren't* free for the taking at Barnes and Noble?

Re:legal? (4, Funny)

martin-boundary (547041) | more than 2 years ago | (#36853190)

No, it's volunteer work written up and edited for free for the benefit of mankind, then locked up by transfer of copyright and published very expensively. If you don't pay $19 for each article you read, then the world will be destabilized and fall into a spontaneously created black hole, and baby Jesus will weep from his expensive condo on Mount Olympus, Mars.

so where does Xenu fit into this? (1)

Lead Butthead (321013) | more than 2 years ago | (#36853604)

I mean, when you started mentioning black hole and Mt Olympus on Mars, I keep expecting that somehow the evil overlord Xenu had a hand in the matter.

Piratebay (0)

Anonymous Coward | more than 2 years ago | (#36853148)

Piratebay is illegal(and thus blocked by every ISP) in Denmark.

I guess the only thing standing between me and omniscience is my laziness, in that I simply cannot muster the will to change my DNS settings to use OpenDNS.

Re:Piratebay (0)

Anonymous Coward | more than 2 years ago | (#36853294)

Piratebay is illegal(and thus blocked by every ISP) in Denmark.

Not all of them:

dig +short @resolver0.perspektivbredband.net -t a thepiratebay.org
194.71.107.15

Copy and paste, save as .eml, open in Thunderbird (0)

Anonymous Coward | more than 2 years ago | (#36853364)

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Disregard that. Slashdot is stupid. (0)

Anonymous Coward | more than 2 years ago | (#36853406)

Preview displayed the entire post, but when posted, it truncated the post, resulting in an invalid torrent file.

Re:Copy and paste, save as .eml, open in Thunderbi (1)

AndrewBuck (1120597) | more than 2 years ago | (#36853468)

This is kind of a clever post, however I have to wonder why you didn't just post the .torrent file directly as they are normally plaintext and much shorter than the binary-ascii encoded e-mail file that you posted.

-Buck

Re:Copy and paste, save as .eml, open in Thunderbi (1)

SockPuppetOfTheWeek (1910282) | more than 2 years ago | (#36853506)

It wasn't plain text. But Slashdot had a post size limit that the post preview didn't have, so it didn't work anyway. Mirror posted below; hopefully people can access that.

blocked (0)

Anonymous Coward | more than 2 years ago | (#36853168)

cant download this

Ha! (1)

gstoddart (321705) | more than 2 years ago | (#36853184)

Public domain? How quaint ... Do we still have that? Or will they reassert copyright over it as a result of publishing it? :(

I have little faith in this (but I applaud anybody who actually left this in the public domain).

Subtle Bitcoin spam (0)

Anonymous Coward | more than 2 years ago | (#36853188)

Nice try, Slashdot.

He's right about academic publishing (4, Interesting)

15Bit (940730) | more than 2 years ago | (#36853218)

I know a lot of academics are becoming annoyed by the publishers and their business models. Frankly its a disgrace that most research isn't freely available to the general public. More often than not they have paid for it via taxation and university fees (most research, at least in europe where i am, is taxpayer funded). Add to that the fact that the academics do the work, write the papers, review the papers (for free i might add) and mostly act as journal editors (for free again), and its hard to see really what the publishers are doing beyond hosting the PDF.

Oh and the best bit - when you submit your paper to the publisher, you also sign over copyright. So they even own all the taxpayer funded work. Actually i was wrong at the start, its beyond a disgrace.

Re:He's right about academic publishing (0)

Anonymous Coward | more than 2 years ago | (#36853348)

so helping organize all this and hosting the pdf doesn't cost anything?

Re:He's right about academic publishing (1)

Anonymous Coward | more than 2 years ago | (#36853422)

It doesn't cost $19 per copy, that's for damn sure.

Re:He's right about academic publishing (2)

leenks (906881) | more than 2 years ago | (#36853590)

And the rest. Some journals charge up to £100 per paper to non-subscribers.

