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Bernstein's NFS analyzed by Lenstra and Shamir

CmdrTaco posted more than 12 years ago | from the my-c0de-is-s3kr37 dept.

Encryption 168

kousik writes "The analysis of Bernstein's NFS by Arjen Lenstra, Adi Shamir, Jim Tomlinson, Eran Tromer has been put up on cryptosavvy. Seems interesting it comes from Lenstra and Shamir. Lenstra lead the 1994 factorisation of RSA 129. From the abstract: ... We also propose an improved circuit design based on a new mesh routing algorithm, and show that for factorization of 1024-bit integers the matrix step can, under an optimistic assumption about the matrix size, be completed within a day by a device that costs a few thousand dollars..."

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168 comments

yeah (-1, Offtopic)

L0rdkariya (562469) | more than 12 years ago | (#3640239)

What of it ?
So many FPs.
For CLIT.

YOU ARE MY HERO. I FEEL A SONG COMING ON... (-1)

Subject Line Troll (581198) | more than 12 years ago | (#3640246)

A HREF="f/?a=1 x f

Re:YOU ARE MY HERO. I FEEL A SONG COMING ON... (-1)

DonkeyHote (521235) | more than 12 years ago | (#3640261)

Your Ding-A-Ling, My Ding-A-Ling, Lets all play with my Ding-A-Ling!

PUMP UP YOUR CLIT! (-1)

CLIT (581942) | more than 12 years ago | (#3640652)

Pucker Up
by Tristan Taormino

Pump Up Your Clit

For years, the penis pump has been a sex toy for boys. While the devices are available in several different styles, the Dom Perignon of penis pumps is the Millennium Pump (www.millenniumpumps.com, 866-333-PUMP), a handheld contraption with assorted sizes of detachable plastic cylinders. The bottom of the cylinder creates a vacuum seal around the base of the dick, and with each squeeze of the pump, suction and pressure increases, and blood rushes to your chubby. Part of the pump's appeal is its multifaceted personality. Slip your cock into its cylinder, and this baby can get you up and help you stay that way (who needs Viagra?). The advantage of a detachable cylinder is that you can pump up, then detach the pump, leaving the pressurized cylinder on. It will also suck you off better than an ambitious intern. It may even give your hot rod a lasting boost--some guys who pump up on a regular basis report permanent increases in length (research has shown that pumping can stretch an internal ligament up to two inches).
I must admit that I am jealous that such a multitasking toy only works on men. Why can't I indulge in the pleasures of a tight seal and the suctioning ability of a Hoover? Thank the goddess, lesbian ingenuity has struck once again. In yet another step toward equal orgasmic rights, women have commandeered something originally intended only for phallic pleasure and transformed it into a tool of pussy power. Using the same pumping mechanism, and replacing the penis-sized cylinder with a smaller one (originally intended for use on nipples), chicks have created the Clit Pump.

I first took the Clit Pump for a spin when my friend Sarah brought one with her on a recent visit. When she took it out of the plastic bag, I admit that it didn't put me in the mood right away. It appeared complicated (a pressure gauge that looked like it belonged in the Tour de France, not my bedroom), clinical (tubing attached to a cylinder three and a half inches long with a five-eighths-of-an-inch diameter), and a little intimidating (a brass pump with a metal handle reminiscent of hedge clippers).

"Drop your drawers," she said with her thick English accent.

I did as I was told, and soon she was rubbing a handful of I-D Glide on my "bits" (the English have such bizarre words to describe anything sexual) and lubing up the inside of the cylinder as well. I slid my clit, its hood, and part of my inner lips in the cylinder, then pressed the rim firmly against my skin.

"Try to create a perfect seal so that the vacuum action will work," recommended Sarah.

Pump in hand, she squeezed once, and I felt a pull, like a suction cup was on my clit. She squeezed again, and blood rushed to my pussy, making it throb. Squeeze number three, and I looked down to see my clit red, swollen, and filling half the cylinder. It looked huge.

I suddenly remembered the first time I saw porn star Sydnee Steele on the set of an adult film. Like all women, when the juices started flowing, Sydnee's clit grew. But she had one of the largest I've ever seen--I was captivated by her juicy pussy and full, luscious clit that could fill my entire mouth. I recall being super turned on but also really envious. It would be so cool to have a really big clit. (See, guys, you are not the only ones who can be obsessive about size.)

With Sarah's hand wrapped firmly on the pumping mechanism, and the cylinder fused to my pussy, I was well on the way to a bigger clit (at least temporarily). As a bonus, not only was it big, when I took the cylinder off, it was supersensitive. One touch of a vibrator, and I was in outer space. I was raring to go in five minutes flat!

Scientifically speaking, it makes perfect sense that the same pleasure principle can be applied to both cock and clit. Even though we have been conditioned to think that penis is to vagina as yin is to yang, that's entirely incorrect and has kept all of us in the dark about women's pleasure. The fact is that the clitoris (not the cunt) and the penis are very similar in structural design: Both are made of erectile tissue, both fill with blood, swell, and harden during arousal. Before you reach for the pump--well, before you touch another clit (your own or someone else's), you must read Rebecca Chalker's fantastic new book The Clitoral Truth: The Secret World at Your Fingertips (Seven Stories Press). Chalker details every last millimeter of the clitoris. While it is similar to its penile counterpart, it's much more than mini-manmeat.

Which is good news for butches and other genderbenders. Karlyn Lotney, a San Francisco sex celeb and advice columnist also known as "Fairy Butch" (www.fairybutch.com), details the ups and downs of clit pumping in her book The Ultimate Guide to Strap-On Sex. One of the most knowledgeable and experienced pumping aficionados, Lotney says, "Some female-bodied people such as transmen and stone butches who do not identify with their female genitalia find that oral sex is transformed after clit pumping; because the size of the clitoris may increase dramatically, fantasies of fellatio are easily accommodated." Lotney has even pioneered a technique of penetration with a cylinder, but don't you dare attempt it without carefully reading her tips and caveats first.

Before you accuse me of penis envy (again), let me assure you I am smitten with my new toy not because it makes my clit into a cock, but because it shows me yet another incredible thing my body can do. I love new gadgets and gimmicks that get me off! The Clit Pump is an expensive little gift (around $90 for the pump and the cylinder) but I say a better stocking stuffer than that scooter you were gonna get. Your best bet is the Internet, since the pumps are not yet widely distributed in stores; however, New Yorkers are in luck. I hear Santa dropped off a big shipment at Toys in Babeland.

THERE COMES A TIME, WHEN WE HEED A CERTAIN CALL... (-1)

Subject Line Troll (581198) | more than 12 years ago | (#3640275)

A HREF="f/?a=1 x f

WHEN THE WORLD MUST COME TOGETHER AS ONE (-1)

News For Turds (580751) | more than 12 years ago | (#3640297)

n

Re:THERE ARE PEOPLE DYING (-1, Troll)

Anonymous Coward | more than 12 years ago | (#3640310)

Lionel Richie

Re:YOU ARE MY HERO. I FEEL A SONG COMING ON... (-1)

News For Turds (580751) | more than 12 years ago | (#3640281)

Ooh! I have the perfect song!

Ok... Say it with me...

G to da mutha phukken oatse [goatse.cx]
C to da mutha phukken izzzzzzex
HellZ yeah, you know how it is bizznitch

[slashdot.org][slashdot.org]dumbass[slashdot . rg]

*sniff (-1)

CLIT (581942) | more than 12 years ago | (#3640486)

I just love that song!

WHEN THE WORLD MUST COME TOGETHER AS ONE... (-1)

Subject Line Troll (581198) | more than 12 years ago | (#3640294)

A HREF="f/?a=1 x f

THERE ARE PEOPLE DYING, AND {mumble mumble mumble} (-1)

Subject Line Troll (581198) | more than 12 years ago | (#3640309)

A HREF="f/?a=1 x f

AND THE {mumble}, STANDS TOGETHER AND {mumble}... (-1)

Subject Line Troll (581198) | more than 12 years ago | (#3640328)

A HREF="f/?a=1 x f

WE ARE THE C.L.I.T. WE ARE ANNOYING... (-1)

Subject Line Troll (581198) | more than 12 years ago | (#3640351)

A HREF="f/?a=1 x f

WE ARE A SENSITIVE FLESHY KNOB ABOVE THE VAGINA... (-1)

Subject Line Troll (581198) | more than 12 years ago | (#3640375)

A HREF="f/?a=1 x f

IF YOU STIMULATE US, WE BECOME ENGORGED WITH BLOOD (-1)

Subject Line Troll (581198) | more than 12 years ago | (#3640390)

A HREF="f/?a=1 x f

AND L0RDKARIYA GETS LOTS OF FP'S BECAUSE HE'S LEET (-1)

Subject Line Troll (581198) | more than 12 years ago | (#3640407)

A HREF="f/?a=1 x f

THANK YOU, AND HAVE A PLEASANT TROLL TUESDAY! (-1)

Subject Line Troll (581198) | more than 12 years ago | (#3640422)

A HREF="f/?a=1 x f

Re:AND L0RDKARIYA GETS LOTS OF FP'S BECAUSE HE'S L (-1)

L0rdkariya (562469) | more than 12 years ago | (#3640458)

You guys are goddamn hilarious, every one of you. I mean it. Stop making me squirt snapple out my nose.

Re:yeah (-1)

News For Turds (580751) | more than 12 years ago | (#3640259)

Once again, I bow to you for your fr0st p1st. And to you, I offer these words of wisdom:


Posted by michael on Tuesday June 04, @12:51PM
from the top-down dept.
JCallery writes "CNN is reporting on the plan drawn up by ICANN's restructuring committee after ICANN decided to abandon direct elections." We had a earlier story about the restructuring plan with some notes from one of the board members who attended. ICANN's plan is online and a must-read for anyone interested in internet governance issues. Below, I have some notes about why this restructuring would be terrible idea for regular internet users.

If you've followed the history of ICANN at all, you know that it was originally set up to have substantial representation from the general public (known as At-Large representatives) - 9 of 18 board members. The original unelected board immediately set about undermining that, only electing 5 members and keeping on four "board-squatters" from the original unelected bunch.

The elections of the five At-Large members had two flaws from the point of view of ICANN's unelected board:

There were assorted technical issues with the voting process, due apparently to incompetence from the contractor who handled it.
Two of the five new board members who were elected did not represent the same corporate interests as the rest of the board.
Of these two flaws, the second was by far the more severe. The board risked losing control of ICANN to people who might run it for the public good rather than for the good of the corporations represented on the board. They started backing away from having any sort of elected representation whatsoever. In February 2002 ICANN President Lynn floated a reform proposal which would eliminate the At-Large representation - or rather, it would keep something called "At-Large", that would no longer be elected by the general public but instead appointed by the Board itself. Instead of the general public picking new ICANN Board members, the ICANN Board would pick new ICANN Board members. This was followed by a vote which confirmed ICANN's commitment to eliminating elected representation.

Now the reform proposal is out. There would be two classes of board members:

approximately eight ex-officio members (members holding the board seat due to some other title or position they hold)
approximately five to eleven members picked by a Nominating Committee (the Committee to be chosen by the current Board) and perhaps confirmed by the Board
It is important to note how thoroughly captured this process is. Many of the ex-officio seats accrue from positions that are selected by the ICANN Board. So the ICANN Board picks someone to be chief dogwalker, and the chief dogwalker gets an automatic position on ICANN's Board.

The seats selected by the Nominating Committee are also extremely vulnerable to capture. Let me use a real-life example of how nominating committees work to show what I mean: my credit union.

My credit union has a board structure very similar to the one proposed for ICANN: several ex-officio members, and a number of seats elected by the general populace (everyone who has an account at the credit union). This structure is actually more flexible than that proposed for ICANN, since ICANN does not plan any direct elections at all. However, the credit union membership picks from among candidates selected by a Nominating Committee. Every year or two, I get a ballot in the mail. I can choose from among all the candidates selected by the Nominating Committee, and I can check boxes for the candidates that I prefer, up to the number of open seats available on the Board.

