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Two South African Cancer Patients Receive 3D Printed Titanium Jaw Implants

timothy posted about 2 months ago | from the ok-but-they-did-already-need-them dept.

Medicine 71

jigmypig (3675225) writes "Two patients in South Africa that have had their lives and more specifically their jaws severely affected by cancer, have just received 3D printed jaw implants. The jaws were 3D printed using a laser sintering process that melts powdered titanium, one layer at a time. The process saves a ton of money, and unlike traditional manufacturing of titanium jaws, it doesn't waste any materials. Traditional manufacturing wastes up to 80% of the titanium block used in the process, whereas with 3D printing there is little to no waste at all. This new process also allows for a fully customizable solution. The models are drawn up in CAD software, and then printed out to precisely fit the patient."

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You had me at (2)

Henriok (6762) | about 2 months ago | (#47540603)

You had me at "3D Printed Titanium Jaw Implants". Awesome!

Re:You had me at (3, Insightful)

ozmanjusri (601766) | about 2 months ago | (#47541069)

You had me at "3D Printed Titanium Jaw Implants". Awesome!

It's cool, but not really news.

I was doing some work in Royal Perth Hospital sometime around 2008, and saw a small, beautifully detailed metal skull on one of the managers' desks. I asked him about it and was told he'd taken an MRI of his own skull and had it printed quarter-sized in sintered titanium. It was the best paperweight I've ever seen.

Cool factor aside, they've been scanning patients' actual bones, optimising them in software and printing titanium replacements (mostly hip joints) there for almost a decade now. There's even a few commercial madical 3d printing companies around AU (Anatomics is one).

It's great that SA is making jaws for people now though.

Re:You had me at (0)

Anonymous Coward | about 2 months ago | (#47541401)

nick-nack on some guy's desk == medical implant

ok.

Re:You had me at (1)

ozmanjusri (601766) | about 2 months ago | (#47541521)

nick-nack on some guy's desk == medical implant

Read the next paragraph. I've quoted it below for you.

Cool factor aside, they've been scanning patients' actual bones, optimising them in software and printing titanium replacements (mostly hip joints) there for almost a decade now.

Re:You had me at (1, Insightful)

rogoshen1 (2922505) | about 2 months ago | (#47541539)

now if only they could get around to that pesky aids problem

Re:You had me at (3, Interesting)

flyneye (84093) | about 2 months ago | (#47543223)

They lost me at Titanium Jaw Implants. Titanium has a nasty tendency to foster bacterial growth in spite of its good attributes.
Gimme a high density plastic any day.
No I don't care about any sentences beginning with " Research shows..." or " Records prove", as they represent the OPINIONS of those promoting the problem.
Like asking a car salesman, what the best car on the lot is....

Well, I'm picking my jaw up off the floor... (2)

jeffb (2.718) (1189693) | about 2 months ago | (#47540615)

No, actually, I'm fortunate enough not to have that option. Still, it's good to see this happening for the people who do.

Waste (2, Insightful)

Anonymous Coward | about 2 months ago | (#47540617)

I'm sure the "waste" is recycled. While I'm happy for the advancement I think people stretch a bit too much to make something seem more revolutionary than it is. That doesn't benefit anyone.

Re:Waste (1)

beastofburdon (1033548) | about 2 months ago | (#47556915)

Yes, it is. When machining something out of titanium, or any other expensive metal for that matter, all the shavings are saved to be melted down again. This is both cheap and easy to do, and is how it has been done for a long time.

Hm. I wonder if the sintering can take a punch? (2, Interesting)

Anonymous Coward | about 2 months ago | (#47540651)

Cast is bad enough, but sintering is awful for strength. Horrible.

If it's FINE enough it should be, er.. fine. I wonder what the fail test is like for this being an orthopedic application, or is that even considered beyond "it's metal"?

Re:Hm. I wonder if the sintering can take a punch? (2)

Bing Tsher E (943915) | about 2 months ago | (#47540967)

It has to be as durable as the bone it is fitted into. Titanium is used in prosthetics because it is the most biocompatible metal, not so much for it's hardness.

Re:Hm. I wonder if the sintering can take a punch? (0)

Anonymous Coward | about 2 months ago | (#47541071)

FORGED Ti is very tough stuff. 40% stronger than steel of same weight. Sintering is essentially welding microparticles, welding on welds. Very weak in 3d.