Re:He's right about academic publishing (1)

ThorGod (456163) | more than 2 years ago | (#36853400)

I hear that so loud and clear. Journal articles make up a huge portion of the disciplines I've been a part of (economics, mathematics). Sure, reading articles all day wont teach you all you need to know, but it will teach you something*. At a time where science and mathematics aren't properly valued by public policy (NASA and looming STEM budget cuts come to mind), society needs a strong discussion between the lay audience and specialists.

*That something' will be more valuable than non-academic, not-peer reviewed internet-sources.

Open-access is the answer (3, Interesting)

backwardMechanic (959818) | more than 2 years ago | (#36853402)

There is a better way. Various groups are seriously trying to push open-access publishing, Frontiers being one example (frontiersin.org). When you look into the problem a little more closely, you find that publishing isn't free. Hosting the PDF is cheap, but somebody has to produce it in the first place and maintain a website. And before that, someone has to arrange for the peer-review to happen, find an editorial board and reviewers, etc. Most open-access outfits use the publisher-pays model - i.e. you pay to have your article published, and then anyone can download it for free. The trouble is this shifts the payments from the largely invisible library subscriptions (taken from university staff overheads) to a very direct, comes-off-your-grant payment. But it is still a better model - we just need to see publishing become a recognised cost in grants. Your article is then, subject to peer review, freely available to anyone who wants it - an the authors retain copyright. Think about it next time you're publishing.

Now, does anyone want to explain why impact factors are a crap, self-serving metric that promotes more rather than better articles?

Re:Open-access is the answer (3, Insightful)

ceoyoyo (59147) | more than 2 years ago | (#36853886)

I love open access, and I have a couple of things published that way (just got invited to do another book chapter, which I'll squeeze in if at all possible), but the publication costs can really hit hard. The PLOS journals are $1350US on the cheap end (PLOS One - not sure why it's cheapest) to $2250US or $2900US for the others. It's hard to explain to a granting agency (or your supervisor, or a grant administrator) why you want to spend $3000 on a publication in a low impact factor journal instead of nothing on a pub in a well recognized journal.

I think the solution to this problem is going to have to involve the libraries. A little support from them for reputable open journals (there are quite a few not so reputable ones) would go a long way.

Re:He's right about academic publishing (3, Interesting)

Mr. Underbridge (666784) | more than 2 years ago | (#36853410)

I know a lot of academics are becoming annoyed by the publishers and their business models. Frankly its a disgrace that most research isn't freely available to the general public. More often than not they have paid for it via taxation and university fees (most research, at least in europe where i am, is taxpayer funded). Add to that the fact that the academics do the work, write the papers, review the papers (for free i might add) and mostly act as journal editors (for free again), and its hard to see really what the publishers are doing beyond hosting the PDF.

I'll divide my response to this into two categories: journals published by nonprofit academic societies, and for-profit journals.

For the most part, the for-profits can, in my opinion, go die in a fire. So there's that.

The non-profits are much more complicated. These organizations aren't spending lots of money on yachts for CEOs, they're using their funds for (in many cases) education, running conferences, scholarships, and the costs of running and organizing the journals. If you reduce the costs of the journals, a laudable goal of course, you reduce the funds available for their other goals. Also, I doubt highly it's as easy to operate a well-run organization as you portray. It takes copy editors, layout editors, graphics people, and people to simply keep the gears turning. Academics do not do these things.

So basically, the answer is "it's complicated, and it's harder than you think."

Re:He's right about academic publishing (1)

PvtVoid (1252388) | more than 2 years ago | (#36853558)

The non-profits are much more complicated. These organizations aren't spending lots of money on yachts for CEOs, they're using their funds for (in many cases) education, running conferences, scholarships, and the costs of running and organizing the journals. If you reduce the costs of the journals, a laudable goal of course, you reduce the funds available for their other goals.

Parent is right on. I pretty much only referee for non-profits these days. Fuck Elsevier.

What I think has in practice be the primary problem with open access, at least in the physical sciences, is that a lot of bottom feeders have exploited the idea to form an archipelago of vanity presses around the outskirts of the more mainstream journals.

Step 1: Charge authors for "open access"
Step 2: Have minimal publication standards
Step 3: Profit!

There need to be a few credible organizing bodies to lend an imprimatur to a few good journals. PLoS has done this to an extent for biological sciences, but I think the physical sciences are way behind. I think this is in part because physical science have arXiv, which more-or-less makes journal access moot anyway.