I never return these ballots. Why, you might ask? Because the number of candidates is usually identical to the number of open seats. Three empty seats, three candidates to choose from. Six empty seats, six candidates to choose from. I think one year they might have had more candidates than open seats, but it was an aberration.

This system apparently works well for credit unions: would you believe that they pay interest on my checking account? What it does guarantee is that all future Board members will represent the same biases that are present in the Board at the instant the system was instituted. In my credit union's case, this guarantees "fiscal responsibility" or "fiscal conservatism".

For ICANN, what it would do is institutionalize the biases currently present. Whatever biases are there right now, will be there forever, as the system becomes a self-reinforcing feedback loop with no external controls.

The Board's current biases are toward:

expanding ICANN's mission from a purely technical body to one that is willing to govern the Internet - taking on assorted social/political issues as it sees fit
running ICANN for private profit rather than public benefit
Neither of these two traits needs reinforcing. Karl Auerbach, one of ICANN's At-Large directors, has his thoughts on a possible ICANN structure.

Huzzah's for L0rdkariya!! (-1)

egg troll (515396) | more than 12 years ago | (#3640430)

Huzzah!

Now, I'd like to bugger little Timothy. Is there a FAQ on how I should go about doing this?

Re:Huzzah's for L0rdkariya!! (-1)

L0rdkariya (562469) | more than 12 years ago | (#3640490)

1) Run Linux
2) Complain a lot
3) Log out

That is all.

I respect your work (-1, Troll)

Anonymous Coward | more than 12 years ago | (#3640460)

Let me say first that I'm proud to be replying to an FP by the great king of FP, L0rdkariya, but have you ever considered giving some tips to up and coming troll Jon Barrett? [goatse.cx] I'm sure that he would appreciate your advice.

Re:I respect your work (-1, Troll)

Anonymous Coward | more than 12 years ago | (#3640480)

The end of the world is coming! Protect yourselves from having your civil rights breached. Find out which are your fundamental rights under the constitution HERE [goatse.cx] .
The results may sorprise [goatse.cx] and amaze you too!

Re:I respect your work (0)

Anonymous Coward | more than 12 years ago | (#3640495)

PLUS ONE FUNNY!

WELCOME TO MY GAY RODEO (YEEEHAW) (-1)

ElCagado (575762) | more than 12 years ago | (#3640494)

SALT LAKE CITY - Dan Iversen says he was as surprised as anybody when he hopped back into the saddle of a horse long after he gave up the country life and declared he was gay. Iversen, 47, grew up on a South Dakota farm and says he hated almost everything about it, preferring motorcycles to horses and anything to country music. He moved to Phoenix in his 20s but couldn't avoid the tug of the open range, or at least the rodeo. "That's me," he said. Gay pride was on display at the Utah State Fairpark last weekend for the gay rodeo, normally a distinctly macho sport. In many ways, this rodeo was about celebrating people for who they are. "As gay people, we tend to leave the rural areas and go to the cities, because that is where the gay people are, but eventually we want to go back to our heritage and roots," said Brian Helander, a Phoenix nurse who grew up in Canada. Saturday's participants acknowledge the concept of gay rodeo probably draws snickers from those outside their community. From a seat in the rodeo stands, much of it looked like any other rodeo - cowboys and cowgirls getting bucked from broncos and struggling to lasso slippery steers and calves. But this rodeo did have a dash of panache. The goat dressing event, for example, required two-person teams to dash 50 yards to a tethered goat, flip up its hind legs and strap on a pair of bikini briefs. It was Utah's third gay rodeo, part of a national circuit of rodeos held from San Diego to Cleveland. "The bar scene, unfortunately, seems to be what the gay community" revolves around, Ogden native Brad Newey, 23, said. "It's great to see Utah actually prove that we're opening and broadening our horizons." Utah stock companies weren't always warm to the idea of sponsoring a gay rodeo, but times have changed. "What's the difference? Their money is green," stock provider Danny Clegg said. "It's baffling for me, as tough as the rodeo business is."

yeah... (-1)

jethro200 (573288) | more than 12 years ago | (#3640255)

but does it look pretty?

errrrr NFS? (5, Informative)

karrde (853) | more than 12 years ago | (#3640276)

Let's just ignore the fact that we're all a bunch of geeks, and the acronymn NFS usually equal 'Network File System'. Not 'Number Field Sieve' as it does in this case. Would it have been so dificult to say that in the post?? The first link doesn't even give you that information.

Re:errrrr NFS? (-1, Offtopic)

Anonymous Coward | more than 12 years ago | (#3640289)

Not to mention the people that will bitch about /. posting a .pdf on the home page...

Re:errrrr NFS? (-1, Flamebait)

diryn (576023) | more than 12 years ago | (#3640325)

Right. The people who would be interested by this article will know what NFS means in this context. Just because *YOU* aren't interested in this field, it doesn't mean that they have to make it more obvious to you. I'm guessing that you already knew from reading the gist of the post that they weren't refering to 'Network File System' and proally didn't interest you at all. So why complain about it when it has no interest to you at all, other than to find a flaw that only has a basis in a limited perspective. Acronoyms are meant to communicate more information in fewer words (or characters) to other people in the field. David

Re:errrrr NFS? (1)

bafu (580052) | more than 12 years ago | (#3640362)

Right. The people who would be interested by this article will know what NFS means in this context. Just because *YOU* aren't interested in this field, it doesn't mean that they have to make it more obvious to you.

Well, I ended up following the link since I couldn't be 100% sure than Dan Bernstein hadn't written an NFS implementation... ;-)

As you say, though, no biggie. certainly not worth complaining about...

Re:errrrr NFS? (1)

diryn (576023) | more than 12 years ago | (#3640415)

Mmmm. Then again, I read too much. I thought it woulda been obvious from the article, but I forget that other people don't know the same things as me. Nor I them. To me, it was obvious because one, it spoke of RSA, factorization, and cryptosavvy. My apologies for thinking I'm better than the lot of you. David

Re:errrrr NFS? (0)

Anonymous Coward | more than 12 years ago | (#3640524)

Class act.

Re:errrrr NFS? (1, Offtopic)

bluGill (862) | more than 12 years ago | (#3640363)

Because it is of interest to me, even though I'm not an expert on the topic. I read the entire summery, trying to figgure out what fire sharing had to do with the topic. Only after I read the summery did I realize that NFS must mean something different, but I wasn't sure what. Once it is explained it makes perfect sense, and I know essentially what is ment.

I have enough of a cryptography background that I can deal with nfs as mentioned, but I'm rusty there, but normally when someone says NFS I think network file system, because it is common to say nfs to me with that meaning. (I work on unix systems, nfs failures are my first clue that something is wrong in many cases)

opps I crapped my post (-1)

neal n bob (531011) | more than 12 years ago | (#3640376)

gvotrvfkvv9619;æjnjujnjutrÃ¥ou798up pykÃpo8tvkugpjhip iyvp9vpvgvotrvfkvv9619; [goatse.cx]

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I find your post intriguing (-1)

CLIT (581942) | more than 12 years ago | (#3640507)

And I wish to subscribe to your newsletter.

Holy Cult of Mathematics? (0)

Anonymous Coward | more than 12 years ago | (#3640369)

So you only want to educate the people that are already educated?

Even if I had been aware of a Number Field Seive, I probably still would wonder, at first, about the file system.

Not to mention that there are obviously a lot of young, impressionable, children on this site that might like to learn something new, and skip right over an article about a stupid old file system.

No, you are the unreasonable one. The parent makes a good point.

Re:errrrr NFS? (-1)

k0osh.CEOofCLIT (582286) | more than 12 years ago | (#3640373)

hey shitbarge maybe he would have been interested in it if he didnt have to spend most of his time tryin to find out what NFS meant.

Re:errrrr NFS? (3, Insightful)

Enry (630) | more than 12 years ago | (#3640431)

Given that DJB already has implementations of DNS and SMTP around that are heavily focused on security, it wouldn't suprise me if he went into looking at securing NFS (the file system).

NFS!!!!! (0)

Anonymous Coward | more than 12 years ago | (#3640561)


Need For Speed !!

Re:errrrr NFS? (2)

(void*) (113680) | more than 12 years ago | (#3640338)

Sorry - you are a bunch of computer geeks. These guys are Mathematical Nerds. There's a difference. </snooty>

that was funny (0)

Anonymous Coward | more than 12 years ago | (#3640537)

ROFL

Re:errrrr NFS? (2)

Our Man In Redmond (63094) | more than 12 years ago | (#3640368)

Yeah, not to mention the fact that when they said this was Bernstein's NFS, the first thing I thought was, "Okay, what has the author of qmail [cr.yp.to] gotten his fingers into this time?"

Re:errrrr NFS? (1)

danboo (473483) | more than 12 years ago | (#3640400)

umm, your first thought was correct. they are the same.

Yes it does! (3, Insightful)

John Harrison (223649) | more than 12 years ago | (#3640372)

The first link doesn't even give you that information.

From the pdf:

Introduction

In [1], a new circuit-based approach is proposed for one of the steps of the number field sieve (NFS) integer factorization method, namely finding a linear relation in a large but sparse matrix.

This is on the first page of the linked pdf.

However, I agreed that it should have been spelled out in the post.

Re:errrrr NFS? (0)

Anonymous Coward | more than 12 years ago | (#3640568)

HA HA! You forgot about the Bernstein condition!

hackers... (5, Funny)

coronaride (222264) | more than 12 years ago | (#3640280)

still waiting for that level of encryption shown in everyones favorite hacking movie that displays the giant skull and crossbones in a cheezy GUI to let you know that you don't have access..

Re:hackers... (1)

KingKire64 (321470) | more than 12 years ago | (#3640314)

You could also get around that by shift clicking on the Pi symbol on the bottom right hand corner of the page. BTW when i know she wasnt a hacker but when was the last time you met a computer geek that looked like sandra bullok?

Re:hackers... (0)

Budgreen (561093) | more than 12 years ago | (#3640317)

Would this be before or after they have on Powergloves and are flying around inside the computer representation VR type thing?

Re:hackers... (0, Offtopic)

ImaLamer (260199) | more than 12 years ago | (#3640379)

Why not use the PowerGlove? [geocities.com]

I've got a book somewhere that talks about using it in your programs, although I can't find it to give you the title.

Still behind the times (1)

Anonymous Coward | more than 12 years ago | (#3640302)

There are more efficient, deterministic ways of factorization than NFS. Additionally, in the not too distant future, off-the-shelf quantum computers will be able to make short work of 1024+.

Re:Still behind the times (2, Insightful)

wirelessbuzzers (552513) | more than 12 years ago | (#3640565)

There are more efficient, deterministic ways of factorization than NFS.

True, but not by much, and if the jump was as big as claimed, not for long. But these guys revised it down considerably.

Additionally, in the not too distant future, off-the-shelf quantum computers will be able to make short work of 1024+.

Physicists aren't even sure if quantum computers are practical... sure Shor's algo made short work of factoring 15, but what if it turns out that engineering the rather arbitrary entanglements required for Shor's is NP-complete? Then what? That possibility hasn't been ruled out yet, and making those entanglements is already pretty hard...

Re:Still behind the times (1)

anonymous_wombat (532191) | more than 12 years ago | (#3640574)

Additionally, in the not too distant future, off-the-shelf quantum computers will be able to make short work of 1024+.
I don't believe this. When you put a quantum computer on a shelf, you never know what part of the shelf it is liable to move to, or even a different shelf entirely.

Quotes from the paper (5, Interesting)

Beryllium Sphere(tm) (193358) | more than 12 years ago | (#3640304)

"In particular, we show that 1024-bit RSA keys are as secure as many
believed them to be."

"We thus
conclude that the practical security of RSA for commonly used modulus
sizes is not significantly affected"

Sounds like it only speeds up one step of the factoring process, which is important to keep an eye on but not grounds for alarm.