It may be fine if they design the piece sufficiently but who knows, they're cutting costs, that's the impetus here.

Re:Hm. I wonder if the sintering can take a punch? (0)

Anonymous Coward | about 2 months ago | (#47541575)

making random parts strong is a bad idea. you might want it to break before something else in the system.

but if I could get forged titanium plates to replace the bones of my skull, I can't see any downside to that.

Re:Hm. I wonder if the sintering can take a punch? (1)

beastofburdon (1033548) | about 2 months ago | (#47556989)

I would hope you lived in a warm climate, but not too warm. Titanium conducts heat very well. With your entire skull replaced with titanium plates your brain would be constantly below normal temperature.
I wonder how that would affect intelligence? Maybe you should try it, as an experiment...

Re:Hm. I wonder if the sintering can take a punch? (3, Interesting)

EvolutionInAction (2623513) | about 2 months ago | (#47541049)

If I remember this correctly, sintering is actually one of the favoured manufacturing methods for implants. Something about how you can make the material surfaces porous enough for tissue to hold on to, which traditional machining simply cannot match.

I've no doubt that sintered parts have undergone failure testing and found acceptable. Do you know the level of regulation for a medical implant? It's insane.

Re:Hm. I wonder if the sintering can take a punch? (4, Funny)

Collective 0-0009 (1294662) | about 2 months ago | (#47541235)

Do you know the level of regulation for a medical implant? It's insane.

If you have received a sintered jaw in the last 5 years and have experienced headaches, nausea, aches, pains, shortness of breathe, loose stool, fungus, rashes, upset stomach, or death, call 1800-876-9876 to get the money you deserve

Re:Hm. I wonder if the sintering can take a punch? (1)

angel'o'sphere (80593) | about 2 months ago | (#47542915)

The 'death' part is indeed funny.
I will remember to mention in my will to have a hard wired landline phone buried with me ... if it is not against environmental rules/laws

Good enough and other benefits (2)

dbIII (701233) | about 2 months ago | (#47541647)

It's porous but that actually helps with incorporation into the body. I'm a bit out of touch now but in 1999 experiments with implanting porous titanium implants treated in caustic soda into mice resulted in very strong metal to bone connections after only a few weeks.
So while it's horrible strength compared with solid titanium outside the body it's very likely to be higher strength inside the body than a solid implant.
Besides, bone is not very strong in comparison to titanium - which actually has been a problem with metal joints for years since the metal grinds away at the bone it is inserted into. Typically that's why metal joints have been replaced - the metal bits are fine but the bone they are connected to has worn down and a longer joint is required.

Re:Hm. I wonder if the sintering can take a punch? (2)

Assmasher (456699) | about 2 months ago | (#47542185)

I was seriously wondering that myself since titanium is difficult to deal with despite the fact that aerospace engineers would like to use it for a large number of parts, so I did a quick Google and I found this:

"Tests by EOS customers have compared the properties of laser-sintered titanium parts to those of cast or wrought titanium parts, and found that the DMLS parts can have significantly better mechanical properties. Typically, titanium parts made with DMLS have an ultimate tensile strength of 1,200Mpa + 30Mpa (175ksi + 4ksi), comparable to or stronger than conventionally manufactured titanium components"

Now, that should be taken with a grain of salt since it was provided by a company that does Direct Metal Laser Sintering, but it certainly sounds damn good.

Just be careful, you have to use low oxygen contents in the powder itself and argon to work in since it is HIGHLY reactive in its molten state.

I'm sure it is hysterically expensive right now, but has huge potential since traditional titanium work is both hard on machines/tool and requires lots of cooling.

Very, very cool.

Re:Hm. I wonder if the sintering can take a punch? (0)

Anonymous Coward | about 2 months ago | (#47542239)

Dude, I think the process yields a result strong enough [solidconcepts.com] for a jaw.

Re:Hm. I wonder if the sintering can take a punch? (0)

Anonymous Coward | about 2 months ago | (#47545789)

It is strong enough to use for suspension parts on a mini-Indy race car. A mechanical engineering friend of mine worked on their college's car and that was his part of the project.

I'm disappointed (4, Funny)

Nidi62 (1525137) | about 2 months ago | (#47540655)

They wasted a very valuable opportunity here. The jaws do not have razor sharp jagged teeth nor are either of the recipients over 7 feet tall.