Re:He's right about academic publishing (1)

leenks (906881) | more than 2 years ago | (#36853600)

Citeseer is a pretty good filter imo. Well cited articles tend to be better than less cited ones in most fields. In those fields where there are few well cited papers, well, every paper is worth reading (or none of them are).

Re:He's right about academic publishing (3, Insightful)

the gnat (153162) | more than 2 years ago | (#36853588)

So basically, the answer is "it's complicated, and it's harder than you think."

Speaking both as both a producer and consumer of scientific articles, there is actually a simple answer to this: granting agencies need to mandate open-access publishing as a condition of funding. This still costs money, obviously, but I think there's ample justification for the agencies taking this into account when calculating awards. There should be a limit, of course - publishing open-access in Nature costs something like $7000, compared to $1500 for most non-profit journals.

Howard Hughes Medical Institute already started requiring this several years ago, and it effectively forced the publisher Elsevier to accept its terms. The NIH eventually went even further and mandated that all future NIH-funded articles needed to be uploaded to the PubMed Central database after six months. I don't think they even agreed to compensate the journal publishers; NIH-funded research makes up such a huge fraction of biomedical publications that they can do whatever they want. Since virtually everyone, including biotech and pharma companies, despise the scientific publishers, there is considerable political support for further moves in this direction.

Re:He's right about academic publishing (1)

TooMuchToDo (882796) | more than 2 years ago | (#36853766)

Why not just cut journals out completely and rely on PubMed Central as the authoritative source?

Re:He's right about academic publishing (2)

ceoyoyo (59147) | more than 2 years ago | (#36853906)

PubMed doesn't have the organizational or production resources to take over review and publication of every paper in medicine/biotech. That doesn't mean they couldn't eventually, but it certainly won't happen overnight.

Besides, having one journal to rule them all (which is what PubMed would become) isn't such a hot idea either.

Re:He's right about academic publishing (0)

Anonymous Coward | more than 2 years ago | (#36853550)

All of that is true. But according to the article, the guy was arrested for:

"In a press release, Ms. Ortiz’s office said that Mr. Swartz broke into a restricted area of M.I.T. and entered a computer wiring closet. Mr. Swartz apparently then accessed the M.I.T. computer network and took millions of documents from JSTOR."

If he downloaded a bunch of out-of-copyright documents from JSTOR from a system I had legitimate access to, that would be one thing, and I'd have some sympathy for the guy. But this apparently wasn't legitimate access. He broke into a system in order to get the documents. If he broke into the library or someone's office in order to photocopy a bunch of out-of-copyright books he would have been arrested for the break-in, not the copying.

Nothingis stopping this guy from walking into the local library that has Philosophical Transactions, scanning the pre-1920s copies, and making them available for free himself. Having something out-of-copyright/in the public domain allows it, and I've done it with some older papers I've used in my research. I've then made them available to colleagues that need them because there are no restrictions anymore. But that right to copy a work does *NOT* guarantee that you can take someone else's copy. It's not as if the book sitting on someone's shelf magically becomes everyone's property once copyright expires into the public domain. It would still be stealing to take it from their shelf without permission. Same for Phil. Trans if you are accessing it illegally. You can't just take JSTOR's copies. If they provide them to you legitimately, it's an open question whether they can assert any subsequent control over the copying (I suspect not if the work is public domain), but that's not what has been done.

In the real world JSTOR receives a lot of donations [wikipedia.org] , but they have to charge for some types of access in order to offset the not-insignificant hosting fees. If someone wanted to undercut the apparently exorbitant prices that JSTOR charges for access to out-of-copyright issues someone could try to start a competing service. Instead, this guy basically ripped-off JSTOR's hard work.

Hell, I'd like all this stuff to be free too, but the solution is to donate enough to JSTOR that it doesn't have to charge for access or scan them yourself and put them on your website for free. He was too lazy for the latter and too cheap for the former. He may be right about academic publishing, but that doesn't make what he did right.