Re:Quotes from the paper (3, Informative)

Telastyn (206146) | more than 12 years ago | (#3640442)

Furthermore the paper goes on to say that the major improvements were done to the matrix half of the procedure rather than the collection side. "Half" probably isn't the most accurate term, as the collection side takes far longer (months) than the matrix side (days).

Even if you remove the matrix side, it takes a VERY long time to find all of the relations needed to make the matrix in order to solve it.

Is factoring hard (1)

sigxcpu (456479) | more than 12 years ago | (#3640305)

All the mathematical theorems used in public key cryptography have a fine print clause saying:
"Assuming factoring/[other oroblem] is hard"
this makes you think maybe it isn't

Re:Is factoring hard (2, Funny)

GigsVT (208848) | more than 12 years ago | (#3640331)

Nah, factoring's easy, I can factor any prime number up you tell me, in my head, in less than a second.

Re:Is factoring hard (1)

bleckywelcky (518520) | more than 12 years ago | (#3640423)


Come on people +1 Funny, that was hilarious.

Ah, forget it...

aargh. (0)

Anonymous Coward | more than 12 years ago | (#3640594)

you know that is a typical reply to anyone accidentally mentioning "factoring primes" but seems now even that isn't required.

ie. more like +1 Limbo.

Re:Is factoring hard (1)

SavingPrivateNawak (563767) | more than 12 years ago | (#3640610)

Oh! you're Bill Gates?

Re:Is factoring hard (5, Insightful)

Jeremiah Blatz (173527) | more than 12 years ago | (#3640398)

I don't know. If somebody knows it isn't, they aren't saying.

The problem is this, there are certain mathematical problems that are known to be Hard. Traveling Salesman, Knapsack, etc. There are no shortcuts to solving these problems. Many mathematical problems can be proven to be in this class of problems. Nobody has, to date, publicly, shown that factoring numbers is Hard, and nobody has shown that it isn't.

Of course, nobody has proven the security any of the symmetric cryptosystems (with the exception of one-time pads), so any practical system is already victim to this uncertainty.

Re:Is factoring hard (1, Informative)

Anonymous Coward | more than 12 years ago | (#3640437)

Nobody has shown that traveling salesman and knapsack are hard unless you've got a proof that P != NP.

Re:Is factoring hard (1)

oldmacdonald (80995) | more than 12 years ago | (#3640475)

First, to reiterate the AC's point for those who are browsing at +1, no one has shown traveling salesman and knapsack are hard, only that they are NP-complete. If P=NP then it's all easy.

Secondly, no one has shown a good cryptosystem based on these.

Re:Is factoring hard (2)

photon317 (208409) | more than 12 years ago | (#3640631)


(I might be wrong, this is just my understanding of things at the moment)...

Isn't factoring NP-Complete, and Traveling Salesman NP-Complete, and thus any cryptosystem that relies on factoring is in a certain sense a cryptosystem based on traveling salesman, since a solution to one can be translated to a solution of the other.

Re:Is factoring hard (0)

Anonymous Coward | more than 12 years ago | (#3640500)

Almost all cryptography problems boil down to solving the discrete log problem. That is figuring out what is the equivalent of the log function for finite fields. Factoring is hard because we don't know the answer to this question. In the 1940's we made huge progress on this problem by figuring out the equivalent of the log for a thing that is sort of halfway between a finite field and the real numbers. No one has had any great insight since then.

In practice then what people are working on is making hard factoring faster not making factoring easy. And slowly but surely we are improving here, good idea after good idea. But we are always one great idea away from making factoring easy.

The /. story quotes the wrong part of the paper (5, Interesting)

mridley (571519) | more than 12 years ago | (#3640308)

Well the /. story exerpt is kind of alarmist but I think the more relevant quote from the paper is "However, the theoretical analysis shows that the cost of the relation collection step cannot be significantly reduced, regardless of the cost of the matrix step. We thus conclude that the practical security of RSA for commonly used modulus sizes is not significantly affected..." (typos probably mine)

Re:The /. story quotes the wrong part of the paper (2, Interesting)

Anonymous Coward | more than 12 years ago | (#3640365)

funny, i think the /. excerpt should be a bit more alarmist, and the paper should be less conservative in its claims. why? because the relation collection step, while the most expensive in terms of cpu time, is also the easiest to parallelize and distribute. any moron in charge of network administration for a relatively large company can put sieving clients on all the desktops and get all the relations he needs in a few weeks without spending any money. the thing that kept this from being a threat was the inability of our hypothetical net amdin to perform the matrix step. if the method presented in this paper works for the matrix step, then i consider RSA 1024 to be broken.

w00t (-1, Offtopic)

jedi98629 (544161) | more than 12 years ago | (#3640313)

w00t

It's 1.17, not 3.01... your keys less compromised (4, Interesting)

russotto (537200) | more than 12 years ago | (#3640315)

The most important part of the abstract is the finding that "for a given cost, the new method can factor integers that are 1.17 times larger (rather than 3.01)." This means that even if the new factoring method scales to "small" numbers of bits like 1024, a 1024 bit key is only reduced to the security of an 875 bit key, not a 342 bit key. This is a big difference! It goes from "uh oh, better revoke all my keys right now" to "Hmm, might want to think about increasing them in the future".

Re:It's 1.17, not 3.01... your keys less compromis (2, Informative)

Phs2501 (559902) | more than 12 years ago | (#3640408)

Umm, no. We're talking powers of two here. 1024 bits is a number 2 times bigger than 1023 bits. Not 512 bits.

Even if it is 3.01 times larger, that's still an effective strength of at least 1022 bits.

(For what it's worth, I've only read the abstract.)

Re:It's 1.17, not 3.01... your keys less compromis (1)

russotto (537200) | more than 12 years ago | (#3640582)

Already taken into account -- it's 1.17 times (or 3.01 times) the LENGTH of the integer, not its value. If it had been 3.01, it would have been a big deal.

what a retarded fucking article (-1)

Sexual Asspussy (453406) | more than 12 years ago | (#3640323)

putting a cryptographic paper in front of slashbots is like tucking a cache of diamonds in a boar's craphole. and none of you faggot-ass HIV+ editors understand this article either. you're too busy harvesting cum from used rubbers to think about number field sieve.

queers

uh oh (1)

TweeKinDaBahx (583007) | more than 12 years ago | (#3640327)

it's guys like these that drive the security bigwigs at Los Alamos and Sandia crazy. I guess it's keeps them employed though, because once they break it, they'll have to build a stonger algorithm and try to break that one.

Or they could just stop letting people work from home and stop letting their kids play MUDs on their secure terminal :P.

Whee! Slashdot FUD (2, Insightful)

Jeremiah Blatz (173527) | more than 12 years ago | (#3640329)

Also from the abstract:
In particular, we show that 1024-bit RSA keys are as secure as many belived them to be.
And:
However, the theoretical analysis shows that the cost of the relation collection step cannot be significantly reduced, regardless of the cost of the matrix step. We thi=us conclude that the practical security of RSA for commonly used modulus sizes is not significantly affected by [1].
If i recall correctly, the original device was impractical, as the speed increases gained by the parallelism were negated by the cost of collection/sifting through the results. Apparently, this weakness still holds.

Re:Whee! Slashdot FUD (0)

Anonymous Coward | more than 12 years ago | (#3640516)

you recall incorrectly, and you obviously don't understand how the nfs works. please go read about it before posting on the topic again, ok?

Mesh routing is really the way to go (2, Funny)

Sheetrock (152993) | more than 12 years ago | (#3640332)

I don't know how many of you are cryptobuffs, but you might remember the craze surrounding elliptic curves as a efficient-yet-complex method of obfuscating plaintext. There was a bit of controversy as to whether or not it would lead to predictability because of its nature (ellipses are round, keep in mind, and therefore there was some concern that what goes around comes around and an attacker could just walk full circle to arrive at a key).

Well, I believe that mesh routing might just give us all the pluses without most or all of the minuses. First of all, it involves routing, which if you've paid attention to the formation of the Internet you'll quickly realize is a design that will lead to redundancy and reliability. More importantly, it is a mesh, which means that one end of the key is not necessarily tied to the other end. This should cut off many of the attacks that would have a chance of success on elliptic curves by way of its nature. Meshing also implies redundancy... there may be some size and speed tradeoffs here, but you can be certain you'll get your data back out of the cryptopot.

Bruce Schneier, a luminary in the field of cryptography and author of the book Applied Cryptography, has a web site here [slashdot.org] .

Re:Mesh routing is really the way to go (0)

Anonymous Coward | more than 12 years ago | (#3640404)

Luckily, anyone with even a minimal understanding of elliptic curves knows that their connection with ellipses doesn't really go beyond the name and would have recognized by the second sentence that you were just making stuff up.

Excellent troll (1)

Shimmer (3036) | more than 12 years ago | (#3640488)

Who the heck modded this up? "One end of the key is not necessarily tied to the other end?" Hilarious.

-- Brian

Dot and a Database (1, Funny)

The Infamous TommyD (21616) | more than 12 years ago | (#3640497)

Wow, what karma whore. You're making more shit up than a battalion of marines with dysentary.

Re:Mesh routing is really the way to go (0)

Anonymous Coward | more than 12 years ago | (#3640525)

I'd like some cryptopot.

+1 Hilarious (0)

Anonymous Coward | more than 12 years ago | (#3640533)

You've obviously cracked the cover of Applied Cryptography, but did you get past the first chapter? :)

Re:Mesh routing is really the way to go (1, Informative)

Anonymous Coward | more than 12 years ago | (#3640545)

Here is a handy rule for moderators: never Never NEVER mod a post "Insightful" unless you personally understand exactly what it says. Similarly, never use "Informative" unless you can verify that the post is accurate.

Trust me, I will be watching for you in metamod.

Re:Mesh routing is really the way to go (0)

Anonymous Coward | more than 12 years ago | (#3640577)

Here's another rule: use -1 Overrated instead of +1 Funny because while it's perfectly ok for you to metamod others you're a sour bitter person who doesn't want anyone else to laugh and never, ever wants to expose his own decisions to community judgement

Result doesn't imply weak keys (2, Informative)

Anonymous Coward | more than 12 years ago | (#3640344)

They clearly state in the paper that "1024-bit RSA keys are as secure as many believed them to be."

As they clearly state in the paper, "the security of RSA relies exclusively on the hardness of the relation collection step of the number field sieve." - The speedup that Bernstein proposed just makes the stuff surrounding that step a bit more efficient.

Cliff notes version (5, Interesting)

Ashurbanipal (578639) | more than 12 years ago | (#3640345)

Basically, Dan Bernstein (who has written useable but controversial alternatives to BIND and SENDMAIL) figured out a new method for breaking RSA encryption based on custom hardware. The fellows mentioned in the headline, who are also legit crypto guys, have analysed Dr. Bernstein's work and make the following observations:

1) it's not quite as fast as Bernstein estimated (about half as fast for cliff notes purposes)
2) the hardware could be affordable (others have claimed costs that are only feasible for governments)
3) you don't have to revoke all your RSA keys because there are steps that precede the application of the Berstein method that still take absurd amounts of time and horsepower.

Oh, yeah, and it has nothing to do with Sun's NFS (Network File System, a lame and usually insecure way to share files).

Bernstein will no doubt reply. He isn't a shy guy from my experience.

Re:Cliff notes version (1)

_jthm (60540) | more than 12 years ago | (#3640531)

this is a bit off-topic, but i'm genuinely curious -

is qmail controversial ?

perhaps i'm coming into the game a bit late and don't know the entire history. i've used qmail, and thought it was simple and cool. didn't know what the feelings of the community were.

Re:Cliff notes version (2)

swb (14022) | more than 12 years ago | (#3640575)

is qmail controversial ?

Associatively. I think Dan Bernstein has a reputation for being outspoken about himself, his software and so on.