Re:I'm disappointed (1)

Anonymous Coward | about 2 months ago | (#47540929)

Furthermore, the recipients don't live in a hurricane prone area.

Re:I'm disappointed (1)

plover (150551) | about 2 months ago | (#47541269)

You can still rejoice. One of the patients was Baron Werner Ünderbheit. [venturefans.org]

Re:I'm disappointed (1)

stonedead (2571785) | about 2 months ago | (#47541397)

Indeed. They've even forgot to attach the freakin' lasers to the freakin jaw.

Re:I'm disappointed (1)

Goetterdaemmerung (140496) | about 2 months ago | (#47541425)

They wasted a very valuable opportunity here. The jaws do not have razor sharp jagged teeth nor are either of the recipients over 7 feet tall.

Floating in space makes height somewhat irrelevant. Ability to chew through cables is obviously an advantage, though.

Re:I'm disappointed (0)

Anonymous Coward | about 2 months ago | (#47542687)

They wasted a very valuable opportunity here. The jaws do not have razor sharp jagged teeth nor are either of the recipients over 7 feet tall.

http://cdn3.whatculture.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/Jaws.jpg

"Waste" (3, Insightful)

Mateorabi (108522) | about 2 months ago | (#47540659)

While I find the 3d printing damn cool, the editorializing about the waste struck me as an odd comment for subby to make. I'm guessing that a lot of powder gets left over by this new process just as milling from a solid block leaves shavings. But those should be just as easily melted down and recycled in the next job, so not really wasted. (And if they are thrown away, it means that reusing them just isn't economical, so the 'waste' isn't that valuable anyway.)

I think the better argument where 3D wins is the ability to get arbitrary shapes that could be impossible to make with traditional machining or casting.

Re:"Waste" (2, Informative)

Anonymous Coward | about 2 months ago | (#47540937)

It might not be economical to recycle shavings for a variety of reasons: made in a shop that processes too many things to keep them separate, contaminated too much with cutting fluids, the recycling process doesn't work well with shavings (some metal melting processes are more expensive with a lot of thing pieces that can oxidize easily while heating up to the melting point), not worth the transport costs or handling for small batches, etc. Still probably cheaper to have not had to refine that metal in the first place, although I don't if that is balanced out by the process of grinding and grading powder for sintering.

In the end, for small objects that are not mass produced though, the material cost is going to be quite small compare to everything else involved. It will be dwarfed by the design, setup, and manual steps needed. Although if the 3d printing can be done in one go while milling it takes multiple, possibly awkward, mountings of the part, that could be a much larger savings. I've had enough projects that more time is spent mounting a piece to the milling table than actually milling it, especially when you have to make a custom piece to hold it (... or worse, mill something to hold the piece you'll mill to hold what you want to actually make...).

I wonder if that would work for my small jaw. (1)

antdude (79039) | about 2 months ago | (#47540669)

I was born with a tiny jaw and I could not open my mouth wide. Surgeries, using a bones from my right hip into my mouth to extend the jaw bones, didn't help much to make them bigger.

Re:I wonder if that would work for my small jaw. (2)

Aryeh Goretsky (129230) | about 2 months ago | (#47540863)

Hello,

It might help. You could probably start by contacting the reporter who wrote the article, or the hospitals at which the surgeries were performed to ask for more information.

Regards,

Aryeh Goretsky

Plastic surgeons everywhere and the Pentagon (0)

Anonymous Coward | about 2 months ago | (#47540673)

Just became fans of the Bond movies and Robocop.

New definition of "Hard Bodies" incoming?

Re:Plastic surgeons everywhere and the Pentagon (0)

Anonymous Coward | about 2 months ago | (#47540761)

breaking news:

president gives ok for astronauts to take hookers to space

Mill? (1)

wisnoskij (1206448) | about 2 months ago | (#47540691)

When they say 3D printed do they mean a metal mill, or can we 3D print with any random material now? And if so, why not use the far more tried tested, and better alternative milling?

Re:Mill? (3, Interesting)

EmperorArthur (1113223) | about 2 months ago | (#47540719)

When they say 3D printed do they mean a metal mill, or can we 3D print with any random material now?
And if so, why not use the far more tried tested, and better alternative milling?

Nope, it's "laser sintering." They take metal powder and fuse it together one layer at a time. You put a layer of metal powder down, the laser fuses it together, then you put another layer of powder over it. Repeat until done.