Re:He's right about academic publishing (1)

martin-boundary (547041) | more than 2 years ago | (#36853898)

In the real world JSTOR receives a lot of donations, but they have to charge for some types of access in order to offset the not-insignificant hosting fees. [...]

Not so, only if they actually want to keep central servers. Whenever there is a single server that's supposed to serve everybody, then that's going to cause a lot of web traffic to and from a single node. It's web economics 101. So the hosting costs are going through the roof, but only because they made a strategic blunder in their thinking. With a distributed architecture, the traffic is spread over many nodes, reducing costs on each node proportionately. The downside is they lose exclusive control, so if that's not acceptable, then the real issue isn't costs, but rather unwillingness to cede control, and that's the source of the expense.

Hell, I'd like all this stuff to be free too, but the solution is to donate enough to JSTOR that it doesn't have to charge for access or scan them yourself and put them on your website for free.

Donating to JSTOR is no permanent solution, unless they fix the strategic blunder mentioned above. The correct solution is for JSTOR to allow free mirrorring of its archive by the public. That way, people and orgs around the world can host the scans, and pay for their local traffic. This will cause JSTOR's traffic to drop, and lower its hosting costs permanently.

Of course, this means JSTOR is no longer the sole owner of the archive, and the question is therefore: Is JSTOR's priority to make journal articles available to the public, or it its priority to be the gatekeeper of journal articles? The former is cheap, the latter will always cost money.

Re:He's right about academic publishing (1)

pz (113803) | more than 2 years ago | (#36853976)

I hear this argument all the time, and it misses the biggest contribution of journals: reputation. In the present time, journals contribute greatly by allowing certain papers to be associated with their name, and disallowing others. I'm not talking just about peer review, but the initial editorial review prior to peer review which, for high-impact journals, is where most of the rejections originate.

When you publish in Nature, for example, you are effectively guaranteed a much bigger audience than publishing in South Saskatchewan Biology (apologies to my Canadian friends for making up a podunk-sounding journal) because historically Nature papers are good, and people understand that. The journal imprimatur under which a paper appears is an estimate of the importance of the paper.

Freely published papers, like appear in some open-access catch-all journals, are essentially worthless to the modern academician because he lacks the time to sift through all the crud. When viewed in this context, high profile journals are providing a valuation service. An important valuation service.

The article seems to imply (0, Flamebait)

bugs2squash (1132591) | more than 2 years ago | (#36853234)

that it is somehow immoral to charge $8 to fetch an out-of-copyright article. I don;t see it that way at all. The publisher has a legitimate right to cover the costs of hosting the material and making it available, it's similar to buying an copy of "Treasure Island" I would expect to pay for a printed copy of it at a bookshop even though the content is in the public domain..

Re:The article seems to imply (0)

Anonymous Coward | more than 2 years ago | (#36853258)

and you seem to imply that it is somehow immoral to upload those out-of-copyright articles for free. apparently, greg maxwell doesn't see it that way at all

Re:The article seems to imply (1, Insightful)

nurb432 (527695) | more than 2 years ago | (#36853276)

it is somehow immoral to charge $8 to fetch an out-of-copyright article

No its immoral to charge anything for any bit of information.

Re:The article seems to imply (1)

ceoyoyo (59147) | more than 2 years ago | (#36853914)

As somebody who probably makes his living in an information-based job, be careful.

Re:The article seems to imply (1)

nurb432 (527695) | more than 2 years ago | (#36854034)

I stand by my statement. that *information* should always be free and not be used as a tool to control people. You can charge a nominal fee for the distribution device.. ( such as a printed book )

And if this 'somebody' wants to disagree to my face, that is their right, even tho i could care less.

Re:The article seems to imply (0)

Anonymous Coward | more than 2 years ago | (#36853282)

There is no "the publisher" anymore for these.

They are public domain, get over it. These are publications that should be freely available to anyone - including the possibility to be republished by anyone.

Getting a hard copy is making it acceptable to be paid for the -copying- costs, but that's it.

8-9$ for an electronic public domain document is nuts and in no way acceptable.

Re:The article seems to imply (2)

ceoyoyo (59147) | more than 2 years ago | (#36853918)

I guess they are. You just have to go down into the basement of a university library that's old enough to have them, and make a photocopy/scan. Then you can do whatever you want.