Qmail just inherited it.

Re:Cliff notes version (5, Funny)

MAXOMENOS (9802) | more than 12 years ago | (#3640558)

Bernstein will no doubt reply. He isn't a shy guy from my experience.

This post should be modded +4 Understated.

Re:Cliff notes version (1, Offtopic)

Quazion (237706) | more than 12 years ago | (#3640608)

Sun's NFS (Network File System, a lame and usually insecure way to share files).

I never used Sun's NFS, but i was planning in the near future, so what way to share file's nice and secure in a unix network ? like if you want to mount homedirs and such.

Quazion

fuck you (-1, Flamebait)

Anonymous Coward | more than 12 years ago | (#3640359)

fuck you fuck you fuck you and fuck your fucking shity file system and fuck rob, fuck all of you gay ass hom mother fuckers right up the fucking ass!

Ernest, Is that you? (-1)

Anonymous Coward | more than 12 years ago | (#3640646)

Fuck you you fucking fuck.

mine isn't original, and still as insiteful ;)

I was worried that DJB was one step closer... (0)

Anonymous Coward | more than 12 years ago | (#3640374)

to total internet domination.

wolfenstein license agreement (-1, Offtopic)

Anonymous Coward | more than 12 years ago | (#3640389)

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Sad news - Stephen King, dead at 54 (-1, Troll)

Anonymous Coward | more than 12 years ago | (#3640393)

I just heard some sad news on talk radio - Horror/Sci Fi writer Stephen King was found dead in his Maine home this morning. There weren't any more details. I'm sure everyone in the Slashdot community will miss him - even if you didn't enjoy his work, there's no denying his contributions to popular culture. Truly an American icon.

Linux sucks! (-1, Offtopic)

Anonymous Coward | more than 12 years ago | (#3640434)

It sucks because it sucks!

Bloat (2.5.20 = 33.3MB)
Slow (386 takes hours to boot)
Expensive ($299 For Red Hat Professional)
Gay

You can moderate this post, but you can't hide the truth!

Edward Leedskalnin's "Magnetic Current", part 1 (-1)

Genghis Troll (158585) | more than 12 years ago | (#3640455)

This writing is lined up so when you read it you look East, and all the description you will read about magnetic current, it will be just as good for your electricity.

Following is the result of my two years experiment with magnets at Rock Gate, seventeen miles Southwest from Miami, Florida. Between Twenty-fifth and Twenty-sixth Latitude and Eightieth and Eighty-first Longitude West.

First I will describe what a magnet is. You have seen straight bar magnets, U shape magnets, sphere or ball magnets and Alnico magnets in many shapes, and usually a hole in the middle.

In all magnets one end of the metal is North Pole and the other South Pole, and those which have no end one side is North Pole and the other South Pole.

Now about the sphere magnet. if you have a strong magnet you can change the poles in the sphere in any side you want or take the poles out so the sphere will not be a magnet any more. From this you can see that the magnet can be shifted and concentrated and also you can see that the metal is not the real magnet. The real magnet is the substance that is circulating in the metal.

Each particle in the substance is an individual magnet by itself, and both North and South Pole individual magnets. They are so small that they can pass through anything.. In fact they can pass through metal easier than through the air. They are in constant motion, they are running one kind of magnets against the other kind, and if guided in the right channels they possess perpetual power.

The North and South Pole magnets they ore cosmic force, they hold together this earth and everything on it. Each North and South Pole magnet is equal in strength, but the strength of each individual magnet doesn't amount to anything. To be of practical use they will have to be in great numbers.

In permanent magnets they are circulating in the metal in great numbers, and they circulate in the following way: Each kind of the magnets are coming out of their own end of the pole and are running around, and are running in the other end of the pole and back to its own end, and then over and over again.

All the individual magnets do not run around. Some run away and never come back, but new ones take their place.

The earth itself is a great big magnet. In general these North and South Pole individual magnets are circulating in the same way as in the permanent magnet metal. The North Pole individual magnets are coming out of the earth's South Pole and are running around in the earth's North Pole and back to its own pole, and South Pole individual magnets are coming out of the earth's North Pole and are running around, and in earth South Pole and back to its own end.

Then both North and South Pole individual magnets start to run over and over again.

In a permanent magnet bar between the poles there is a semi-neutral part where there is not much going in or out, but on the earth there is no place where the magnets are not going in or out, but the magnets are running in and out at pole ends more than at the Equator. Now you get the equipment and I will tell you so you can see for yourself that it is in the way I have told, Get a permanent magnet bar four inches long. A U shape magnet that is strong enough to lift from ten to twenty pounds.

An Alnico magnet about three inches long,two and one-half inches wide, one-inch thick, Hole in the middle and poles in each end, several feet in length of hard steel fishing line. Line when it is not in coil it stays straight and a soft steel welding rod one-eighth of an inch thick and three feet long. From the fishing wire and the welding rod you will make magnets or compasses, and if you hang them up in fine threads by middle and keep them there they will be permanent magnets.

When you are making a magnet pole in the welding rod use U shape magnet. South Pole magnet to make North Pole magnet in the rod and use U shape North Pole magnet to make South Pole magnet in the rod. You can drag the magnet over the rod from end to end, but never stop in middle. If you stop in middle there will be an extra pole so it will disturb the magnet's circulation.

Use iron filings to test the rod if there is any magnets in the middle, and if there is the filings will cling to it. Then drag the permanent magnet over the rod and it will take it out. To take the magnet out from rod ends approach or touch the rod end with the same kind of magnet that is in the rod, by dipping the rod ends in iron filings, you will see how it works.

Break three pieces of the steel fishing line just long enough to go in between the two poles of U shape permanent magnet. Put them endwise between the two poles, and take them out. Hang one by middle with fine thread, and hang it up in East side of the room where there is no other magnet or metal around.

Now you will have a permanent magnet or compass to test the polarity in other magnets. For more delicate use hang the magnet in spider web. To test the strength of a magnet use iron filings.

Put the U shape permanent magnet two feet West from the hanging magnet. Hold the North Pole magnet in `level with the hanging magnet, then you will see that the South pole of the hanging magnet is turning to you and the North Pole magnet away from you.

Now put the South Pole permanent magnet pole in the same level, this time North Pole magnet will turn to you and South Pole magnet away from you.

This experiment shows two things, one that the magnets can he sent out in straight streams, and the other whatever kind of magnets you are sending out the other kind of magnets are coming back to you.

Take two pieces of steel fishing line wire, put them in U shape magnet, hold a little while, take them out, bend a little back in one end and hang them up, and make it so that one magnet's lower end is North Pole magnet and the other South Pole magnet - Make it so that they hang three inches apart.

Put North Pole North side, and South Pole South side. Now take the four-inch long perma- nent magnet bar, hold North Pole in North side and South Pole in South side.

Raise slowly up to the two hanging magnets, then you will see that the hanging magnets are closing up. Now reverse, put North Pole of bar magnet South side and South Pole North side. This time when bar magnet approaches the hanging magnets will spread out. This experiment shows that North and South Pole magnets are equal in strength and that the streams of individual magnets are running one kind of magnets against the other kind.

Cut a strip of a tin can about two inches wide and a foot long. Put the North Pole of the U shape magnet on top of the strip, and dip the lower end in iron filings, and see how much it lifts. Now put the South Pole on top and see how much it lifts. Change several times, then you will see that the North Pole lifts more than the South Pole Now put the North Pole magnet under the iron filing box, and see how much it pushes up. Now change. put South Pole magnet under the box and see how much it pushes up.

Do this several times, then you will see that the South Pole magnet pushes up more than North Pole magnet. This experiment shows again that on level ground the magnets are in equal strength.

Now take the three-foot long soft steel welding rod. It is already magnetized as a permanent magnet. hang it in a fine thread so it is in level. Now measure each and you will see that the South end is longer. In my location at Rock Gate, between Twenty-fifth and Twenty-sixth Latitude and Eightieth and Eighty- first Longitude West, in three-foot long magnet the South Pole end is about a sixteenth of an inch longer.

Farther North it should be longer yet, but at Equator both ends of the magnet should be equal in length. In earth's South hemisphere the North Pole end of magnet should be longer.

All my hanging magnets or compasses they never point to the earth's magnetic pole, neither to the geographical pole. They point a little Northeast. The only reason I can figure out why they point in that way is, looking from the same geographical meridian the North magnetic pole is on, the South magnetic pole is one hundred and fifteen longitudes West from it.

In rough estimation the earth's South magnetic pole is two hundred and sixty miles West from the same meridian the earth's North magnetic pole is on. That causes the North and South Pole magnets to run in Northeast and Southwest direction My location is too far away from the magnetic poles so all my magnets are guided by the general stream of individual North and South Pole magnets that are passing by.

Now I will tell you what magnetic current is. Magnetic current is the same as electric current is a wrong expression. Really it is not one current, they are two currents, one current is composed of North Pole individual magnets in concentrated streams and the other is composed of South Pole individual magnets in concentrated streams, and they are running one stream against the other stream in whirling, screwlike fashion, and with high speed.

One current alone if it be North Pole magnet current or South Pole magnet current it cannot run alone. To run one current will have to run against the other.

Now I will tell you how the currents are running when they come out of a car battery, and what they can do. Now get the equipment. First put a wooden box on floor, open side up, cut two notches in middle so you can put a one-eigth of an inch thick and eighteen-inch long copper wire across the box. Put the

wire one end East, the other West. Stay yourself West, put car battery South side of the box positive terminal East, negative terminal West, get two flexible leads and four clips to fit the battery and the bare copper wire, connect the East end of the copper wire with positive terminal, clip the West end of the copper wire with the West side flexible lead, leave the connection with negative terminal open.

Break two pieces of the steel fishing line one inch long, put each piece by middle across the copper wire, one on top of the copper wire and the other under, hold with your fingers, now touch the negative terminal with the loose clip, hold until the copper wire gets hot. Take them off, now you have two magnets, hang them up by middle in fine thread. The upper magnet will hang the way it is now, but the one below will turn around. Break five inches long piece of the fishing line, put the middle of the wire across and on top of the copper wire, touch the battery, hold until the copper wire gets hot, dip the middle of the wire in iron filings, then you will see how long a magnet can be made with this equipment.

Break or cut several pieces of the hard steel fishing wire as long as to go between the poles of the U shape magnet, now hold two pieces of the steel wire ends up and down, one wire South side of the copper wire, and the other North side, the lower ends just below the copper wire.

Hold tight and touch the battery, hold until the copper wire gets hot, now hang them up by upper end just above the copper wire, touch battery, the South side magnet will swing South, and the North side magnet will swing North.

Put two pieces on top of the copper wire, the ends just a little over the copper wire.

Those ends lying on copper wire, one pointing South and the other North, hold tight, touch battery, hold until the copper wire gets hot. take off the one pointing South is South Pole magnet and the one pointing North is North pole magnet.

Put one wire on top of the copper wire pointing South, other below pointing North. Magnetize, hang up by tail ends on the copper wire, touch battery they both will swing South.

Put one wire on top of the copper wire pointing North, the other below pointing South, magnetize, hang up by tail end above the copper wire, touch the battery, both magnets will swing North.

Cut six pieces of fishing wire one inch long, put them by middle on top and across the copper wire. Hold tight, touch battery, hold until copper wire gets hot.

Take off, now put glass over the copper wire, put those six pieces of magnets on glass, on top of the copper wire lengthwise just so the ends don't touch each other, touch the battery, they all will turn across the copper wire, now pull three to South side and three to North side in the same way, they lie now but about one-half of an inch away from the copper wire, touch battery, they all will jump on the copper wire.

Now roll all six together, let loose, and you will see that they won't stay together. Magnetize one piece in U shape magnet, put North Pole end East on the copper wire, and South Pole West, touch the battery, the magnet will swing left.

Now put South Pole East side and North Pole West side, this time the magnet will turn right, take glass off.