The nice thing is all the waste powder can be reused without having to melt it down, so there's almost no waste. The other thing is you can print shapes that are really hard to mill. No more ridiculously complex 6 axes milling machines that the US treats like munitions. Just Google ITER sometime to see the craziness.

Re:Mill? (1)

Trepidity (597) | about 2 months ago | (#47540799)

The nice thing is all the waste powder can be reused without having to melt it down, so there's almost no waste.

How big of an advantage is that, though? Melting down metal to reuse it is really easy, much easier than with other materials like glass or plastics. Especially in the case where you control the environment and can be assured of its purity, vs. collecting scrap metal or something (but even collecting scrap metal is profitable).

Re:Mill? (2)

EmperorArthur (1113223) | about 2 months ago | (#47540859)

The nice thing is all the waste powder can be reused without having to melt it down, so there's almost no waste.

How big of an advantage is that, though? Melting down metal to reuse it is really easy, much easier than with other materials like glass or plastics. Especially in the case where you control the environment and can be assured of its purity, vs. collecting scrap metal or something (but even collecting scrap metal is profitable).

Well, it's Titanium, so it's probably quite a pain. Titanium has an ignition temperature that's lower than its melting point so you have to work with it in an inert atmosphere, and apparently it's still a pain even then. Given that I'll bet titanium scrap isn't worth a quarter of its value when in block form.

The article says "each surgery cost just 20% of what a traditional jaw implant surgery would have cost." It doesn't say how much of that was due to not having to recycle 80% of the material and how much of it was because the jaw was made to order. It certainly implied though that a decent bit of the savings was due to laser sinstering.

You're also forgetting the cost of the multi axis milling machines that this process replaces. If they're even close in price and you're using 80% less material then why wouldn't any manufacturing shop go for it?

Re:Mill? (1)

Razed By TV (730353) | about 2 months ago | (#47541599)

I would assume it means you need to have less stock on hand to do any particular job. Less money tied up in material, less money wasted because you aren't selling off the scrap for less than you paid for it.

Re:Mill? (1)

dbIII (701233) | about 2 months ago | (#47541699)

How big of an advantage is that, though? Melting down metal to reuse it is really easy

Not with titanium. It's a bastard of a thing to work with since it oxidises easily enough that the powder makes far too good an explosive for it to be permissable to ship it by air.

Re:Mill? (1)

dbIII (701233) | about 2 months ago | (#47541683)

When they say 3D printed do they mean a metal mill

It almost always means an additive instead of a subtractive process. Milling cuts things away and is subtractive. 3D printing sticks things together so is additive.

or can we 3D print with any random material now

Yes so long as you keep in mind that 3D printing describes a wide range of methods instead of a single one. In this case it's sintering metal powder one layer at a time with a laser. While expensive it's got some things going for it:
It's easier to produce titanium as powder instead of large solid blocks.
It's expensive to machine titanium from those solid blocks.
Titanium is expensive in general so methods like this with very little waste have an immediate benefit.
Laser are very cheap these days, give very good tolerances and don't really use all that much power. After these parts are made they probably don't need any more finishing than a bit of sandblasting.

And if so, why not use the far more tried tested, and better alternative milling?

Because we already know methods like this have several advantages over milling, electrochemical machining, casting, hot isostatic pressing, macro scale welding etc. It's not for everything but this application seems to tick all the boxes where laser sintering makes more sense than anything else.

That's good because there will be some of the (0)

Anonymous Coward | about 2 months ago | (#47540695)

element for paint and sunblock.

Approximately 4.6 million tons of pigmentary TiO2 are used annually worldwide, and this number is expected to increase as utilization continues to rise.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Titanium_dioxide

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abundance_of_elements_in_Earth's_crust

That's good because there will be some of the (0)

Anonymous Coward | about 2 months ago | (#47541583)

Titanium is more common than phosphorus. Try reading the chart you linked to. Titanium dioxide is also found in hostess powdered donettes.

Cancer Hope (-1)

Anonymous Coward | about 2 months ago | (#47540731)

Tumors can shrink when the patient's body is at a healthy pH, so jaws don't need to get harmed so badly that a 3D printed jaw is needed; it's true, I wrote a book on the subject of the affect of a healthy pH on tumors, which is firstly that the growth of the tumor is arrested, and secondly, the tumor begins to shrink. I'd plug the book, but get the word out first that there's hope for cancer patients if they avoid the medical industry after diagnosis, and seek alternative healing modalities like good nutrition and the right supplements, which can all be arranged at health food stores.