When you're done, post a link to Slashdot please - I'm sure we'd all love to have access to these. I personally hate having to trek over to the library when I need an older paper.

FYI - some of the older stuff HAS been scanned and put up on the web for free. I was delighted to find Fourier's original paper/book online when I was writing my thesis.

Re:The article seems to imply (2)

Hatta (162192) | more than 2 years ago | (#36853372)

No, the immoral part is using the law to stop someone from providing those same public domain articles for cheaper.

Re:The article seems to imply (0)

Anonymous Coward | more than 2 years ago | (#36853934)

Bingo!

Re:The article seems to imply (2)

vux984 (928602) | more than 2 years ago | (#36853426)

that it is somehow immoral to charge $8 to fetch an out-of-copyright article.

If its out of copyright, they shouldn't be the only source, and the market should rapidly come up with alternative sources that are priced at what the market will bear.

Its not inherently immoral to charge $8 for it... but it does raise eyebrows that they are ABLE to charge $8 for it. If they can't manage to "cover the costs of hosting the material and making it available and still turn a profit for less" then surely the market can find another provider who can... given that its not copy protected any more... what exactly is the obstacle?

Are they somehow inhibiting the dissemination of out-of-copyright public-domain materials to protect a monopolisitic pricing structure for those materials? That does start to sound like its moving into immoral territory.

Re:The article seems to imply (1)

Anonymous Coward | more than 2 years ago | (#36853580)

The publisher has a legitimate right to cover the costs of hosting the material and making it available

Sure, they have a right to cover their costs. They weren't trying to just cover their costs, though. If they weren't trying to profit off it, they wouldn't have been upset when someone undercut their price.

rational ignorance (3, Insightful)

epine (68316) | more than 2 years ago | (#36853248)

There's a connection here to rational ignorance. Rational ignorance is when you don't bother to understand and complain about the sugar quota, because it's only costing you a few dollars per year, whereas informing yourself and complaining about it would cost a lot more.

From George Will on America, Politics, and Baseball [econtalk.org]

It's the old point about the law that governs Washington is the law that concentrated benefits and dispersed costs. That's why we have sugar quotas; 308 million Americans eat sugar; a few thousand Americans grow sugar. We have sugar quotas. Why? Concentrated benefits, dispersed costs. Probably told this story on EconTalk before, but when I mentioned my distress over that fact to a Congressional staffer, he said--and I think I used hundreds of people grow sugar--he said: Well, it's more like a dozen. Even more depressing.

From An Interview with Milton Friedman [econlib.org]

Very little. Because it's not in the self-interest of the recipients to figure it out. What housewife is going to spend the time to save the extra moneyâ"maybe it's $5.00 or $10.00 a year she pays extra on sugar? It doesn't pay to try to figure out. What you're dealing with is rational ignorance. The rational part is what I want to emphasize. It's not ignorance that is avoidable because it's rational to be ignorant.

The problem with this is that the sugar families note that hardly anyone is actively complaining and use this to argue "well, no one complains, so it's all right".

In the courts, the flow of money is tangible, whereas pervasive resentment masked by rational ignorance is not. JSTOR will attempt to use this to their advantage. The only way to drive a wedge into this equation is to make both sides tangible.

Re:rational ignorance (1)

epine (68316) | more than 2 years ago | (#36853306)

s/$(previous_lame_subject_line)/rational ignorance meets punctured equilibrium

When your entrenched adversary of nickle-and-diming shows a moment of weakness, it's time for rational mob psychology.

Waiting for the GiB / GB arguments (1)

PNutts (199112) | more than 2 years ago | (#36853260)

in 3... 2... 1...

Re:Waiting for the GiB / GB arguments (0)

Anonymous Coward | more than 2 years ago | (#36853376)

0... -1... -2...

Re:Waiting for the GiB / GB arguments (0)

Anonymous Coward | more than 2 years ago | (#36854048)

What is there to argue about? One is base-10; one is binary.