Take one piece of hard steel fishing wire, dip in iron filings and see there is no magnet in it. This time hold the wire up, and down, the lower end on middle of the copper wire, hold tight.

Touch the battery, hold until the copper wire gets hot. Take it off.

Dip the wire in iron filings and you will see that it is no magnet. Why? To make magnets with currents from batteries and dynamos with a single wire the metal will have to be put on the wire in such a way so that the magnets which are coming out of the wire will be running in the metal starting from the middle of the metal and run to the end and not from end to middle and across as they did this last time.

You have read that to make a South Pole in a coil end that is pointing to you, you will have to run positive electricity in the coil in clockwise direction.

I can tell you that the positive electricity has nothing to do with making a South magnet pole in the coil.

Each pole South or North is made by their own magnets in the way they are running in the wire.

This magnet-making with a single wire, it illustrates how all magnets are made.

In a car battery the North Pole magnets run out of positive terminal and South Pole magnets run out of negative terminal. Both kinds of magnets are running, one kind of magnets against the other kind, and are running in the same right- hand screw fashion.

By using the same whirling motion and running one kind of magnets against the other kind, they throw their own magnets from the wire in opposite directions.

That is why if you put a magnet metal across the copper wire the one end is North Pole and the other end South Pole.

Get four pieces of wire size sixteen, six inches long, two copper and two soft iron, bend one end of each wire back so the clips can hold it better.

Use copper wire first. Put both wires in clips, connect with battery, have the wire ends square, now put the loose ends together, and pull them away. Then you will notice that something is holding you back.

What is it? They are magnets.

When you put the ends together, the North and South Pole magnets are passing from one wire to the other, and in doing it they pull the wire ends together.

Now put the soft iron wire in the clips, put the loose ends together, and pull them away. This time the passing magnets hold the wire ends together stronger.

Put the ends together many times, then you `will see which wire end gets red first, and which will make the bigger bubble in the end, and watch the little sparks coming out from the bubbles.

Stretch the bubbles out while they are in liquid form, then you will see in the bubble that something is whirling around.

Those little sparks you see coming out of the bubble, they are not the magnets, but the magnets are the ones which throw the sparks out of the bubbles.

When all the magnets that are in the wire, if they cannot pass over to the other wire, they ore expending the bubble and running out of it and carrying the metal sparks with them. When the bubble is cool, break it up, then you will see the space left where the magnets were in.

Get two pieces of lumber, one by six inches, a foot long, nail them together so that one lies flat on floor and the other on top the edges up and down.

Out a notch in end in upper piece, four inches deep and as high as to hold a piece of wood or brass that would hold needle points in ends and have a hole in middle to hold the three-foot magnet.

Balance the magnet good so it would stop on its right magnetic position. Now put the car battery South side positive terminal East and negative terminal West.

Connect the East end of the copper wire with positive terminal and connect the West end of the copper wire with the West side lead, hold the copper wire just above the magnet a quarter of an inch North of magnet's end, hold in level and square.

Touch the battery, then you will see the magnet swinging East. Now put the' battery North side, positive terminal East, negative terminal West,connect West end of the copper wire with negative terminal, connect East end of copper wire with East side lead. put the copper wire on top of the magnet a quarter of an inch South of magnet's end, hold the copper wire just above in square and level, touch the positive terminal, then you will see the magnet swinging West.

If the battery is right, magnet strong enough, and the magnet rod balanced good it will repeat the same thing every time.

I think the batteries are not made right. Sometimes there is more of North Pole magnets than there is South Pole magnets. They should be equal. the same as from generators which do not run the South Pole magnets in frame or base, but run directly away the same as they run the North Pole magnets.

From the following experiment you will see that the battery is not balanced right. Put the copper wire across the box, one end East, the other end West, connect one lead a foot West from East end and the other lead with West end, hang a magnet in spider web, put the magnet in same level with the copper wire.

Keep the copper wire end a little away from magnet's North Pole, con- nect East lead with positive terminal, tap the negative terminal several times with the loose clip. and see what the magnet is doing. Change the terminal, change the tapping, move the box and copper wire to the South Pole end, repeat - the same thing.

Then you will notice sometimes the copper wire end pushes away the North Pole magnet, and sometimes it pulls it in and the same thing happens with South Pole magnet, and sometimes it does nothing. So it shows the battery is irregular.

Connect the leads with battery's terminals to make a loop, keep the leads on the same level with battery, drag a hanging magnet over the loop and the connections between the battery's terminals.

You will see that one end of the magnet keeps inside the loop, and the other outside, and the same thing happens when the magnet crosses the connection between the terminals.

This experiment indicates that the North and South Pole magnet currents we not only running from one terminal to the other, but are running around in an orbit and are not only running one time around, but are running many times wound until the North and South Pole individual magnets get thrown out of the wire by cen- trifugal force, and by crowding.

While the North and South Pole magnets were in their own terminals they only possessed pushing power, the pulling power they acquire only if the other kind of magnets are in front of them, like the permanent magnets if you put the opposite magnet in front of it, then they will hold together The same way you have done with the six inches long pieces of copper and soft iron wire.

From the experiment with the car battery you can see the principle how permanent magnets are made by North and South Pole individual magnet currents running in a single wire from battery. How did the magnets get in there? As I said in the beginning. the North and South Pole magnets they are the cosmic force, they hold together this earth and everything on it.

Some metals and non-metals hove more of the magnets than others. The North and South Pole magnets have the power to build up and take down, for instance in welding the magnets take the Welding rod down and put it on the welding, in electroplating they put one metal on the other, and if you burn a metal too much in an electric furnace the metal will disappear in air. The North and South Pole magnets were put in the car battery by a generator.

When the North and South Pole magnets went in the battery they built up a charge that held the magnets themselves. Later on the acid takes the matter in parts and separates the magnets and sends them to their own terminals, and from there they come out.

In other batteries the acid takes the zinc in parts and sends the North Pole magnets to positive terminal and holds the South Pole magnets by itself for negative terminal. When the connections are made the magnets will come out of the battery and will come out until the zinc will last.

When the zinc is gone the magnets are gone, too. The same is true if you put iron in acid and some other metals, for the other terminal and when the connections are made the magnets will come out of the battery, but when the iron is gone the magnets are gone, too.

This should be sufficient to see that the North and South Pole magnets are holding together everything. You saw how magnetic currents are made in battery from metal by acid.

Next I will tell you how magnetic currents are made by permanent and electric magnets, and then without either.

This time you will make an equipment that can he used for four purposes.

Electric magnet, transformer, generator and holder of perpetual motion. Bend iron or soft steel bar one and one half inch in diameter, bend in a U shape each prong a foot long, and three inches between the prongs, make two spools from brass or aluminum six inches long and big enough for the bar to go in.

Wind fifteen hundred turns of insulated copper wire, size sixteen, on each spool.

on as close to the bend as it will go. Connect the battery with the coils so that each current is running in both coils at the same time, and so that one end of the bar is North Pole and the other South Pole,you now an electric magnet.

This time the same thing will be a transformer. It will not be economical, it is only to show how a transformer works. Wind a coil of fifteen hundred turns with insulated copper wire, size eighteen, on a spool less than three inches long, so that one inch and a half square iron rod can go in easy, get two rods, one three, the other six inches long.

If possible have them from laminated iron. Get two radio blue bead, six to eight-volt light bulbs. Now connect one light bulb with the three-inch coil, put the coil without a core between the loose ends of the iron prongs, connect the six-inch coils with battery, leave negative terminal open.

Tap the negative terminal, then you will see the wire inside the light bulb turn red.

Put iron core in the coil's hole, tap the battery, this time it will make light.

Why did it not make just as much light the first time? The battery put just as much magnet in those iron prongs the first time as it did the last time, but as you see the coil did not get the magnets.

Now you see the soft iron has a lot to do to make magnetic currents.

Magnetic currents, or if you want to call it electric current, make no light. We only get light if we put obstructions in the light bulbs.

In the light bulbs the wire is so small that all magnets cannot pass through easily, so they heat the wire up and burn and make light.

If the wire in the light bulb had been as large inside as it is outside then there would be no light.

Then those individual magnets which are in the coil would dissipate in air.

Both North and South Pole individual magnet currents which came out of the car battery and went in the transformer were direct currents. but the light in the bulb was caused by alternating currents.

(Have in mind that always there are two currents, one current alone cannot run. To run they have to run one against the other.) You transformed currents in kind.

Now I will tell you how to transform currents in strength.

To make higher voltage you wind the coil with smaller wire and more turns and to have less voltage wind the coil with bigger wire and less turns.

The difference now is that this transformer makes alternating currents from direct currents and the power line transformers use alternating currents to make alternating currents in this transformer, the iron prong ends remain the same magnet pole, but in power line transformers the magnet poles alternate.

In power line transformers the currents only are in motion and in this transformer the currents are in motion and you are, too.

Now about the generator. In the first place all currents are alternating. To get direct currents we have to use a commutator.

Transformers and generators of any description are making the currents in the same way by filling the coil's iron core with magnets and letting the iron core push them out and into the coil.

Connect the battery with the electric magnet.

it will be a field magnet now.

Put the three-inch coil between the iron prongs and take it out, do it fast, repeat it, then you will have a steady light in the light bulb. Now you and the field magnet are a generator.

Suppose you had a wheel and many coils around the wheel turning, then you would be making all kinds of light.

Do not make the machine, I already have the application for patent in the Patent Office.

I made ten different machines to make magnetic currents, but I found this combination between field magnets and coils the most efficient.

Put the coil in slowly and take it out slowly, then you will have no light.

That will show, to make magnetic currents, the time is important.

Put the six-inch long square rod on top of the two iron prongs, fit good so it lies even. Connect the battery with electric magnet for a little while, now disconnect the battery, connect the light bulb with the electric magnet the same way it was connected with the battery, now pull off the six-inch long bar, do it quickly, then you will see light in the bulb, connect the battery up again with the electric magnet, put the bar across the iron prongs, hold awhile, disconnect the battery.

Now the electric magnet holds perpetual motion.

If not disturbed it will last indefinitely. I held it in this position for six months, and when I pulled off the six-inch bar I got just as much light out of it as I got in the first time.

This experiment shows that if you start the North and South Pole individual magnets in an orbit, then they will never stop.

The hanging magnets that hang up and down, they show that there is motion inside the bar. Hold the perpetual motion holder North Pole magnet or pole end East and South Pole magnet terminal or pole end West, now raise it up slowly to the South Pole hanging magnet, then you will see the South Pole hanging magnet swinging South.

Now put the perpetual motion holder under the North Pole hanging magnet, raise up slowly, then you will see the North Pole hanging magnet swinging North.

This experiment shows without any doubt that the North and South Pole individual magnets are running in the same direction as those in the copper wire, which came out of the car battery, and in both instances while the magnets are running ahead in whirling motion they used the right-hand twist.

Get that Alnico magnet, and make it so you can turn it wound if possible more than two thousand revolutions a minute. Connect the light bulb with the perpetual motion holder, put it on the spinning Alnico magnet in the hole between prongs and the square iron bar, now spin the Alnico magnet around and see how much of the light you get.

Now take the iron bar off, then you will get more of the light.

It shows that if it is closed.

Some of the magnets which we in the iron prongs will run around in an orbit, and will not come out, but when the orbit is broken then they will run in the coil, and the result will be more light.

Put a paper box with plenty of Iron filings in it on the horizontally spinning Alnico magnet, then you will see how the spinning magnet builds up ridges and ditches.

Now put the magnet so that it can be turned vertically. Spin the magnet, then you will see the filings running against the motion and building up ridges and ditches.

Put on finer filings, then there will be finer ridges and ditches.

Spin one way and then the other way, then you will have some rough idea how magnets build up the matter.

You made magnetic currents in three different ways, but in principle they all ware made exactly in the same way.

Magnetic currents are made by concentrating. then dividing and then shifting the existing North and South Pole individual magnets from one place to another.

