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# A Piezoelectric Pacemaker That Is Powered By Your Heartbeat

#### samzenpus posted about 2 years ago | from the no-batteries-required dept.

84

MrSeb writes "Engineers at the University of Michigan have created a pacemaker that is powered by the beating of your heart — no batteries required. The technology behind this new infinite-duration pacemaker is piezoelectricity. Piezoelectricity is is literally 'pressure electricity,' and it relates to certain materials that generate tiny amounts of electricity when deformed by an external force — which, in the case of the perpetual pacemaker, the vibrations in your chest as your heart pumps blood around your body. Piezoelectric devices generate very small amounts of power — on the order of tens of milliwatts — but it turns out that pacemakers require very little power. In testing, the researchers' energy harvester generated 10 times the required the power to keep a pacemaker firing. Currently, pacemakers are battery powered — and the battery generally need to be replaced every few years, which requires surgery. According M. Amin Karami, the lead researcher, 'Many of the patients are children who live with pacemakers for many years,' he said. 'You can imagine how many operations they are spared if this new technology is implemented.' This piezoelectric energy harvester is about half the size of a conventional battery, too, which is presumably a good thing."

Vote Romney!

### Re:First! (-1, Offtopic)

#### Anonymous Coward | about 2 years ago | (#41887965)

I live in a part of Colorado that is heavily infested with Mormons.

I asked an older Mormon the other day, "what do you think about Romney"? and he said, "well, he's better than that nigger".

Truth is, the Mormons/Masons are the KKK. The Mormons believe that Cain was punished by God and received a 'flat nose' and 'dark skin'.

They also take an oath where they cut across their throat and bowels not to reveal the secrets of the cult.

They wear underwear (after they visit the temple) with masonic symbols on them..

They harass, even murder people who leave the cult, and threaten to reveal secrets.

The CIA, FBI is FULL of Mormons....

### Re:First! (0)

#### Papaspud (2562773) | about 2 years ago | (#41889883)

STFU, you don't have a clue

### super loose, wet cunt (-1)

#### Anonymous Coward | about 2 years ago | (#41887935)

I had a duplex a few years back, when I moved in all I thought was SCORE!! My neighbors where so fuckin hot, perfect large tits, nice ass, they were just gorgeous (it was summer and they were going to the beach to layout, so they were in their bikinis). But then that night, well it was 4am, I woke up to the loudest hardest sex noises I have ever heard! Just screaming and moaning, and it went on for over an hour! I had no idea where it was coming from because I was hearing it from out my bedroom window, I thought it was coming from the large apartment right across from me, and there were too many windows to know which one, so I tried falling back asleep and finally I did. Anyways, the next day I was downstairs watching TV and it started again... except this time my kitchen cupboard doors were shaking and rattling! I was like holy shit... this time it only lasted a few minutes, all I could think of was I have fuckin super hot girls for neighbors and I will fuck these woman one of these days. This went on for about a month, except it was never as loud or as rough as that first night time I heard the sex(I always felt really awkward bringing it up...). Over time I kept getting more and more suspicious, because there was never any noise from the guy(s)... I never heard guys over, nothing... until one day I put my ear up to wall(yes creepy as fuck and I even felt weird doing it)... My two fuckin hot ass neighbors were lesbians and fucking their brains out just constantly! I thought it was kinda cool, but I thought about it and got annoyed about the whole situation... why in the world are there two sexy woman fucking each other? They should be fucking men(well, me), so I got a plan(to at least quiet them)... Being from Minnesota, we are all passive aggressive as fuck, so I waited until they started having loud rough sex again... and I cranked my nice surround system up to near max... I was not playing music though, I was playing a recording of monkeys or gorillas( i don't know what kind of fuckin primates they were), it was one of those recording of a monkey turf war, so it was just loud monkey noises... I did this until they stopped... then when they started again I played it again... this happened 2-3 times... never again did I hear them have sex.

Then a month later those pretentious fucks told my landlord on me because I had loud sex one night I brought a chick home from the bar and fucked her brains out...

### Re:super loose, wet cunt (-1)

#### Anonymous Coward | about 2 years ago | (#41888045)

in ur rant you dont mention you have a wife. i wonder why?
maybe thats because you are such a wonderful guy huh.
did you beat ur wife or catch her with someone who was a bit nicer to her. either way you are a real man right?