Who pays the workers? (4, Insightful)

z-j-y (1056250) | more than 2 years ago | (#36853274)

These old papers weren't published directly on internet in 1923. Someone had to transfer all of them from physical form to digital form, page by page. That's is a huge amount of work. Should we all be entitled to enjoy them free of charge? So who's paying the workers?

Re:Who pays the workers? (1)

mykos (1627575) | more than 2 years ago | (#36853324)

The people who contracted them to do the work are the ones who should be paying them.

If the workers did the work for mankind, they have already received the award they sought--satisfaction in the spreading of knowledge.

If the workers did the work for money, they have been justly compensated.

If the workers expected money for work that nobody solicited, they are idiots.

Re:Who pays the workers? (2)

ceoyoyo (59147) | more than 2 years ago | (#36853936)

Um, presumably the same organization that contracted the workers to scan the stuff is the one that's selling the result, to recover costs.

$8/paper sounds like a lot, but there are quite a few papers and they're not exactly hot sellers. It's wonderful that they ARE available, and I'd gladly pay $8 for a copy of an old paper I needed, rather than have to find it, possibly to travel to it's location, and photocopy it myself.

The business model surrounding NEW papers is a bit of a problem, but I don't see the issue with these public domain ones. If you don't want to pay the $8 for company X's scan, go and scan it yourself. And share with us please. If you're reputable, you might even be able to charge a bit....

Doc Brown? (2)

Tink2000 (524407) | more than 2 years ago | (#36853280)

I could have sworn GB was short for gigabyte. When did that stop? Why didn't I get the memo? Or is it a jigabyte?

Re:Doc Brown? (0)

Anonymous Coward | more than 2 years ago | (#36853514)

December 1998. http://physics.nist.gov/cuu/Units/binary.html

The problem is that Kilo means 1000, a Kilobyte (K) should mean 1000 bytes. They invented the Kiba (Ki)prefix which is 1024 instead. 1 Kibabyte, which is 1024 bytes, a more common number to use in Computers. Thus a Mebibyte (MiB) is 1024 KiB, a Gibibyte (GiB) is 1024 MiB, a Tebibyte (TiB) is 1024 GiB.

Re:Doc Brown? (1)

ais523 (1172701) | more than 2 years ago | (#36853516)

With SI prefixes, GB = gigabyte = units of a billion bytes, GiB = gibibytes = units of 0x40000000 = 1073741824 bytes. Quite a few people think that this terminology is stupid, or at least stupidly-named (I mean, "gibibyte"?), but at least it's accurate, and it's nice to know exactly whether the units are based on powers of 2 or of 10.

Re:Doc Brown? (1)

Rising Ape (1620461) | more than 2 years ago | (#36853688)

I thought the idea was to use the GB (base 10) version for end users, to be consistent with every other use of the SI prefixes, and GiB for when it's actually more convenient to use the binary version, e.g. hardware design, programming, that kind of thing. Doesn't seem to have worked out that way though - file sizes aren't naturally powers of two.

Re:Doc Brown? (1)

Anonymous Coward | more than 2 years ago | (#36854038)

Fuck that. NIST doesn't have the authority to change words already in use. There was no misunderstanding -ONLY HD manufacturers used 10/100/1000 and *EVERYONE* knew it. No problem. Someone at NIST is just fucking gay. And so is anyone who uses this bullshit word.

TAKE A STAND. REFUSE TO RECOGNIZE GIBI's MIBI's and KIBI's!

Sadly, that is exactly the BENEFIT of copyright (3, Insightful)

leehwtsohg (618675) | more than 2 years ago | (#36853424)

The benefit of giving someone the copyright is so that they can distribute copies to everybody (for a cost, of course, if they so desire), without fear that it might be copied. Whereas if someone has the only copy, but can not get a copyright, then they will prevent anyone from obtaining the document. So, even if something is in the public domain, you don't automatically get a right to have access to the work in order to copy it.

Protection from access can by via lock (royal society), or can be attempted by trying to give you access only if you sign some agreement (JSTOR).
I think also under some conditions, the original work is under public domain, but a derivative (say retranslation, or new photo, or some such) gets a new copyright.

So, it isn't just important that the a work is in the public domain, but that many people actually have copies of it.