Now I will illustrate how my best machine is doing it.

I will use only one coil, and one U shape permanent magnet without using the winding that the machine uses to increase the permanent magnet strength.

If you had a permanent magnet that the coil you use in the electric magnet would go in between the prongs of it, then that would be good to demonstrate, but if you have not, then use the same one you have.

Get an iron core the same dimensions as in the three-inch coil, but long enough to go between the permanent magnet prongs.

Wind the same number of turns and connect with the light bulb.

Fasten the U shape permanent magnet very good, bend up, prongs down, North Pole North.

South Pole South. Now push the coil through the prongs from West to East.

Do it fast, then there will be light in the bulb, now push the coil and stop in middle, and then push again, this time you will have two lights while the coil went through the magnet prongs only once.

You had two lights the first time also, but you did not notice they came in quick succession,

When you pushed the coil's middle up to field magnet's middle the currents ran in one direction, and when you pushed the coil away from the field magnet's middle, then the currents reversed, then ran in the other direction.

That is why you got two light flashes while the coil passed through the field magnet only one time.

Here is the way in which the North and South Pole individual magnet currents ran while you pushed the coil from West to East through the field magnet.

Take the core out of the coil, wind one layer of wire on the core and make it so that the North side of the winding wire's end points East and South side of the winding wire's end points West.

When you pushed the coil to the middle of the field magnet, the North Pole magnet current came out of the wire end that is pointing East, and the South Pole magnet current came out of the wire end that is pointing West, but when you pushed the coil away from the middle of the field magnet the currents reversed, then North Pole magnet current came out of the coil's wire end that is pointing West and South Pole magnet current came out of the coil's wire end that is pointing East.

With the same winding if the North Pole field magnet had been southside, and South pole field magnet northside, then the running of the currents would be reversed.

When currents reverse they reverse the magnet poles in the coil. Every time when the coil is approaching the field magnets, the currents which are made in the coil during that time are making magnet poles in the coil's core ends, the same as those field magnet poles they are approaching, but during the time the coil is receding those currents are making the coil's magnet poles opposite to the field magnets they are receding from.

While you have the small coil handy I will tell more about magnets. Run South Pole magnet current in the wire end that points West, and North Pole magnet current in the wire end that points East.

Now North end of the coil is South Pole and South end of the coil is North Pole.

Now run North Pole magnet current in West end of the wire, and South Pole magnet in East end of the wire.

This time the North end of the coil will be North Pole, and South end of the coil the South Pole.

You made the one-inch long magnets with a single wire, but if you had the same size of wire in a coil you now have and would put a bigger steel bar in the coil then you would have a bigger and stronger magnet, but to make a stronger magnet yet, you would have to wind more layers on top of the coil that you have now.

When you were making the small magnets with a single copper wire you wasted too many North and South Pole individual magnets.

You only got in the steel wire very small part of the magnets that came out of the copper wire.

You are still wasting the North and South Pole magnets.

You do not get one- half of the magnets in the steel or iron bar from those which are in the coil.

To get more magnet out of a coil put the coil in steel or iron tube, then the tube outside the coil will be a magnet the same as the coil's core, but the magnet poles will be opposite.

It means at the same coil end if the core end is North Pole the tube end will be South Pole.

In this way you will get almost again as much magnet out of the coil and in the core and tube.

You can do better yet, join one end of the coil's core end with the same metal, joining core with tube. make two holes in end of metal for the coil wire ends to go out, fasten a ring on top, now you have the most effigy client electric magnet for lifting purposes.

It wastes no magnets that come from your battery or dynamo.

Take the coil out of the electric magnet, run the currents in the coil, put a hard steel bar one end to the coil's North Pole, hold awhile, take away, now the bar is a permanent magnet.

That end at coil's side is South Pole magnet, and the other North Pole magnet.

Now this permanent magnet can make other hard steel bars in permanent magnets but every magnet that it makes will be a weaker magnet than itself.

The coil made this permanent magnet in the same way that the permanent magnets are making other permanent magnets.

Put this permanent magnet in the coil's hole.

Reverse it. Put bar's North Pole end in coil's South Pole end, run current in the coil for awhile, take the bar out, now you have a stronger permanent magnet, but the poles are reversed.

This shows that the stronger magnet can change the weaker magnet.

When you were pushing the coil through the U shaped magnet you got two flashes in the light bulb with one passage through the U shape magnet, and I showed you from which ends of coil's wire the currents came out while they made the flashes.

Now I will make so you can actually see that it is in the way I told you.

Take the light bulb off the coil, put the core in it, connect the coil with a loop that would reach six feet East from the U shape magnet.

Keep the loop end a foot apart, stretch South side wire straight, make it so it cannot move.

Get those little hanging magnets which hang one end up, the other down, hang the South Pole magnet on the loop wire, now push the coil through the U shape magnet and watch the hanging magnet.

First it will swing South, then North.

Now hang North Pole magnet on the wire, watch again while you are pushing the coil through the U shape magnet, this time first it will swing North, then South, Hang both magnets, Watch again and you will see that both magnets at the same time first they swing to their own side and then to the other side.

If the hanging magnets do not swing while you are pushing the coil through the U shape magnet, then the U shape magnet is not strong enough. The U shape magnet should be strong enough to lift twenty pounds.

You can put two magnets together or use electric magnet, and still better you can put the coil in electric magnet, then you won't have to push it.

Then you can sit down and tap the battery and see the hanging magnets swinging.

All currents are made in the same way by filling the coil and iron core with North and South Pole individual magnets and then giving enough time for the magnets to get out and then start over again.

If you want to use the electric magnet be sure that the North Pole is in North side, and the South Pole in South side, and put the coil in the prongs in the same way as it is now.

Now I will tell you what happened to the U shape magnet while you pushed the coil through it from West to East.

Set up the three-foot magnet so it can turn, put the coil with core in it in the U shape magnet, now approach the three-foot magnet's South Pole with the U shape magnet's South Pole.

As soon as the three-foot magnet begins to move you stop and mark the distance.

Take the coil away, approach again as soon as - the three-foot magnet begins to move away, then stop and mark the distance, then you will see how much strength the U shape magnet lost while you were pushing the coil in and halfway out, of the U shape magnet.

The U shape magnet was losing its strength up to the time it began to break away from the iron core, but during the time the U shape magnet broke away it regained its strength.

The breaking away from the iron core recharged the U shape magnet, then it became normal again and ready for the next start.

During the recharging the new supply of magnets came from the air or the earth's magnetic field.

Now we see how the magnetic currents are made by the U shape magnet. You already know that before the `coil got in between the U shape magnet prongs those little individual magnets were running out of the U shape magnet prongs in all directions, but as soon as the coil's core came in effective distance from the U shape magnet's prongs then these little individual magnets began to run in the core and coil and kept running until the core broke away from the U shape magnet prongs.

Now you see those little individual magnets ran out of the U shape magnet and ran in the soft iron core, but the soft iron core never held the magnets, it pushed them out.

To prove it you put five or six thin iron strips on edge, slant just so they will not flop over, now approach to the ends of those strips with a magnet and you will see they flop over, hold the strips a little loose by the ends, then they will spread out.

I think this is enough to show that the soft iron never held those magnets. It pushed them out.

As soon as those little individual magnets get pushed out of the soft iron core then they run in the coil.

When they run in the coil they are in bulk form.

The coil's part is to divide those little individual magnets from bulk form in small paths.

The coil is not necessary to make magnetic cur- rents.

Currents can be made with a single wire.

The coil is nec- essary to increase the amount and strength of the currents.

The coil is similar to any cell battery. One cell alone does not amount to anything.

To be good, many cells have to be in a battery.

The same in a coil to be good many turns have to be in a coil.

When the magnets that are in bulk form enter the coil then the coil divides them in small paths.

It is done in this way.

When the bulk magnets enter the coil they fill the coil's wire with North and South Pole individual magnets. North Pole magnets pointing toward South Pole U shape magnet and South Pole pointing toward North Pole U shape magnet.

Now the wire in the coil is one continuous magnet. One side of the wire is South Pole and the other North Pole.

Now we have those little North and South Pole individual magnets in the wire, but they are not running in the way we want.

They are running across the wire.

We want the magnets to run through the wire lengthwise, but there is only one way to do it, we have to increase the number of those North and South Pole individual magnets.

To do it the coil will have to approach and enter the U shape magnet, but when the coil reaches the middle of the U shape magnet the limit is there so the running of the currents stop.

In the core and the coil there is plenty of those little magnets, but they stopped to run through the wire length wise, now they run only across the coil's wire, to make the magnets run in the wire lengthwise again the coil will have to get away from the U shape magnet.

As soon as the coil begins to move away from the U shape magnet. then those little North and South Pole individual magnets begin to run again through the wire length-wise, but in opposite direction until the magnets in the iron core are gone.

I told you that the coil is a magnet during the time the currents are made. now I will show you.

Get a small paper box to go in between the prongs of the U shape magnet, put iron filings in it.

Wrap six-inch long soft iron wire with paper. put the wire in box in iron filings, now put the box between the U shape magnet prongs.

Raise the wire up, then you will see filing strands clinging to the insulated iron wire.

Raise the wire up slowly, then the filing strands will sag and fail, take the box out. put the wire in the filings again, raise up and you will see that the wire is no magnet, but during the time it was between the U shape magnet prongs it was a magnet.

This shows that during the time the coil moves through the U shape magnet the coil becomes a magnet, but its function is double.

Some individual North and South Pole magnets run through the coil's wire crosswise, and some run through the coil's wire lengthwise.

Maybe you think that it is not fair to use iron wire to demonstrate how magnetic currents are made, but I can tell you that if I do not use iron core in the coil I can make more of the magnetic currents with soft iron wire coil than I can with copper wire coil, so you see it is perfectly good to use iron wire to demonstrate how magnetic currents are made.

You can do the same thing with the copper wire in using iron filings, but only on a smaller scale.

You saw how the magnets are running through a wire crosswise. Now I will tell you how they are running through the wire lengthwise.

Before the magnets start to run through the wire lengthwise they are lined up in a square across the wire, one side of the wire is North Pole magnet side and the other side is South Pole magnet side.

When the coil begins to approach the middle of the U shape magnet and the currents begin to run then the magnets which are in the wire begin to slant, North Pole magnets pointing East the same as the coil's wire end, where the North Pole magnet current came out and South Pole magnets pointing West the same as the coil's wire end where the South Pole magnet cur- rent came out.

When the coil reaches the middle of the U shape magnet then the currents stop to run.

Now the North and South Pole magnets are pointing across the wire again.

When the coil begins to move away from the middle of the U shape magnet and the currents begin to run then the magnets which are in the wire begin to slant, but this time the North Pole magnets are pointing West the same as the coil's wire end where the North Pole magnet current come out and South Pole magnets pointing East the same as the coil's wire end where the South Pole magnet current came out.

When the coil moves out of the U shape magnet's effective distance the currents running stop.

This is the way the alternating currents are made.

When the individual North and South pole magnets are running through a wire lengthwise they are running in slant and whirling around while running ahead.

You can see the slant by watching the sparks when you are putting together and pulling away soft iron wire ends which are connected to the battery by their other ends.

To see how the currents are running out of the coil's wire watch those six one-inch long magnets which lie on the glass.

Put those magnets together with ends even, then let them loose, then you will see that they will roll away and if the magnets be stronger then they will roll away farther.

This is the way the North and South Pole individual magnets are running out of the coil's wire lengthwise.

The reason the North and South Pole individual magnets do not run across through the coil's wire as fast out as they run in while the coil is between the U shape magnet, the coil's wire is insulated, there is an air space around every wire and as it is known that the dry air is the best obstruction for the magnets to go through and as you know the coil is well insulated so the damp air does not get in.

It is well known that it is many times easier for the magnets to run in metal than in air, now you see when the magnets run in the wire they hesitate to run out of the wire across the same way as they came in, so more of the new magnets are coming in the wire crosswise, then they can get out crosswise, so they get pushed out through the wire lengthwise.

