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Open Source Developed by Individuals, Not Large Groups

timothy posted more than 11 years ago | from the startling-conclusions dept.

Programming 270

AlainRoy writes "A new article was just published in First Monday, which suggests that most open source projects have rather few developers." He excerpts from the study, done by Sandeep Krishnamurthy: "Based on a study of the top 100 mature products on Sourceforge...most OSS programs are developed by individuals, rather than communities. The median number of developers in the 100 projects I looked at was 4 and the mode was 1."

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270 comments

FP biznitches! (-1)

CLIT (581942) | more than 11 years ago | (#3645843)

And I invite all AC's to eat the corn from my shit.

Re:FP biznitches! (-1)

News For Turds (580751) | more than 11 years ago | (#3645893)

Hewlett-Packard Install Network Printer Wizard v 02.00 Table of Contents 1. Overview 2. DHCP 3. DNS 4. IP Address Support 5. Suggest IP Address (Autonet) 6. NetWare Support a. Supported Versions b. NDS Multiple Tree Support c. NetWare 5 Support d. No Novell Print Path e. No NDS volumes f. Support for NDS localities 7. Device Discovery a. Gateway b. Multi-homed Machines c. 0.0.0.0 IP Addresses d. Class A Subnet Masks 8. Driver Support a. License Acceptance b. Have Disk Support c. HP Driver Updates 9. IPX Port Monitor and Data Corruption 10. Printer Names 11. Printer Share Name 12. Error Messages 13. Known Problems Installing HP Printer Drivers Under Windows 95/98 14. Known Problems Installing HP Printer Drivers Under Windows NT 4.0 1. Overview This Read Me file contains last-minute product information for the Hewlett-Packard Install Network Printer wizard for Windows 95/ 98 and Windows NT. 2. DHCP If you try to change just the subnet mask on an HP JetDirect print server that has been configured via DHCP, you will get an error message while using the Hewlett-Packard Install Network Printer wizard. Once a JetDirect print server has been manually configured, it will store the IP address, subnet mask and default gateway statically instead of trying to obtain them dynamically. Allowing a static change only to the subnet mask would cause DHCP-configured IP conflicts in the future. For more information on this subject, see the HP JetDirect documentation. 3. DNS In a DNS environment, the Hewlett-Packard Install Network Printer wizard will automatically set up the port with the host name rather than the IP address. If you have a DNS environment that allows Host lookup by IP, but not the reverse lookup, the printer will never print a page. We consider this environment to be an invalid DNS environment. To fix the port without changing the DNS environment, view Properties for the printer. Select the ports tab. Select the port that is in use for that printer. Click Configure Port. Change the host name to the correct IP address. 4. IP Address Support Hewlett-Packard Install Network Printer Wizard do not support class D IP address. Class D IP addresses are those addresses with the form of 224.xx.yy.zz All addresses of the form 127.xx.yy.zz are reserved for loopback testing. They are not valid IP to be used to configure device on the network. 5. Suggest IP Address (Autonet) The algorithm for obtaining the IP address for the "Suggest Settings..." button is derived from the Internet Draft DHC-IPV4-AUTOCONFIG by R. Troll entitled "Automatically Choosing an IP Address in an Ad-Hoc IPv4 Network". The algorithm for generating the IP address is to randomly generate an address in the 169.254.x.x reserved address range, then determine if it is in use on the network. If it is in use, generate another address in the range. Repeat until an address is generated that is not in use. The resulting address is not intended for use on the Internet. Microsoft uses a similar scheme for determining an IP address on Windows 98 and Windows 2000 when the system is in an environment that doesn't have a DHCP or bootp server, and the system is configured to dynamically determine and IP address. 6. NetWare Support a. Supported Versions The supported versions of NetWare are: 3.11, 3.12, 3.2, 4.11, 4.2. For Novell queue creation, you must be logged into a Novell bindery or NDS server using a Novell supplied client requester. See www.novell.com for client updates. b. NDS Multiple Tree Support The Hewlett-Packard Install Network Printer wizard only provides support for the NDS tree the user is currently logged into. If a different tree is desired you must quit the application, change your login to the desired tree and rerun the application. c. NetWare 5.0 Support If NetWare 5 is configured for IPX, and an IPX connection is being used on the client, the Hewlett-Packard Install Network Printer Wizard can be used to create an NDS print queue. If NetWare 5 is configured for TCP/IP and a TCP/IP connection is being used on the client, the Hewlett-Packard Install Network Printer wizard can be used to create an IP print path. If the client on which the application is being run has an IPX connection to the NetWare 5 server, and the client is logged in, an NDS queue server print path will be recommended. If IPX is not in use but TCP/IP is, a TCP/IP print path will be recommended. In order to create NDS queues, an IPX connection with a login must be present. d. No Novell Print Path The Hewlett-Packard Install Network Printer wizard relies upon