Re:Sadly, that is exactly the BENEFIT of copyright (0)

Anonymous Coward | more than 2 years ago | (#36853676)

PUBLIC DOMAIN. Do you understand it? Copying it is not a new work, durrr.

Re:Sadly, that is exactly the BENEFIT of copyright (1)

ceoyoyo (59147) | more than 2 years ago | (#36853942)

Scanning it SHOULD be (and I think it probably is). Same with translations. Both require work, but can be done by anyone. Copyright on the new format/language encourages someone to do it, but if they get carried away charging, someone else can come along and compete.

Re:Sadly, that is exactly the BENEFIT of copyright (2)

leehwtsohg (618675) | more than 2 years ago | (#36853950)

Then why are classical scores under copyright? Why do we need musopen.org?

Re:Sadly, that is exactly the BENEFIT of copyright (1)

Anonymous Coward | more than 2 years ago | (#36853732)

Of course, in reality, that "benefit" is purely delusional, and not attached to reality in any way. Let me explain:

Who exactly is the magical entity you call "they", that can prevent me from distributing a "copyrighted" piece of information to somebody else, when neither me nor him tells anybody about that distribution?

In reality, there is no such entity. Because nobody can listen in on all social interaction. It is hence fully obvious and easily provable, that it is physically impossible to enforce copyright, as long as there isn't a DRM/TCPA chip right in our heads. Even in a totalitarian system. Which is why I call it a delusion.

The thing is: The intention of a system that lets creators benefit from their creation, is a good one. But copyright in completely unrelated to that intention. It is not authors' right or German Urheberrecht. It is a publishers' right. Which in practice has led to doing more harm than good to the actual creators.
And even an authors' right is pointless, as I will prove here:

So... The point is that creators should benefit from their creation.
Well, first we have to ask: Why exactly?
And the answer is: Because it is work. And if that work results in something good for somebody, it makes sense to support the one doing the work, so we continue to get the good results.
But then, why don't we simply call it what it is: A service! :)

Yes. It's that simple. Follow the same rules as any other service, and you got a proven-to-work business model with good profits and adherence to physical reality. :)

So how does this look in practice?
Well, you do work, you get paid for the work. Simple.
And now the beautiful part: Since you already earned the money you demanded and deserved, you don't have to fear further copying and distribution around the world.

So the only reason for the existence of copyright, is that a certain few people want to get more money, without doing more actual work. They want to free-load.
Which now makes it clear, why they know their way so well around calling others free-loaders. ^^

Re:Sadly, that is exactly the BENEFIT of copyright (1)

leehwtsohg (618675) | more than 2 years ago | (#36853984)

Bah! None of the commenters got what I wanted to say, which means I wasn't clear.

When you don't give someone a right to own a copyright, but they still want to control that right, they put the original work under lock and key so that no one has access to it, and thus they do control the right to copy. "If you wana copy, you pay a zillion somethings, and if you allow anyone else to copy from you, you know what will happen to you..."

So you are right that the government gives the copyright to the creator so that for a limited time she can gain some money from the work. But it isn't just in order for the artist to make money. Why would the government care so much for someone to make money? The idea is to allow the artist to make money so that she'll distribute her work for others to enjoy it, instead of just showing it to her friends. And, of course to give an incentive to create more works.

So, when (and if) the work goes into public domain, you have to make sure that there are available copies for everybody to copy from, otherwise the owner will restrict access to their exclusive physical copies.

I bet that wasn't clear either.

Re:Sadly, that is exactly the BENEFIT of copyright (0)

ka9dgx (72702) | more than 2 years ago | (#36853912)

Wrong

Copyright is a social contract, in which the Government grants a monopoly for a limited amount of time over the publishing of a work for profit, in exchange for a social good, the eventual transfer of that work into the public domain.

Disney, et al. have perverted this social contract into a pseudo-property right, and have the full force of the threat of PMITA prison to try to keep people from sharing things, against evidence that people who share actually buy MORE copyrighted materials from publishers.

This whole thing is a mess, but I think it's important to know the original reasons things were set up so we can do it right when we set it up all over again after the collapse of the US in the next few years.