### Before somebody asks . . . (1)

#### Mitchell314 (1576581) | about 2 years ago | (#41887985)

No, the device does not violate conservation of energy.

Anyways, nice technology. I hope this really works; so much awesome technology seems to go out as a puff of vaporware.

### Re:Before somebody asks . . . (0)

#### Trepidity (597) | about 2 years ago | (#41888011)

To elaborate, the reason why is basically the same as why a battery-backed UPS charged off mains electricity doesn't violate conservation of energy: it charges off an energy source while that source is still good, in order to use the power in case the energy source cuts off.

### Re:Before somebody asks . . . (2, Informative)

#### msauve (701917) | about 2 years ago | (#41888079)

No, that's not the reason. A UPS has to be able to replace the full power provided by the main when in use. A pacemaker only needs to provide a small trigger signal, which is much smaller than the output of the heart itself.

### Re:Before somebody asks . . . (1)

#### bakuun (976228) | about 2 years ago | (#41888323)

No, that's not the reason. A UPS has to be able to replace the full power provided by the main when in use. A pacemaker only needs to provide a small trigger signal, which is much smaller than the output of the heart itself.

"... which is much smaller than the output of the heart itself."

Kind of like a UPS and an electric power plant then, yes?

### Re:Before somebody asks . . . (1)

#### msauve (701917) | about 2 years ago | (#41888849)

No. You're confusing inputs and outputs. A server doesn't generate power to charge the UPS.

### Re:Before somebody asks . . . (2)

#### Tacticus.v1 (1102137) | about 2 years ago | (#41888959)

More like a usb watchdog that restarts the server if it dies.

the UPS analogy is very wrong

### Re:Before somebody asks . . . (1)

#### nazsco (695026) | about 2 years ago | (#41889575)

you guy are killing each other over analogies... why not make a car one everyone can agree?

### Re:Before somebody asks . . . (2)

#### TheLink (130905) | about 2 years ago | (#41889955)

OK it's like the electronic engine management stuff (ECU etc) that keeps your car engine running well. As long as the car engine runs, it turns the alternator which supplies energy to the electronics and tops up the battery.

And just like you can restart a car engine using the stored battery charge, in theory you might be able to use this tech to store enough charge to shock the heart to restart it in case it stops (an ICD with a battery that's kept charged by the heartbeat).

### Re:Before somebody asks . . . (3, Funny)

#### ArcadeMan (2766669) | about 2 years ago | (#41890015)

The UPS analogy is wrong indeed. Let's use FedEx instead.

### Re:Before somebody asks . . . (1)

#### Anonymous Coward | about 2 years ago | (#41888121)

Except you aren't capturing electrical energy from your heart. The electrical energy provided by the pacemaker is triggering the heart to make use of energy obtained from nutrients and create kinetic energy. Then it diverts some of that kinetic energy to replace the relatively minor electrical energy that was used to create the signal.

### Re:Before somebody asks . . . (1)

#### polymeris (902231) | about 2 years ago | (#41889159)

Seriously? Your comparing this to an UPS the one time a car analogy would actually have made sense?

### Re:Before somebody asks . . . (0)

#### Anonymous Coward | about 2 years ago | (#41889359)

Mabye it doesn't violate 'conservation of energy', but doesn't it violate conservation of breathing?

### Re:Before somebody asks . . . (2)

#### arth1 (260657) | about 2 years ago | (#41889631)

I would imagine it must have a rechargeable battery (I'd say large capacitor, but they tout how small it is), or else it would cease to send a signal if your heart skipped a beat, which kind of defeats the purpose of a pacemaker, I should think?

Anyhow, aren't there other and more reliable methods to generate small amounts of electricity inside the body, considering that the patient's heart is confirmed not to be reliable (or else why implant a pacemaker?). Temperature differentials and chemical reactions to name two.

I am also not a doctor, but why do they put pacemakers of this nature (i.e. the kind that only ticks the heart and can't provide shocks) in the chest? Why not where it can be easily accessed and recharged, e.g. by an induction charger - the same methods we use to charge toothbrushes and some phones - without having to do surgery to change batteries every couple of years?

### Re:Before somebody asks . . . (1)

#### kdemetter (965669) | about 2 years ago | (#41890551)

As long as the battery is inside the chest, it's going to need to be replaced from time to time ( even if you could recharge it, the battery would deteriorate over time ).