several DLLs that ship with the Novell Client for 95 and NT. The application will look for these DLLs and the associated entry points within them. If any of the necessary DLLs are missing, or if they do not have the needed entry points (perhaps an old version), a Novell print path will not be available although other supported print paths will be. If a Novell print path is not available when you think one should be, try upgrading your Novell client software to a newer version. e. No NDS volumes shown in NetWare 4.11 There is a known problem reading the list of available NDS volumes in NetWare 4.11 with service pack prior to version 7. This problem has been seen in cases were the user logs into an NDS context that is at a lower level than the available volumes. The solution is to install the NetWare 4 Support Pack 7 or upgrade to NetWare 4.2. f. Support for NDS localities The Hewlett-Packard Install Network Printer Wizard cannot recognize localities in the NDS context. 7. Device Discovery a. Gateway Discovery performance will be very slow if your client PC does not have a gateway configured. To configure a gateway, choose "Network" in the Control Panel, and then look at Properties for the TCP/IP protocol. An input should appear for entering a gateway address. See the online help for a more information on TCP/IP and gateways. b. Multi-homed Machines Multi-homed machines are not supported. In a multi-homed machine, it is not possible to distinguish between multiple devices with the same IP address. A multi-homed machine is a computer with more than one network connection. It is possible for two or more devices on different networks to have the same IP address. A multi-homed machine would see both devices and there would be no guarantee that you are configuring the correct device. In this case, either disable all but the correct network card, or configure the HP JetDirect print server from another PC that is on the correct network and has only one network card. This problem may also occur on PCs that contains both a network card and a dial-up adapter. c. 0.0.0.0 IP Addresses Assuming that an IP address is not assigned, a JetDirect-connected printer will have an IP address of "0.0.0.0" for approximately 2 minutes after a factory reset. After 2 minutes the IP address will automatically be assigned "192.0.0.192". Attempts to configure a "0.0.0.0" device through an IP print path will fail. You must wait until the HP JetDirect device has a non-zero IP address before attempting to configure it. d. Class A Subnet Masks If the machine running the Hewlett-Packard Install Network Printer wizard has an IP subnet mask of "255.0.0.0" (which is known as a "Class A" subnet mask), device discovery will suffer a significant performance degradation. To improve discovery performance you must change your subnet mask to a non-Class A subnet mask. 8. Driver Support a. License Support Some drivers require the acceptance of a license. When installing a driver, if a dialog appears that requests acceptance of a license, you must approve the license before the application will continue. Failure to approve the license will result in the application hanging. b. Have Disk Support To support new printers or drivers, the "Have Disk" button can be utilized during driver installation. For the "Have Disk" functionality to work, the media must contain an "inf" file (e.g. filename.inf). Some driver updates available on the World Wide Web are in the form of self-extracting archives and are not in a format that "Have Disk" can utilize. In this case, install the driver before running the Hewlett-Packard Install Network Printer wizard. c. HP Driver Updates Hewlett-Packard driver updates can be found on the World Wide Web at: www.hp.com/go/support NOTE: This URL is subject to change. 9. IPX Port Monitor and Data Corruption Some printers may experience data corruption when used with the Hewlett-Packard IPX Port monitor under Windows NT. These errors may be corrected either by installing an appropriate hot fix for NT or by installing Service Pack 4 from Microsoft. 10. Printer Names When naming a printer within the Hewlett-Packard Install Network Printer wizard you must enter a name in English that conforms to the Microsoft Printer Naming rules (i.e. what would be accepted in the Microsoft Add Printer wizard). If a localized name is required, assign the printer name in English and finish the install. Then open the printer folder from the Control Panel and select the desired printer. Select "Rename" from the File menu and rename the printer with a localized name. 11. Printer Share Name Spaces are not allowed for naming printer shared name. 12. Error Messages Error writing to for : The system cannot write to the specified file. This error message may appear when attempting to print a test page or during regular use. It usually means the printer is out of paper or unavailable. Check the printer and make sure it is plugged in, has paper, etc. If you were running the Hewlett-Packard Install Network Printer wizard when this occurred, there is no need to rerun the application. Simply locate the printer in the printer folder and right mouse click on it. Choose "Properties" and select to print a test page. If you have corrected the error condition, a test page should now print. Driver cannot install. Must run printer's setup program. When installing certain HP printers (see tables below under #11 and #12), the Hewlett-Packard Install Network Printer