Re:Sadly, that is exactly the BENEFIT of copyright (1)

leehwtsohg (618675) | more than 2 years ago | (#36854072)

Wrong

Copyright is a social contract, in which the Government grants a monopoly for a limited amount of time over the publishing of a work for profit, in exchange for a social good, the eventual transfer of that work into the public domain.

No, I don't think I'm wrong. At least not in this point. "public domain" is a term that defines what happens to work when it isn't under copyright
"Works are in the public domain if they are not covered by intellectual property rights at all, if the intellectual property rights have expired, or if the intellectual property rights are forfeited" (thus sayeth the all-knowing wikipedia). So, before government granted anyone the right to own the copyright, everything was in the public domain. So, the exchange isn't "I give you copyright, you put it in the public domain", because it is already in the public domain before these laws were invented. Instead it is "I give you copyright for a limited time, you create the work and distribute it"

Disney, et al. have perverted this social contract into a pseudo-property right, and have the full force of the threat of PMITA prison to try to keep people from sharing things, against evidence that people who share actually buy MORE copyrighted materials from publishers.

This whole thing is a mess, but I think it's important to know the original reasons things were set up so we can do it right when we set it up all over again after the collapse of the US in the next few years.

Here I agree (well, to some of what you said). "The people/elected government" made a contract with Walt Disney that he'd make cute movies about a mouse and make money distributing it for 56 years (28+28). But then, when the 56 years were over, the property of the people wasn't returned to them. Instead a new contract was made between the Disney company and politicians, that they will allow the company to keep holding what isn't hers, and in exchange the company will donate funds to the politicians pockets.

Librarians (4, Insightful)

sunfly (1248694) | more than 2 years ago | (#36853446)

I thought the reason for librarians is to make data easily found by users of the library. Then I go to do research and am astonished by the amount of effort required to find anything in digital format. I think my mom could come up with a better system... the librarians are failing.

want a download that works (0)

Anonymous Coward | more than 2 years ago | (#36853458)

http://btjunkie.org/torrent/Papers-from-Philosophical-Transactions-of-the-Royal-Society-fro/4358577d58aa66beaceb71518ec417ab3764965024a9

Of all the choices, why pick on JSTOR????? (3, Insightful)

Anonymous Coward | more than 2 years ago | (#36853662)

Of all the academic paper databases to pick on, why JSTOR? It's a non-profit institution that tries to make as much as possible available at low cost. Zero cost? No. They have bills to pay too. And while I understand the principle that if it is out of copyright, it would be ideal if it were freely available to everyone, scanning thousands of documents takes time (i.e. money if you are hiring people to do it) and hosting thousands of documents for access by thousands of people costs money too.

If people want this to change, they have two legitimate options:
1) scan the old, out-of-copyright papers in themselves and make them available for free in a volunteer, "open" effort (paying for the website hosting is left as an exercise for the reader)
2) donate enough to JSTOR that they don't have to charge for access to public domain works anymore (if you have boatloads of money, make it a condition)

Ripping off JSTOR's hard work scanning in documents isn't a solution even if we are talking about public domain materials. "Public domain" doesn't mean "free access" as in $$$, it means "free to copy", as in if you can get an original copy, copyright does not prohibit you from copying it and doing whatever you want with it. If you've gotten access illegally in the first place, that's a whole other equation. You might not be brought up on copyright charges, but you could get charged with a different crime.

Re:Of all the choices, why pick on JSTOR????? (2, Insightful)

ceoyoyo (59147) | more than 2 years ago | (#36853960)

It's too bad you published AC. Mods - this needs to be a +5 Insightful/Informative.

Public domain means you can take a copy of the original and do what you want with it. It doesn't mean you're entitled for someone to do a bunch of work to put it in a convenient format, and then spoon feed it to you.

Yes, if the copies of the original are restricted unreasonably that's a problem. But THAT's the problem, not someone trying to recover their costs for providing a useful service. Particularly not a NON-PROFIT doing so.

YOYU FAIL IT (-1)

Anonymous Coward | more than 2 years ago | (#36853902)

stagnant. As Linux server crashes users. BSD/OS of Wal)nut Crrek,
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