Funny, the wikipedia picture for piezoelectricity even looks like a heart pumping [wikimedia.org] :

### Re:Before somebody asks . . . (0)

#### Anonymous Coward | about 2 years ago | (#41891249)

it's going to need to be replaced from time to time

Only if it deteriorate faster than the body it is placed in.

### Re:Before somebody asks . . . (1)

#### Maximum Prophet (716608) | about 2 years ago | (#41894335)

Current Ultra capacitors at body temperature have lifespans consistent with human lifespan. I've used several in projects and have yet to see one fail completely, although there may be reduced capacity. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_double-layer_capacitor [wikipedia.org]

### Re:Before somebody asks . . . (1)

#### sFurbo (1361249) | about 2 years ago | (#41890995)

I would imagine it must have a rechargeable battery (I'd say large capacitor, but they tout how small it is), or else it would cease to send a signal if your heart skipped a beat, which kind of defeats the purpose of a pacemaker, I should think?

A capacitor would take care of that. A pacemaker uses very little power, so it can be a very small capacitor.

Anyhow, aren't there other and more reliable methods to generate small amounts of electricity inside the body, considering that the patient's heart is confirmed not to be reliable (or else why implant a pacemaker?). Temperature differentials and chemical reactions to name two.

The inside of the body have pretty consistent temperature, so temperature differences are not great. A lot of work is being done on chemical reactions, but it doesn't seem to be so easy. It has to be compatible with the body, so the more closed is is, the better. Fuel cells are by definition open.

Whatever the method, if you can imagine that it could be used to move power to implanted parts, it is being tried. Many of them are making slow, but steady improvements.

### Re:Before somebody asks . . . (2)

#### demonlapin (527802) | about 2 years ago | (#41889439)

The problem is that it's really great for one set of patients - kids who have had their heart's natural pacemaker disrupted due to abnormalities that arose during development - but not much use in the larger population of patients who need pacemakers (generally elderly adults with bad hearts), because the adults so often get a combined pacemaker/defibrillator. And there's no way it can generate enough power to defibrillate someone.

### Why not? (0)

#### Anonymous Coward | about 2 years ago | (#41890671)

This device is wired directly into the heart. A normal defibrillator needs to zap right through a business suit, dry skin, 6 inches of fat, an inch of bone, and more. The difference is huge.

### Re:Why not? (1)

#### demonlapin (527802) | about 2 years ago | (#41890907)

We're not talking about external defibrillators. Try to keep up. You still need a lot of juice.

### Re:Why not? (1)

#### somersault (912633) | about 2 years ago | (#41891863)

We're not talking about external defibrillators. Try to keep up

Actually, that's what he was pointing out..

### Re:Why not? (1)

#### demonlapin (527802) | about 2 years ago | (#41902749)

If your point is that you don't understand how an implantable cardioverter/defibrillator works any better than the AC, mission accomplished, OK? It takes a lot of juice to defibrillate a heart. Piezo-driven current won't do it unless the device from which your piezos capture electricity is the speaker bank at a rock concert.

### Re:Why not? (1)

#### somersault (912633) | about 2 years ago | (#41905495)

No, my point was that your reply made it sounds like you misread his message. But yes he was also wrong in thinking that this could power a defibrillator, even internally.

### Re:Before somebody asks . . . (1)

#### bondsbw (888959) | about 2 years ago | (#41890025)

How much harder does it make the heart work?

If the device uses 5% of power from each heartbeat (and I have no clue what the actual number is), that means the heart needs to beat around 5% harder to have an equal effect. Or, the heart beats the same but the blood only pumps about 95% as hard. That could be taxing over a long period of time on a weaker heart (the kind that tend to need pacemakers).

### Re:Before somebody asks . . . (1)

#### sFurbo (1361249) | about 2 years ago | (#41891005)

Very, very little. Pacemakers use very little power, on the order nanojoules [iop.org] .

### YO DAWG! (0, Offtopic)

#### Anonymous Coward | about 2 years ago | (#41887995)

YO DAWG! I heard you like keeping your heart beating so I made you a pacemaker that beats your heart when your heart beats!

### homo decorating tip (-1)

#### Anonymous Coward | about 2 years ago | (#41888001)

Q. How many fags does it take to wallpaper a room?

A. Two, if you slice them thin enough.

### Re:homo decorating tip (0)

#### Anonymous Coward | about 2 years ago | (#41890403)

You should read The Zen Gun. Then you know that a single human being is enough to spread around the whole room, living and seeing with the eyes at the opposite walls.