wizard may not be able to install the driver. You will receive an error message stating that you need to run the printer's setup program. The Hewlett-Packard Install Network Printer wizard may create the printer in the printer's folder despite this error. The installed printer will not function properly. After the wizard exits, run the setup program that comes with the printer. You may have to identify the printer as existing on a local port such as LPT1. Install the printer using this setup program. Now delete both printers from the printer folder (the printer created by the HP wizard and the printer created by the printer's setup program). Run the HP wizard a second time. This time choose existing drivers. You will see two similar printer strings. One will be from the first HP wizard install and one from the printer's setup install. Choose one. If the wizard exists successfully you chose the proper driver. If the installation fails, rerun the wizard and this time choose the other driver. Finally, check to make sure the printer created is the default printer. This can be accomplished by right mouse clicking on the printer in the printer's folder and seeing if "Set As Default" is checked. 13. Known Problems Installing HP Printer Drivers Under Windows 95/98 Some HP printer drivers do not install correctly using the printer .INF file and the "Have Disk..." option. These drivers and the behaviors that they exhibit are listed below, along with directions to install these drivers properly. Printer Model: HP LaserJet 8100 Behavior: PCL 6 driver will not install. The user will receive a "Spool 32" error. Solution: 1. Run the file Setup.exe that came with the printer driver to install the driver. 2. Run the "Install Network Printer Wizard" to install the printer with the PCL 6 driver. Printer Model: HP LaserJet 8000 Behavior: PCL 6 driver will not install. The user will receive a "Spool 32" error. Solution: 1. Run the file Setup.exe that came with the printer driver to install the driver. 2. Run the "Install Network Printer Wizard" to install the printer with the PCL 6 driver. Printer Model: HP Mopier 320 Behavior: PCL 6 driver will not install. The user will receive an error message telling them to run the setup program that came with this printer, and then to run the printer installer again. Solution: 1. Run the file Setup.exe that came with the printer driver to install the driver. 2. Run the "Install Network Printer Wizard" to install the printer with the PCL 6 driver. Printer Model: HP LaserJet 4050 Behavior: PCL 5e driver will not install. The user will receive an error message telling them to run the setup program that came with this printer, and then to run the printer installer again. Solution: 1. Run the file Setup.exe that came with the printer driver to install the driver. 2. Run the "Install Network Printer Wizard" to install the printer with the PCL 5e driver. Printer Model: HP Color LaserJet 4500 Behavior: Postscript driver will not install. The user will receive an error message telling them to run the setup program that came with this printer, and then to run the printer installer again. Solution: 1. Run the file Setup.exe that came with the printer driver to install the driver. 2. Run the "Install Network Printer Wizard" to install the printer with the Postscript driver. Printer Model: HP DeskJet 2500C Behavior: The DeskJet 2500C driver will not install. The user will receive an error message telling them to run the setup program that came with this printer, and then to run the printer installer again. Solution: 1. Run the file Setup.exe that came with the printer driver to install the driver. 2. Run the "Install Network Printer Wizard" to install the printer with the driver. Printer Model: HP LaserJet 5M Behavior: The following drivers will not install properly: PCL Standard, PCL Enhanced, Postscript. The user will receive an error message telling them to run the setup program that came with this printer, and then to run the printer installer again. Solution: The drivers for the HP LaserJet 5M can not be installed with the "Install Network Printer Wizard." Please use JetAdmin or Web JetAdmin to install this printer and drivers. Printer Model: HP Color LaserJet Behavior: The following drivers will not install properly: HP Color LaserJet, HP Color LaserJet 5/5M (CLJ5FR), HP Color LaserJet 5/5M (HP). The user will receive an error message telling them to run the setup program that came with this printer, and then to run the printer installer again. Solution: 1. Run the file Setup.exe that came with the printer driver to install the driver. 2. Run the "Install Network Printer Wizard" to install the printer with the driver. Printer Model: HP Color LaserJet 5 Behavior: The following drivers will not install properly: HP Color LaserJet, HP Color LaserJet 5/5M (CLJ5FR), HP Color LaserJet 5/5M (HP), HP Color LaserJet 5/5M Postscript. The user will receive an error message telling them to run the setup program that came with this printer, and then to run the printer installer again. Solution: 1. Run the file Setup.exe that came with the printer driver to install the driver. 2. Run the "Install Network Printer Wizard" to install the printer with the driver. Printer Model: HP LaserJet 6P Behavior: The following drivers will not install properly: PCL Standard, PCL Enhanced, Postscript. The user will receive an error message telling them to run the setup program that came with this printer, and then to run the printer installer again. Solution: 1. Run the file Setup.exe that came with the printer driver to install the driver. 