Re:Cancer Hope (0, Troll)

Anonymous Coward | about 2 months ago | (#47540815)

Fuck you for spreading bullshit "simple solutions" that do nothing against cancer.

Fuck you right up the ass with a rusty chainsaw for telling people to avoid the treatments that give at least some hope for remission or cure.

And fuck you down the throat with that same rusty chainsaw, after it's been up your ass, for doing all this to sell fucking books.

You suck ... (2)

CaptainDork (3678879) | about 2 months ago | (#47540933)

I'm so disappointed that you posted as AC.

I wanted to tell you that you suck.

You suck.

Re:Cancer Hope (2)

50000BTU_barbecue (588132) | about 2 months ago | (#47541037)

You wrote a book and can't tell affect from effect?

Re:Cancer Hope (1)

angel'o'sphere (80593) | about 2 months ago | (#47543081)

Well, our GP might be a moron, who knows?
But mixing affect with effect is a common typo. On most keyboards the letters are close together.
Also it is possible he is not a native english speaker (very likely when he says: the cancer is arrested) for those it is common to mix up words, which sound or are spelled similar.

Re:Cancer Hope (0)

Anonymous Coward | about 2 months ago | (#47541251)

Steve Jobs must have read that book.

Re:Cancer Hope (-1)

Anonymous Coward | about 2 months ago | (#47541589)

whats the difference between black people and cancer?

cancer got jobs.

Re:Cancer Hope (-1)

Anonymous Coward | about 2 months ago | (#47541765)

What's the difference between racist assholes and cancer?

Hey, whaddaya know, there isn't any.

Re:Cancer Hope (1)

cyber-vandal (148830) | about 2 months ago | (#47541955)

Because that worked out so well for Steve Jobs.

Don't Call it Waste (0)

Anonymous Coward | about 2 months ago | (#47540737)

This 80% waste; it's not like they throw it in the garbage. It gets melted back down after. Maybe some energy is wasted, but don't summarize it as if they are throwing the materials in a landfill. That's just naive.

Re:Don't Call it Waste (0)

pz (113803) | about 2 months ago | (#47540865)

At the prices medical-grade titanium goes for, it is most certainly not wasted. The machined Ti is reclaimed (or at least it would be if I were in charge). Stating that there is 80% waste is marketing hyperbole. A fairer comparison would count the unsintered powder in the 3D build machine, and would end up being unfavorable to the 3D process.

But if you're in the business of making replacement body parts, you might well be starting with a generic titanium casting (or one of a series of different sizes) and machining it down to fit. Artificial hip joints are sometimes made that way.

Don't get me wrong, 3D printing makes a lot of sense for highly-custom items... although one needs to worry about the potential infection and reaction issues given the inherent porosity of sintered material that give purchase for pathogens, and lots of surface area for irritants that will slowly leech out.

Re:Don't Call it Waste (0)

Anonymous Coward | about 2 months ago | (#47540971)

It's basically looking at the number from a manufacturing perspective only. Take a rectangular prism of metal and mill it to get the piece you need. Final piece weighs 20% of the initial block. The 'wasted' metal will be recycled, but they aren't counting that.

Re:Don't Call it Waste (1)

NormalVisual (565491) | about 2 months ago | (#47541203)

It'll be recycled, but what they'll get for the shavings will be a lot less than the equivalent weight of a fresh block.

Re:Don't Call it Waste (2)

dbIII (701233) | about 2 months ago | (#47541739)

The machined Ti is reclaimed

It's not easy to reclaim (titanium oxidises very easily so the scrap has to be reduced again, almost as hard as getting it out of sand in the first place) and the consumable costs to machine it are not trivial. Your cutting tools are ripping into titanium oxide, and guess what a lot of the cutting edges of those tools are made of? You can't guess? The answer is stuff like titanium nitride which is not a lot harder, so the tools wear down very rapidly. Using diamond doesn't help much either. It's a very slow and expensive way to do things but used to be better than any other way available.
This development is interesting because now it is available it's a lot easier than your "just mill it out of a block" suggestion which is why it's being discussed at all.

given the inherent porosity of sintered material that give purchase for pathogens

The milled stuff has been treated for years to produce a porous surface to allow bone to grow into it. I heard a paper presented on that in 1999 by some Japanese and Californian researchers and it's apparently become standard practice since.