### Solar Powered Lights (1)

#### Anonymous Coward | about 2 years ago | (#41888063)

That's the first thing I thought of. I'd assume it follows the same basic concept.

### About that Surgery (4, Interesting)

#### 1967mustangman (883255) | about 2 years ago | (#41888087)

Just to be clear the replacement surgery on a pacemaker is almost always done on an outpatient basis with local anesthetic.

### Re:About that Surgery (2)

Yes, it is outpatient, but it can cost $45,000 [pacemakerclub.com] to replace the battery. ### Re:About that Surgery (4, Funny) #### drooling-dog (189103) | about 2 years ago | (#41889073) I didn't know that Apple made pacemakers... ### Re:About that Surgery (4, Funny) #### erice (13380) | about 2 years ago | (#41889233) I didn't know that Apple made pacemakers... Don't be silly. Apple would never allow you to change the battery. ### Re: would never allow you to change the battery. (1) #### girlinatrainingbra (2738457) | about 2 years ago | (#41890053) Yeah, and I bet you the quality of their stitching and surgical magic would be such that you wouldn't even be able to see when the assembly edges were or where they cut you open. Then again, they don't really like modifying things do they? They tell you plan ahead of time to max out the RAM when you buy their iPeedPaadPodd or ultra-thin-airbook, because you won't be able to change the battery or add RAM to it later. Nah, I guess they wouldn't want to operate on you; they'd rather be the OEM that makes you in the first place: humans 2.0, or since it's apple, iHumans 2.0, now with improved resolution and Retina (TM by apple don't use it it's our phrase) vision capable Retinas in each eye! ### Re:About that Surgery (1) #### c0lo (1497653) | about 2 years ago | (#41890385) I didn't know that Apple made pacemakers... Don't be silly. Apple would never allow you to change the battery. And neither to develop yourself in a slim shape with rounded corners. ### Re:About that Surgery (0) #### Anonymous Coward | about 2 years ago | (#41890431) And it has rounded corners, no bleeding. ### Re:About that Surgery (0) #### Anonymous Coward | about 2 years ago | (#41892587) Well, to be fair there's no serviceable battery for the pacemakers, so in a sense they were out-Apple'ing Apple even before Apple dreamt of doing away with sealed devices. Pacemakers low on battery are replaced as a whole unit, they don't fish them out, change the battery and shoe-horn them in again. The only thing that remains from the previous device are the leads that connect to the heart itself. Coming up next, pacemakers with rounded corners! ### Re:About that Surgery (0) #### Anonymous Coward | about 2 years ago | (#41889091) Electrodes must still be replaced periodically. Over time oxidation takes its toll and sensitivity cannot be maintained, ### sequence 12-9-ar8 (-1) #### Anonymous Coward | about 2 years ago | (#41888115) Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. 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Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. Fessler had been a rare breed among apparel manufacturers not only for its longevity, but also because it controlled all aspects of production. The company weaves its own fabric, cuts it and sews it into private-label garments shipped to stores around the nation. ### so why not induction charging? (0) #### Anonymous Coward | about 2 years ago | (#41888139) ...it's already on phones. why not just tell the patient to wave their cell phone's powermat over their pacemaker for a couple minutes? ### Re:so why not induction charging? (1) #### Jesse_vd (821123) | about 2 years ago | (#41889011) My 93-year-old grandpa can hardly remember his name and address, let's not put him in charge of the pacemaker. That and he doesn't have a cell phone you insensitive clod! ### Re:so why not induction charging? (-1) #### Anonymous Coward | about 2 years ago | (#41892605) Well, it's time to take him for a walk in the woods, then. Seriously, I hope someone has the decency to kill me if/when I get to a point where I can't even remember my name. No quality of life whatsoever, might as well not be a burden on the immediate family. ### Disastrous feedback loop possible. (1) #### girlinatrainingbra (2738457) | about 2 years ago | (#41888163) Cool! It can harvest enough energy to at least start the pacemaker signal for the heart cells, but how much standby time would it have in case the heart stops beating for too long? (Remember that rechargeable cells and capacitors slowly decay over time in their charge-keeping ability). . It's probably not a "defibrillator" type of heart-restarter in case the heart starts fibrillating: defibrillators require too much power in order to be able to "jump start" the heart. (At least I think that's the kind Cheney got). If it's just an automaticity regulator, than a piezo-electric