Now you know how the alternating magnetic currents are made.

You have been wondering why alternating currents can run so far away from their generators.

One reason is between every time the currents start and stop there is no pressure in the wire so the magnets from the air run in the wire and when the run starts there already are magnets in the wire which do not have to come from the generator, so the power line itself is a small generator which assists the big generator to furnish the magnets for the currents to run with.

I have a generator that generates currents on a small scale from the air without using any -magnets around it.

Another thing, you have been wondering how a U shape permanent magnet can keep its normal strength indefinitely.

You know the soft iron does not hold magnets, but you already have one that holds it.

It is the perpetual motion holder. It illustrates the principle how permanent magnets are- made.

All that has to be done is to start the magnets to run in on orbit, then they will never stop.

Hard steel U shape magnets have a broken orbit, but under proper conditions it is permanent.

I think the structure of the metal is the answer.

I have two U shape magnets.

They look alike, but one is a little harder than the other.

The harder one can lift three pounds more than the softer one.

I have been tempering the other steel magnets, and have noticed that the harder the steel gets the smaller it becomes.

That shows that the metal is more packed and has less holes in it so the magnets cannot pass through it in full speed, so they dam up in the prong ends.

They come in faster than they can get out.

I think -the ability for the soft steel welding rod to hold magnets is in the metal's fine structure.

The reason I call the results of North and South Pole magnet's functions magnetic currents and not electric currents or electricity is the electricity is connected too much with those non-existing electrons.

If it had been called magneticity then I would accept it.

Magneticity would indicate that it has a magnetic base and so it would be all right.

As I said in the beginning, the North and South Pole magnets they are the cosmic force.

They hold together this earth and everything on it, and they hold together the moon, too.

The moon's North end holds South Pole magnets the same as the earth's North end. The moon's South end holds North Pole magnets the same as the earth's South end.

Those people who have been wondering why the moon does not come down all they have to do is to give the moon one- half of a turn so that the North end would be in South side, and South end in the North side, and then the moon would come down.

At present the earth and the moon have like magnet poles in the same sides so their own magnet poles keep themselves apart, but when the poles are reversed, then they will pull together.

Here is a good tip to the rocket people.

Make the rocket's head strong North Pole magnet, and the tail end strong South Pole magnet, and then shut to on the moon's North end, then you will have better success.

North and South Pole magnets are not only holding together the earth and moon, but they are turning the earth around on its axis.

Those magnets which are coming down from the sun they are hitting their own kind of magnets which are circulating around the earth and they hit more on the East side than on the West side, and that is what makes the earth turn around.

North and South Pole magnets make the lightning, in earth's North hemisphere the South Pole magnets are going up and the North pole magnets are coming down in the same flash.

In the earth's South hemisphere the North Pole magnets are going up and the South Pole magnets are coming down in the same flash.

The North lights are caused by the North and South Pole magnets passing in concentrated streams, but the streams are not as much concentrated as they are in the lightning.

The radio waves are made by the North and South Pole magnets.

Now about the magnet size. You know sunlight can go through glass, paper and leaves, but it cannot go through wood, rock and iron, but the magnets can go through everything.

This shows that each magnet is smaller than each particle of light.

Edward Leedskalnin's "Magnetic Current", parts 2&a (-1)

Genghis Troll (158585) | more than 12 years ago | (#3640473)

MINERAL, VEGETABLE AND ANIMAL LIFE
What is life? Mineral life is to hold the mineral matter together.

Vegetable life is to hold the-- vegetable matter together and increases in volume.

Animal life is to hold the animal matter or flesh together increase the volume and give motion to muscles.

The base of life is the North and South pole magnets.

The magnets are indestructible.

Every period of material life goes through two periods, construction and destruction period, but the life itself is indestructible, life has no beginning and no end.

The sun is living in a destruction period and the earth in a construction period.

In the sun only mineral life exist but on earth mineral, vegetable and animal life exist.

When one form of life goes through the destruction period the life leaves the matter and goes somewhere else.

For instance when zinc in a battery is taken in parts by acid, the North and South pole magnets that held the zinc together, they leave the zinc and if right connections are made they will come out of the battery, then they can be used for other purposes.

I can run those North and South pole magnets in my perpetual motion holder, then they will produce perpetual motion and when I want to use the same magnets for other purposes.

I can make a flash of light from them. Now you can see when the zinc went dead those North and South pole magnets that held the zinc together they did not die but escaped and went some where else.

The drawing on the front cover is like the perpetual motion holder I made.

If I run North and South pole magnets from a car battery (car battery is stronger than zinc battery) in those two coils while the laminated iron cross bar is across the iron bar prong, and fill the iron bar orbit with magnets, then those North and South pole magnets will never stop running around, they will run around until the cross bar is pulled off.

The North pole magnets come out of the battery's positive terminal and South pole magnets come out of car battery's negative terminal.

To be sure it is so, you get two pieces of soft steel welding rod four inches long, put them in clips and connect them with the car battery.

Put those two loose rod ends together until the rod gets hot.

Now test each of those rod ends you were putting together with a small needle- like horizontally hanging magnet.

Then you will see tile one which is connected with positive terminal is North pole magnet, and the one which is connected with negative terminal is South pole magnet (like poles repulses, and unlike poles attract).

You can change the rod pieces, but every time the one is connected with positive terminal will be North pole magnet, and the one connected with negative terminal will be South pole magnet.

If perpetual motion holder's North pole prong is put East.

South pole prong West, and then elevate the cross-bar's center up to tile South pole vertically hanging magnet, then the magnet will swing South and when the cross-bar's center is elevated up to North pole vertically hanging magnet, then the magnet will swing North.

The cross-bar's ability to swing the North and South pole magnets. off its center will remain as long as the cross-bar is not disturbed.

It has little power but it could be made stronger by making bigger dimensions.

From the above experiment you can see the perpetual motion holder can act as a living thing.

It knows which way to swing each magnet. This shows if more magnets are added to a living then it can perform things it could not do before.

The same is true concerning our body and everything else. Those surplus magnets, they are real life.

Magnets in general are indestructible.

For instance you can burn wood or flesh.

You can destroy the body, but you cannot destroy the magnets that held together the body.

They go somewhere else. Iron has more of the magnets than wood, and every different substance has a different number of magnets that hold the substance together.

If I make a battery with copper for positive terminal and beef for negative terminal I get more of the magnets out of it than when I used copper for positive terminal, and sweet potato for negative terminal.

From this you can see that no two things are alike.

Several years ago I read in the paper that the scientists cannot find out how the green chlorophyll converts the sunlight in plant food.

They are looking in the wrong direction.

It is not the green chlorophyll that converts the sunlight in plant food, it is the water that does it.

That green chlorophyll was not so green in the first place.

In fact it was not green at all.

It became green by evaporation.

The water in plants catches the running sunlight that is coming from the sun and the North and South pole magnets wrap themselves around the caught particles of sunlight and as soon as the particles of sunlight which are wrapped around by the North and South pole magnets are coming in the suitable part of the plant then they join the plant and become a part of it.

The North and South pole magnets are going in and out of the earth all the time, everywhere and their numbers are limitless.

I have several lily pools where I keep water in. I have watched the lily pools for sixteen years.

When I put clear water in the pools where the sunlight can shine in, then in two months' time I can see the moss is beginning to grow, but when I poured the water in the pools where there was no green chlorophyll in the water. This shows that the plants can grow without green chlorophyll.

The sunlight was running in the water every day and the North and South pole magnets were running through the water all the time.

The North and South pole magnets are passing through every tree, the bigger the tree the more magnets will be passing through it.

You have noticed that lightning hits the biggest tree and the tallest building.

In the North hemisphere the South pole magnets are going up, and the North pole magnets coming down in the same flash.

Lightning only strikes if the North and South magnets are concentrated too much in a small space.

If not concentrated then they pass through everything without much notice.

I believe that water, sunlight and North and South pole magnets are making the plants to grow.

You have heard that if somebody happens to hold a power line in their bare hands it becomes impossible for him to let loose from the power line.

The power line is full of North and South pole magnets, so they overpower the body's weaker system, and make it impossible for it to open the hands.

This shows that the magnets can contract and release the muscles.

I can see tiny lightning in my eyes if I dose the eye lids and give a side push to the eye ball from the nose outward, but I could not do it every day.

When I keep eating more for some time then I can see the tiny lightning while my eyes are open.

All that I have to do is to turn my head from one side to the other side.

This shows that we have in our body the same kind of magnets that are making the big lightning in the sky.

When I connect my tongue and feet with micro-ampere meter. the meter shows that I have magnets in my body.

Some times I have more of the magnets in my body than at other times. The presence of magnets in our body would indicate that the magnets are operating our muscles.

Where do our bodies get the magnets from? You know that to get the magnets from zinc we have to put the zinc in acid in the battery where it can be dissolved.

Our digestive system is like a battery but more complicated.

We get magnets from the food we eat.

The acid and other digestive juices dissolve the food and liberate the magnets to be used for other purposes.

I have never studied human anatomy, but I know there are many little cords that the magnets can pass through.

All that has to be done is to make the right connections.

All our body functions are physical. there is no mental function in us, for instance thinking the same as talking is physical process.

We all would think loud if we were not suppressed while we were small. When we think we contract the muscles that are for that purpose, but the contraction is so delicate we cannot notice it.

This is all that I can tell about our body functions. If I had studied chemistry and human anatomy I am sure I could tell you more about our body functions.

MAGNETIC CURRENT
Researchers: Read about magnetic current, what it is, how it is made, what makes it, and the way it runs in the wire.
Then you will know what the north and south pole individual magnets can do, and then you will know what electricity is.

Send a dollar by return mail and you will get an eight thousand word booklet, postpaid, and in addition you will get a folder describing what is mineral, vegetable and animal life, and a drawing of a perpetual motion holder.

The reading is not intended for the general public. Only those who want to experiment should order the booklet. The other people should save their money.

Send no check Address to:please note no longer available

Before my research work I knew nothing about electricity. The only thing I knew was that nobody knows what electricity is.

So I thought I am going to find out why they do not know.

I thought that if electricity could be made and managed for over a hundred years, then the makers do not know what it is, there is something wrong about it.

I found out that the researchers were misled by wrong instruction books, and by one-sided instruments.

Voltmeters and ampere meters are one-sided.

They only show what is called by instruction books, positive electricity, but never show negative electricity.

Now you can see that one-half of the electricity escaped their notice. If the researchers had used the same kind of equipment I use to demonstrate what magnetic current is, they would have found out a long time ago what electricity is.

The positive electricity is composed of streams of north pole individual magnets, and negative electricity is composed of streams of south pole individual magnets.

They are running one stream of magnets against the other stream in whirling right hand twist, and with high speed.

Protons and electrons--Are you sure they are not the north and south pole individual magnets.

If we have anything we have to show that we have it. Show the base where it came from, and show how the thing functions.

We can find concentrated north and south pole individual magnets in the earth, in a metal. With the metal we can demonstrate that the free north and south pole individual magnets are circulating in the earth.

In the North Hemisphere the south pole individual magnets are going up, and the north pole individual magnets are coming down.

Those free circulating north and south individual magnets are the building material for the magnet metal we find in the earth.

This should show that the north and south pole individual magnets are the real atom builders, and not the protons and electrons.

I think the north and south pole individual magnets are running in an orbit around a common core in an atom the same way as they run in an orbit around a common core in the perpetual motion holder that I made.

The only difference is that an atom has a small orbit, but the perpetual motion holder has a big orbit.

I have never seen an atom, but I think the atom drawings are wrong.

They should be drawn to fit the earth on account of the fact that the atom is a part of the earth.

The earth has two magnet poles.

This means that each pole has an equal pull and push to hold the earth together, and so each atom should be built as it could have two poles.

In that case both forces that make magnet poles should run around a common core (the core could be a particle of sunlight).