2. Run the "Install Network Printer Wizard" to install the printer with the driver. Printer Model: HP LaserJet 6L Behavior: The PCL Standard will not install properly. The user will receive an error message telling them to run the setup program that came with this printer, and then to run the printer installer again. Solution: 1. Run the file Setup.exe that came with the printer driver to install the driver. 2. Run the "Install Network Printer Wizard" to install the printer with the driver. Printer Model: HP OfficeJet Pro 1170C Behavior: The OfficeJet Pro 1170C driver will not install properly. The user will receive an error message telling them to run the setup program that came with this printer, and then to run the printer installer again. Solution: 1. Run the file Setup.exe that came with the printer driver to install the driver. 2. Run the "Install Network Printer Wizard" to install the printer with the driver. Printer Model: HP DeskJet 1120 Behavior: There is a port monitor error right after installing the printer. The printer supplied driver is not supported Solution: 1. Run the Setup.exe that came with the printer to install the driver. 2. Run the "Install Network Printer Wizard" to install the printer with the driver. 14. Known Problems Installing HP Printer Drivers Under Windows NT 4.0 Some HP printer drivers do not install correctly using the printer .INF file and the "Have Disk..." option. These drivers and the behaviors that they exhibit are listed below, along with directions to install these drivers properly. Printer Model: HP LaserJet 8100 Behavior: Windows NT 4.0 shared printers cannot install the Windows 95/98 PCL 6 client driver. Solution: 1. Windows 95/98 client connecting to the Windows NT shared printer must install driver manually. Printer Model: HP LaserJet 5000 Behavior: Windows NT 4.0 shared printers cannot install the Windows 95/98 PCL 5 client driver. Solution: 1. Windows 95/98 client connecting to the Windows NT shared printer must install driver manually Printer Model: HP LaserJet 4050 Behavior: Windows NT 4.0 shared printers cannot install the Windows 95/98 PCL 5 and PCL 6 client drivers. Solution: 1. Windows 95/98 client connecting to the Windows NT shared printer must install driver manually Printer Model: HP LaserJet 2100 Behavior: Windows NT 4.0 shared printers cannot install the Windows 95/98 PCL and Poscript client drivers. Solution: 1. Windows 95/98 client connecting to the Windows NT shared printer must install driver manually Printer Model: HP Laser Jet 6L Behavior: Windows NT 4.0 shared printers cannot install the Windows 95/98 Postcript client driver. Solution: 1. Windows 95/98 client connecting to the Windows NT shared printer must install driver manually Printer Model: HP Laser Jet 5P Behavior: Windows NT 4.0 shared printers cannot install the Windows 95/98 Postcript client driver. Solution: 1. Windows 95/98 client connecting to the Windows NT shared printer must install driver manually Printer Model: HP Laser Jet 5L Behavior: Windows NT 4.0 shared printers cannot install the Windows 95/98 Postcript client driver. Solution: 1. Windows 95/98 client connecting to the Windows NT shared printer must install driver manually Printer Model: HP Laser Jet 5 Behavior: Driver will not install. The user will receive an error message telling them to run the setup program that came with this printer, and then to run the printer installer again. Solution: 1. Run the Setup.exe that came with the printer to install the driver. Printer Model: HP LaserJet 5Si Mopier Behavior: Windows NT 4.0 shared printers cannot install the Windows 95/98 client driver. Solution: 1. Windows 95/98 client connecting to the Windows NT shared printer must install driver manually Printer Model: HP DeskJet 895C Behavior: Windows NT 4.0 shared printers cannot install the Windows 95/98 client driver. Solution: 1. Windows 95/98 client connecting to the Windows NT shared printer must install driver manually Printer Model: HP DeskJet 890 Behavior: Windows NT 4.0 shared printers cannot install the Windows 95/98 client driver. Solution: 1. Windows 95/98 client connecting to the Windows NT shared printer must install driver manually Printer Model: HP DeskJet 870 Behavior: Windows NT 4.0 shared printers cannot install the Windows 95/98 client driver. Solution: 1. Windows 95/98 client connecting to the Windows NT shared printer must install driver manually Printer Model: HP DeskJet 2000C Behavior: Driver will not install. The user will receive an error message telling them to run the setup program that came with this printer, and then to run the printer installer again. Solution: 1. Run the Setup.exe that came with the printer to install the driver. Printer Model: HP DeskJet 2500C Behavior: Windows NT 4.0 shared printers cannot install the Windows 95/98 client driver. Solution: 1. Windows 95/98 client connecting to the Windows NT shared printer must install driver manually Printer Model: HP OfficeJet Pro 1170C Behavior: No inf file that describe printer drivers. Solution: 1. Run the Setup.exe that came with the printer to install the driver. Printer Model: HP CopyJet Behavior: No inf file that describe printer drivers. Solution: 1. Run the Setup.exe that came with the printer to install the driver. Copyright 1999 Hewlett-Packard Co. All Rights Reserved.