harvester with a good-internal-rechargeable battery / capacitor system might be good for a long time. Don't kids need a redo-surgery as their bodies grow, though? ### Re:Disastrous feedback loop possible. (1) #### EdZ (755139) | about 2 years ago | (#41889419) Defibrillators do not 'jump-start' the heart, they defibrillate (i.e. stop fibrillation [wikipedia.org] ). This is often rolled into the function of a pacemaker. ### Re:Disastrous feedback loop possible. (1) #### girlinatrainingbra (2738457) | about 2 years ago | (#41889581) even so, the amount of power (voltage \times current) required for defibrillation is quite seriously more than the amount of voltage and current required for the basic sino-atrial node pacemaker replacement which only has to start or pace the cardiac electrical cycle when the pacemaker no longer performs adequately. . What I questioned was the ability of the piezoelectric energy harvester to cannibalize enough power to be able to do perhaps even one defibrillation attempt. This, of course, depends upon the amount of power it stores into the capacitive element used to store charge or the type of electro-chemical rechargeable battery used to store power. The disastrous feedback loop I mean is that the heart stops beating, the reserve battery system does not have enough power, and since the heart isn't beating, the piezo-electric system cannot harvest any power to start a defibrillation pulse. ### Re:Disastrous feedback loop possible. (2) #### girlinatrainingbra (2738457) | about 2 years ago | (#41889675) also, that is why I put the phrase 'jump start' in double quotes as so: "jump start", to indicate that I was making little air-double-quotes around the phrase as I said it, so as to imply "no it's not really jump-starting, it's just resynchronizing the asynchronous non-entrained fibrillation occuring in the myocardiocytes so that once we've jolted them, an entrained signal can propagate in the correct direction and allow the correct temporal propagation of myocardial contractility so as to squeeze the blood through the atria and ventricles unless of course their is some dead myocardium around which a re-entrant circus rhythm can form leading to aberrant cardiac-signal propagation and irregular heart rhythms." But that seemed like too much to squeeze in. ;>) Anyway, the key point is that the power needs might be great enough that such a mechano-electric harvester might take too long to store enough "juice" to be able to send out multiple defibrillatory stimuli. But I don't know about many of the numbers or parameters/variables involved in this particular system or other systems like it: -- how much less power you need to apply directly to the heart as opposed to stimulating with an externally defibrillator applied to the chest wall, -- I don't know what the efficiency of the piezo-electric system per heartbeat or the amount of current and voltage generated by it per heart-beat, -- i don't know the efficiency of the electrochemical battery system that could be used with it, but I'm wondering if it could generate enough power to be useful or not. C'est tout. ### Train analogy (1) #### dbIII (701233) | about 2 years ago | (#41889969) It's like using the vibrations of passing four locomotive coal trains to charge the battery that drives the signal lights, and it's a very busy track with a lot of passing large trains but without much signalling going on. Just signals to control traffic, no HUGE battery reserve to run a locomotive starter motor. So in other words, a pacemaker and not a crashcart defibrilator, and having the constraint that no battery is allowed at all is not reasonable. It could be seen as deliberately adding a constraint for no reason other than making something fail, but you are not doing that are you? That would be childish and pointless. ### Re:Train analogy (2) #### girlinatrainingbra (2738457) | about 2 years ago | (#41889993) I did not "add the constraint that no battery is allowed" (quoting you there). Here's the quote of my GP post (quoting me now): "i don't know the efficiency of the electrochemical battery system that could be used with it," . I specifically mentioned electrochemical battery there, and in my original post I mentioned both using a capacitor and/or a rechargeable battery. So whomever you're complaining about adding that constraint, it certainly wasn't me. I got no problems with ze batteries, okay? ### Re:Train analogy (1) #### dbIII (701233) | about 2 years ago | (#41891369) You do seem to be looking for kilowatts instead of microwatts though, and a crash cart defibrilator instead of a pacemaker, which can do the same job with a lot more finesse and vastly less current (it's right where it's needed already under the skin and can get the timing right). A constraint of having a battery that could supply what looks like kilowatts