If one-half of the force that makes up the atom is in the core, and the other half of the force run around the core, then in that case the atom could not join the other atoms to make a metal that could hold two magnet poles.

I believe that if some enterprising man would analyze the magnet metal which comes straight from the earth he would find that the metal is not built up by protons and electrons, but by north and south pole individual magnets. I think anyone who excludes magnets and calculations about things that this earth contains, he is wrong.

Those who want to know how North and South pole individual magnets contract the muscles. Connect each end of a fresh terrapin muscle with each terminal of a battery, then you will see how the muscles are contracted.

This is for biologists. I can see chromosomes without a microscope.

To see I close my eyes and then I open one eye just a little to look at the blue sky. Then I can see chains of beads floating in the liquid in my eye.

Some chains of beads are longer than others. Most of the chains are folded over in irregular shapes and between several beads in a chain there is a bigger bead and sometimes there is one, two or more beads hanging outside the chain, and sometimes I can see one, two or more beads floating separately.

Each bead's center is light, and the outside rim dark, If I open my eye a little more and look sharper, then I can see round shining things running in every direction in jumpy paths.

Some leave shiny wave like a path before they disappear. Each shiny thing is many times smaller than each smallest bead.

They are not crowded, they all use the same speed, but the speed is a little too fast for good observation.

To see finer things yet I look in a gray cloud with the eye open until I see a darker spot. When the spot begins to boil in the middle, then I can see tiny multi-colored streaks running out of the middle.

The scene lasts about a minute and when it is gone then nobody can know when the next scene will come around.

Matter: Every form of existence, whether it be rock tree or animal, has a beginning and an end, but the three things that all matter is constructed from has no beginning and no end.

They are the North and South poles individual magnets, and the neutral particles of matter.

These three different things are the construction blocks of everything.

To begin, a meteor rock falls in the sun, the sun dissolves the rock to the final division of matter, the North and South pole individual magnets, and the sunlight then sends them out here.

The vegetation absorbs some of the magnets and the sunlight, and then grows.

We eat the vegetation products and build up our body, and then when we die and our body is cremated, the ashes can be made into a rock, and then the rock can be sent to the sun to be dissolved again.

The North and South pole magnets can be detected while they are coming down from the sun by radio. The radio waves are made by the North and South pole magnets.

They spread around the earth, and the North and South pole.

Magnets that are coming down from the sun are hitting the radio waves across, and so disturbing their paths.

That is the reason why we cannot hear the radio as well in the day time as we do at night. At night time we only get those magnets that are coming down from other suns or stars, but in the day time we get them all.

Today, yesterday's sunlight is neutral particles of matter. If you had been high up above the earth yesterday there would not have been as much light there as there was on the ground.

There you would have seen stars the same as at night time down here.

In the empty space between the stars there is not much light, so the stars can be seen.

Sunlight is light when it passes through some obstruction like the air, by going through an empty space it is not much of a light.

ELECTRONS
Millions of people all over the world are being fooled by the non-existing electrons.

Here is how the electrons came into existence. Thomson invented an imaginary baby and called it an electron.

Rutherford adopted it and now the men with the long hair are nursing it.

The electron has a brother and its name is proton, but it is heavy and lazy.

It remains stationary in the middle, but the electron has to run around it.

To the electrical engineers the positive electricity is everything, the negative electricity is nothing, but to the physicists the negative electricity is everything, and the positive electricity is nothing. Looking from a neutral standpoint they cancel each other, so we have no electricity, but we have something.

If we do not know how to handle the thing that comes through a wire from a generator or a battery, we will get badly shocked. Read the booklet "Magnetic Current" then you will know what the thing is, and the way it runs through a wire.

The invention of an electron came by a tricky method in using electricity in a vacuum tube.

Normally whether it be a generator or a battery, the positive terminal will have to be connected to the negative terminal, but in the vacuum tube two batteries with different strength were used, the smaller battery was connected normally, but the larger battery's negative terminal was connected to the smaller battery's negative terminal, and the positive terminal was left alone.

That connection gave the negative terminal a double dose of strength, and so it became hotter and could push more.

It was called cathode and the positive terminal anode, and the electricity that passed from the cathode to the anode was called electrons.

In case the inventor had used normally direct methods to find out what the electricity was he would have found out that the positive and negative electricity is in equal strength, and are running positive electricity against the negative electricity.

That can be seen by connecting each of two pieces of soft iron wire with each terminal of a car battery and then by putting together and pulling away each loose end of the soft iron wire.

More sparks can be seen coming out of the positive terminal than from the negative terminal.

This direct method is more reliable than the tricky method in the vacuum tube.

The trouble with the physicists is they use indirect and ultra- indirect methods to come to their conclusions.

If the inventor of electrons had a vacuum tube in which his electrons could run close to the top of the vacuum tube from the west side of the cathode to the east side of the anode and then would hang a vertically hanging magnet that is made from three-inch long hard steel fishing wire, and then hang one magnet pole at one time right on top in the middle of his stream of electrons, then he would have seen the north pole magnet swinging north, and the south pole magnet swinging south.

The same thing will happen if the magnets are held above any wire where the electricity is running through.

Those two vertically hanging magnets prove that the electricity is composed of two different and equal forces.

Another way to prove this is to connect a flexible wire loop east end of the wire with positive battery's terminal, west end with negative terminal, raise the loop one inch above the floor.

Put U shape magnet one inch from loop, north pole south side of the loop.

The north pole magnet will pull in the loop. Put the south pole magnet in the same place.

It will push the loop away. Put the south pole magnet north side of the loop, this time it will pull the loop in. Put the north pole magnet in the same place, it will push the loop away.

This indicates that electricity the same as a magnet bar is composed of two equal forces, and each force is running one against the other in whirling right hand twist, but those forces in the wire have higher speed, and both forces are coming out across from the same wire.

One of the forces is north pole magnets and the other is south pole magnets.

They are the cosmic forces.

Your electric motor is turned around on its axis by north and south pole magnets.

Even you could not start your car without the north and south pole magnets.

If electricity is made with north and south pole magnets and the electric motor is turned around on its axis by the north and south pole magnets as is the fact, then this will bring up a question, where then are those Thomson electrons.

They are not around the electric motor. The plain answer is they are non-existing.

Rays: When I reduce the material from which comes out the alpha, beta and gamma rays, so small when it is magnified one hundred times and appearing the same size as an average salt crystal, then there is no more rays, but has flashes the same as when a connected wire end is tapped on the battery's terminal, but without the red sparks.

Depending on the size sometimes, I have to wait five minutes before I can see a flash.

I think the flashes are caused by North and South pole magnets which are hitting and breaking the atom orbit, while the magnets are circulating in and around the earth.

In the Northern Hemisphere, the North pole magnets are coming down, and the South pole magnets are going up.

Wherever each kind of magnets are running in their way, they are hitting their own kind of magnets and are pushing them in the same direction.

This can be demonstrated by a foot long magnetized hard steel fishing wire which hangs on a fine thread horizontally, and level.

All that will have to be done is to re-magnetize the wire by changing the magnet poles. Then the wire will lie in a slanting position, the South magnet pole will stay higher.

By using a coil and micro-ampere meter it can be seen in which direction the magnets are running the most.

When I break the orbit of the perpetual motion holder which I made, then I get a flash of light from it, but that flash of light is made by the North and South pole magnets, and so I think the atom is built up by the North and South pole magnets, and when the orbit is broken, then the flash is made and the magnets are liberated to go somewhere else.

The natural path to the North pole magnets in the Northern Hemisphere is to go down, and the South pole magnets to go up. I think it would be a good idea if the physicists while testing radium on the photographic film for alpha rays, would put the radium on top of the film, and for beta rays the radium under the film, and then watch the results, or go to the Southern Hemisphere and experiment in the some way as they are doing now, and then notice if there is an difference.

The gamma rays must be the same as the sun light, but stronger because they are used very close to their source.

We have North and South pole magnets, positive and negative electricity, protons, and electrons, positrons and mesons and alpha, beta and gamma rays. Now why such a confusion?

Does nature really need so many things in the perpetual transformation of things, on building up the matter and again taking it into parts? I think all that nature needs is three things, the North and South pole magnets and the neutral particles.

Each kind of those three things can act differently with different speed and different combinations, and so they can accomplish different results. I believe the prospective physicists first should learn what magnets and electricity are, then they will have a sound base for their experiments and their calculations.

COSMIC FORCE
Here is additional information for those who read my advertisement in The Miami Daily News, February 3rd, 1946.

The North and South pole individual magnets are the cosmic force.

They are the building blocks of nature's perpetual transformation of matter, and they are so small that they can pass through everything.

They pass through the earth from pole to pole, and around the earth.

If the North and South pole individual magnets could not pass through a vacuum tube the same as the Thomsons electrons cannot, then they could not be the building blocks.

The Thomson electrons are very small parts of matter which come out of the cathode while the cathode is burned up or consumed in the vacuum tube.

Without the general circulation of the building blocks there would be no change.

Everything would remain in the same way as it is now. The building blocks from a matter that go to pieces could not get in the general circulation for the new construction.

I think the Radium and Uranium were built up inside the earth with high pressure, and heat, while the North and South pole individual magnets were circulating through the earth.

During the time the Radium and Uranium were inside the earth they absorbed more of the individual North and South pole magnets than they normally could hold, and so now while they are on top of the earth they let the magnets go so they can become normal again.

Gravitation must be caused by the matter in the middle of the earth, and more concentrated than Uranium.

When Uranium atoms burst they release the North and South pole individual magnets that held the atom together, then the magnets scatter all around, but when the atoms burst in the middle of the earth, and many burst at the same time, they can only run from the middle to the outside.

When the North and South pole magnets are running alongside each other and in the same direction, they have no attraction for the other kind. They only attract if they are running one kind against the other kind.

When the magnets are running out of the middle of the earth, as soon as they meet an object they attract it, on account of the fact that in any object there is both kinds of magnets in it.

It can be seen by rubbing hard rubber or glass until they get hot, then they will attract sand, iron filings, salt, and other things. To see how it functions, move a salt crystal a little, if it happens to get on a different magnet pole, then it will jump away. Another way is to rub hard rubber until it gets hot, then it will be a temporary magnet.

The difference between the rubber magnet and the steel magnet is that the magnet in the rubber comes from the magnets that hold together the rubber, and both North and South poles are in the same side of the rubber and the magnet poles are small and there are many of them close together, but in the steel bar the attracting magnet is not the magnet that holds together the steel, but the surplus magnets the circulating magnet that was put in it.

Attract the iron filings with the rubber magnet, then approach with the steel magnet. Change the poles, then you will see some of the filings jump away.

This means the steel magnet changed the magnet poles in the iron filings, and so they jumped away.

Off the shelf hardware?? (1, Interesting)

TJ6581 (182825) | more than 12 years ago | (#3640569)

At the very end when they are doing their calculations they use DRAM and a FPGA components. They then go on to state:


The bandwidth of the fastest PC memory is 3.2GB/sec


The GX specs specifically state that they support 4.2 GB per second. They also state that memory latency is about 40ns. I checked pricewatch and found at least 6ns for pretty cheap. There are to many areas where it says "at least", "probably" or "about" for calculations regarding how much time it takes. They might be right but their "proof" consists of restating mathmatics rules and estimations. They probably should have spent more time on actual calculations and proofs

Huh? (2, Funny)

Grip3n (470031) | more than 12 years ago | (#3640605)

"...under an optimistic assumption about the matrix size, be completed within a day by a device that costs a few thousand dollars."

Wow, we can make The Matrix in under a day for a couple grand? Better start looking in the paper for real estate in Zion...

+3, Hilarious (0)

Anonymous Coward | more than 12 years ago | (#3640636)

HA hah ahah hahaa

aaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaab bo bo bo!

how is this related to linux? (-1, Offtopic)

Anonymous Coward | more than 12 years ago | (#3640644)

see subject
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