Villains... (1)

Change (101897) | about 2 months ago | (#47540765)

Baron Ünderbheit?

FTL Newsfeed (1)

ljhiller (40044) | about 2 months ago | (#47540887)

I just saw something in today's FTL newsfeed. I didn't catch all of it, but it said something like "Have you or a family member been implanted with a 3-D printed Titanium jaw? If so, you may be owed compensation! Vid our office now!"

Roger Ebert (1)

miller701 (525024) | about 2 months ago | (#47540907)

would have liked to have one I'd guess.

So I can finally get my titanium donkey jaw (0)

Anonymous Coward | about 2 months ago | (#47541009)

I hear with a regular ass's jaw, you can take out thousands... with a titanium one, I'll be unstoppable.

jaws (1)

rossdee (243626) | about 2 months ago | (#47541129)

is Richard Keil still alive?

or is it spelt Kiel

Re:jaws (1)

Zontar The Mindless (9002) | about 2 months ago | (#47541781)

2. Kiel.

1. Yes.

um (1)

Charliemopps (1157495) | about 2 months ago | (#47541239)

unlike traditional manufacturing of titanium jaws, it doesn't waste any materials. Traditional manufacturing wastes up to 80% of the titanium block used in the process...

Um... bullshit?
There is no waste in milling. You just sell the turnings back to smelter. Or smelt them yourself if you have the equipment.

that aside... sintering is awesome. Growing up I used to get to visit the company my father worked for and one of their main product lines were all sintered parts. You lay down powdered metal and then bake it to melt the powder together. They've been doing that for decades. The new innovation is being able to sinter on the fly with lasers instead of an oven.

Chemisty (1)

dbIII (701233) | about 2 months ago | (#47541751)

Sadly while it would be "bullshit" with stainless steel it's not so simple with titanium. Recovering metal from the shavings is not as simple as just throwing them in a pot and warming it up, even if you do it in an inert atmosphere.
The entire reason why titanium is expensive despite being made from very plentiful sand is because it's bloody hard to reduce the oxide and those shavings are covered with it.
That very hard to move oxide is why it's so useful in medical applications but it makes it a difficult material to do anything with.

Also using powder directly removes the step of forming the stuff into large blocks. It's vastly easier to make titanium metal in powder form than fully solid ingots with consistent properties.

Re:Chemisty (1)

angel'o'sphere (80593) | about 2 months ago | (#47543059)

It is not only handling/manufacturing of Titan that is difficult.
Deposited worthwhile of exploiting are RARE. Yes, in total our planet is rich on Titanium ... it is the 9th abundant element on earth ...
Reusing shavings from milling is certainly 10 if not 100 times more easy than refining Titanium from raw 'ores'.

Re:Chemisty (1)

dbIII (701233) | about 2 months ago | (#47547071)

It's still not easy and is still very expensive for the reasons given above. There may be less oxide in the shavings than in rutile or titanium dioxide but you still have to get rid of it before it can be melted down - and with a high melting point plus a need to keep oxygen off it's not that cheap to melt the stuff either. Reducing waste with titanium (or titanium alloys) has more of a cost benefit than just about any other non-radioactive metal since the reprocessing cost is high.

refining Titanium from raw 'ores'.

It's gravity separated out of sand so the mining part is as cheap as mining gets - reducing it from an oxide is the very hard bit.

Titanium jaws (0)

Anonymous Coward | about 2 months ago | (#47541695)

Do you want Bane? Because that's how you get Bane.

80% waste? (1)

angel'o'sphere (80593) | about 2 months ago | (#47542887)

So the article wants to tell us that in traditional milling they have to mill away 80% of the original block?
And then they used to throw it away as 'waste'?
Somehow I doubt that.

What about 3D printed adamantium Jaw? (1)

halfdan the black (638018) | about 2 months ago | (#47543215)

Now that would be cool.

Can't believe I'm the first one to comment about adamantium replacement bones.

Once adamantium is set, it can't be broken, so an additive printing system like 3D printing would be perfect for making adamantium parts.

I'll be impressed when... (0)

Anonymous Coward | about 2 months ago | (#47546229)

..they can print the component directly into the patient without the need for extensive surgery,

yes (1)

abdel hadi (3767975) | about 2 months ago | (#47549417)

You wrote a book and can't tell affect from effect?
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