from your description is what I was referring to. Early pacemakers were like that but that was probably before both of us were born. ### Re:Train analogy (1) #### girlinatrainingbra (2738457) | about 2 years ago | (#41891467) Nope, not looking for kilowatts. Look up implanted cardioversion devices, which are implanted pacemakers with defibrillators circuits built in and fibrillation detectors and algorithms built in along with pacing ability. ### Re:Train analogy (1) #### dbIII (701233) | about 2 years ago | (#41892257) Um, haven't you noticed yet that you are getting things wrong and others know a little bit about the subject? If you followed your advice and looked things up you'd find the power requirements are very low (battery life in years). The big deal here is never having to do anything invasive to replace a battery once the device is fitted. ### defibrillation is low-power (0) #### Anonymous Coward | about 2 years ago | (#41890649) Remember that this device gets wired directly into the heart. It doesn't have to go through a business suit, dry skin, 6 inches of fat, and an inch of bone. ### Re:defibrillation is low-power (1) #### girlinatrainingbra (2738457) | about 2 years ago | (#41890721) Yes, I am aware that this device is wired directly into the myocardium. (And as for externally-applied defibrillators, it's probably usually wiser to remove any clothing getting in the way, and usually you apply conductive gel to the skin to decrease the circuit resistance as much as possible even in an emergency setting). . Please see the first item in my indented and dashed list above [slashdot.org] written 5 hrs ago which reads: -- how much less power you need to apply directly to the heart as opposed to stimulating with an externally defibrillator applied to the chest wall, . externally-applied defibrillator to the chest wall, is what I meant to say, I switched applied and defibrillator around, but the meaning is the same. The power comparison I was asking about was power needed to provide pacing/pacemaker signal vs. the power required to generate an adequate defibrillating signal for a long enough period of time. Thanks for the feedback. I hope I am clarifying what I said in the original statement. If you know any numbers or pointers/refs for (1) the power requirements of a defibrillatory signal for an implanted cardioversion system vs (2) the power output requirements for the standard pacing signal at SA node or at multiple sites, I would love to know. Thanks! ### Piezoelectric Catch-22 (1) #### Revotron (1115029) | about 2 years ago | (#41888231) So when my heart skips a beat, it will actually skip quite a few? Sounds great, screw testing. Wire me up! ### So.. (1) #### venicebeach (702856) | about 2 years ago | (#41888361) As long as your heart keeps beating... your heart will keep beating? ### Re:So.. (5, Funny) #### tomhath (637240) | about 2 years ago | (#41888509) That's right. It comes with a lifetime guarantee. ### Re:So.. (0) #### Anonymous Coward | about 2 years ago | (#41892653) Guarantee void in Tennessee. ### About time too (0) #### Anonymous Coward | about 2 years ago | (#41888443) If you had to replace the battery in a car every time it ran out it would be painfull, thankfully someone invented the alternator that charges said battery when the car is running. When the car stops it is fully charged. Glad to see someones thinking again. Now, what if we pop a high efficiency solar panel on to their weak hearted bold spot???? ### Re:About time too (0) #### Anonymous Coward | about 2 years ago | (#41888513) damn it, bald spot ### Re:About time too (0) #### PsyMan (2702529) | about 2 years ago | (#41888733) It's noscript blocking my grammer, grammar and grammaticall errorism's not to mention my spelling again. Noscript is the devils work on here. ### The idea is old. (1) #### 140Mandak262Jamuna (970587) | about 2 years ago | (#41888583) Back in 1989 when I was doing my masters one of my classmates had this as her project. No hardware, just some conceptual studies, literature survey and a project report. ### unintended consequences? (0) #### Anonymous Coward | about 2 years ago | (#41888829) Some possible repercussions from long-lasting pacemakers: * Time to sell stock in pacemaker battery companies? * More seriously, a pacemaker can keep you alive long after the time you might wish you were dead already. Here's an excellent article about a senior who was effectively tricked into getting a pacemaker, http://www.nytimes.com/2010/06/20/magazine/20pacemaker-t.html?pagewanted=all [nytimes.com] It kept his heart beating for years after dementia took away all his quality of life. ### FUCK YOU! (0) #### denzacar (181829) | about 2 years ago | (#41889651) As long as my tissues can secrete and pump around any kind of fluid - I want to be kept alive. And fuck your stock in battery companies