Re:FP biznitches! (-1)

Tasty Beef Jerky (543576) | more than 11 years ago | (#3645950)

You guys know what really sucks?

Having a big long story floating around in your mind, but not knowing exactly how to get it onto paper, or express it. It has fighting, love, explosions, grits, intrigue, suspense, Natalie Portman, danger, romance, First Posting, beauty, evil, and a gaping wide anus.*

I think I'm going to call my story Slashdot Wars: Episode IV - A New Goatsex. What do you all think?

* - May contain nuts

FP for the CLIT. (-1)

L0rdkariya (562469) | more than 11 years ago | (#3645844)

People I Like:
Logged-in trolls, sporks, etc. The keyword is logged-in.
R. Kelly
Queen Senator Natalie Portman-Amidala


People I Don't Like:
ACs
Anyone who uses Linux

That is all.

Re:FP for the CLIT. (-1)

News For Turds (580751) | more than 11 years ago | (#3645916)

Hewlett-Packard Install Network Printer Wizard
v 02.00

Table of Contents
1. Overview
2. DHCP
3. DNS
4. IP Address Support
5. Suggest IP Address (Autonet)
6. NetWare Support
a. Supported Versions
b. NDS Multiple Tree Support
c. NetWare 5 Support
d. No Novell Print Path
e. No NDS volumes
f. Support for NDS localities
7. Device Discovery
a. Gateway
b. Multi-homed Machines
c. 0.0.0.0 IP Addresses
d. Class A Subnet Masks
8. Driver Support
a. License Acceptance
b. Have Disk Support
c. HP Driver Updates
9. IPX Port Monitor and Data Corruption
10. Printer Names
11. Printer Share Name
12. Error Messages
13. Known Problems Installing HP Printer Drivers Under Windows 95/98
14. Known Problems Installing HP Printer Drivers Under Windows NT 4.0

1. Overview
This Read Me file contains last-minute product information for the Hewlett-Packard
Install Network Printer wizard for Windows 95/ 98 and Windows NT.