too. I'd say fuck the horse you rode in on too, but I'm not into that thing. But it's OK. We'll look around, we'll find someone to fuck your horse for you. Now fuck off and go die somewhere before your quality of life gets taken away if your beer gets warm while your food goes cold. ### Re:unintended consequences? (1) #### Neil Boekend (1854906) | about 2 years ago | (#41890881) Point 2: Not inventing it isn't the solution. Allow for well documented euthanasia (signed contract from deceased if applicable with conditions, for example "When I am diagnosed with dementia, pull the plug.") I agree with you in principle, but the method is wrong. *Remembers a story about a man who realized he was demented each afternoon and stopped eating because he wanted to die. Each morning he had forgotten it again and took a large breakfast, large enough to sustain him for a day. He was not legally capable of making a decision so he could not choose euthanasia. His son didn't have enough contact with his father to see the problem.* ### In this house we obey the laws of THERMODYNAMICS!! (1) #### Slutticus (1237534) | about 2 years ago | (#41889195) right? ### Re:In this house we obey the laws of THERMODYNAMIC (0) #### Anonymous Coward | about 2 years ago | (#41889673) Actually the device is powered by your metabolism in the end so no it does not violate thermodynamics. It is like the watches that collect energy as your wrist moves. The interesting question would be if the increased energy demand stresses the heart significantly to warrant concern. ### Re:In this house we obey the laws of THERMODYNAMIC (0) #### Anonymous Coward | about 2 years ago | (#41889699) Are you thinking the pacemaker actually runs the heart? All it does is tell the heart when to beat. Think of it as a metronome that gets its energy from the vibrational energy of the rest of the orchestra. dom ### Re:In this house we obey the laws of THERMODYNAMIC (0) #### Anonymous Coward | about 2 years ago | (#41892725) And it doesn't tell the heart when to beat all the time, either. My father's pacemaker works something like 3% of the time only, at least that's what they told him last time he went for the pacemaker check up. ### Maybe (1) #### Anonymous Coward | about 2 years ago | (#41889203) I don't know if straight pacemakers are all that common. My late wife had a pacemaker that was also a defribulater that gives quite a jolt if the heart tries to stop beating. Even thirty minutes after death that thing was still firing away in her chest. ### Re:Maybe (1) #### gmhowell (26755) | about 2 years ago | (#41890145) I investigated the issue back in September. IIRC, about 1/3 of all pacemakers in the US include a defibrillator function. ### Re:Maybe (0) #### Anonymous Coward | about 2 years ago | (#41912743) We investigate your posts and always see 1 liner replies. Good way to gather mod points for your other accounts that always get down moderated gmhowell. Karma whoring trolls that use multiple registered user accounts are always easy to spot. Especially you, gmhowell. ### Solar powered flashlight (0) #### Anonymous Coward | about 2 years ago | (#41890357) Heartbeat powered pacemaker is as useful as a solar powered flashlight. ### Re:Solar powered flashlight (4, Insightful) #### camperdave (969942) | about 2 years ago | (#41890557) Heartbeat powered pacemaker is as useful as a solar powered flashlight. In other words, very useful. The typical flashlight will have a charge time of about 6 hours while providing 8 hours of light. They can penetrate up to 50 meters in the dark, and can be visible up to 2 kilometres. The cell life of the solar energy cells can be as long as 20 years! Exactly what you need in an emergency. Similarly, a heartbeat powered pacemaker can trigger heartbeats (note: trigger, not power. The beat itself is still chemically powered, like all other muscles) for a lifetime. ### Re:Solar powered flashlight (0) #### Anonymous Coward | about 2 years ago | (#41891949) The solar cell might last that long but the battery it charges won't. I'm not hating on solar flashlights, but they don't last 20 years unfortunately. ### "infinite-duration" (1) #### thenendo (523849) | about 2 years ago | (#41890481) Sounds kinda optimistic to me. ### Re:"infinite-duration" (0) #### Anonymous Coward | about 2 years ago | (#41894275) agreed, its moving parts, there WILL be wear and tear, just how much over how long I have no idea ### Encryption (1) #### Neil Boekend (1854906) | about 2 years ago | (#41890839) Will this allow for enough power to encrypt the wireless connection these things have? ### Zombies (1) #### kiehlster (844523) | about 2 years ago | (#41892943) Sounds to me like another cog in the wheels of the zombie apocalypse. # Slashdot: News for Nerds egrep -n '^[a-z].*\('$ | sort -t':' +2.0

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