2. DHCP
If you try to change just the subnet mask on an HP JetDirect print server that has
been configured via DHCP, you will get an error message while using the Hewlett-Packard
Install Network Printer wizard. Once a JetDirect print server has been manually
configured, it will store the IP address, subnet mask and default gateway statically
instead of trying to obtain them dynamically. Allowing a static change only to the
subnet mask would cause DHCP-configured IP conflicts in the future. For more information
on this subject, see the HP JetDirect documentation.

3. DNS
In a DNS environment, the Hewlett-Packard Install Network Printer wizard will
automatically set up the port with the host name rather than the IP address. If you have
a DNS environment that allows Host lookup by IP, but not the reverse lookup, the printer
will never print a page. We consider this environment to be an invalid DNS environment.
To fix the port without changing the DNS environment, view Properties for the printer.
Select the ports tab. Select the port that is in use for that printer. Click Configure
Port. Change the host name to the correct IP address.

4. IP Address Support
Hewlett-Packard Install Network Printer Wizard do not support class D IP address. Class D IP
addresses are those addresses with the form of 224.xx.yy.zz

All addresses of the form 127.xx.yy.zz are reserved for loopback testing. They are not valid IP
to be used to configure device on the network.

5. Suggest IP Address (Autonet)
The algorithm for obtaining the IP address for the "Suggest Settings..." button is
derived from the Internet Draft DHC-IPV4-AUTOCONFIG by R. Troll entitled "Automatically
Choosing an IP Address in an Ad-Hoc IPv4 Network". The algorithm for generating the IP
address is to randomly generate an address in the 169.254.x.x reserved address range,
then determine if it is in use on the network. If it is in use, generate another address
in the range. Repeat until an address is generated that is not in use. The resulting
address is not intended for use on the Internet. Microsoft uses a similar scheme for
determining an IP address on Windows 98 and Windows 2000 when the system is in an environment
that doesn't have a DHCP or bootp server, and the system is configured to dynamically
determine and IP address.

6. NetWare Support
a. Supported Versions
The supported versions of NetWare are: 3.11, 3.12, 3.2, 4.11, 4.2. For Novell
queue creation, you must be logged into a Novell bindery or NDS server using a Novell
supplied client requester. See www.novell.com for client updates.
b. NDS Multiple Tree Support
The Hewlett-Packard Install Network Printer wizard only provides support for the NDS
tree the user is currently logged into. If a different tree is desired you must quit
the application, change your login to the desired tree and rerun the application.
c. NetWare 5.0 Support
If NetWare 5 is configured for IPX, and an IPX connection is being used on the client,
the Hewlett-Packard Install Network Printer Wizard can be used to create an NDS print
queue. If NetWare 5 is configured for TCP/IP and a TCP/IP connection is being used on
the client, the Hewlett-Packard Install Network Printer wizard can be used to create
an IP print path. If the client on which the application is being run has an IPX
connection to the NetWare 5 server, and the client is logged in, an NDS queue server
print path will be recommended. If IPX is not in use but TCP/IP is, a TCP/IP print
path will be recommended. In order to create NDS queues, an IPX connection with a
login must be present.
d. No Novell Print Path
The Hewlett-Packard Install Network Printer wizard relies upon several DLLs that ship
with the Novell Client for 95 and NT. The application will look for these DLLs and
the associated entry points within them. If any of the necessary DLLs are missing,
or if they do not have the needed entry points (perhaps an old version), a Novell
print path will not be available although other supported print paths will be. If a
Novell print path is not available when you think one should be, try upgrading your
Novell client software to a newer version.

e. No NDS volumes shown in NetWare 4.11
There is a known problem reading the list of available NDS volumes in NetWare 4.11 with
service pack prior to version 7. This problem has been seen in cases were the user
logs into an NDS context that is at a lower level than the available volumes. The solution
is to install the NetWare 4 Support Pack 7 or upgrade to NetWare 4.2.

f. Support for NDS localities
The Hewlett-Packard Install Network Printer Wizard cannot recognize localities in the
NDS context.

7. Device Discovery
a. Gateway
Discovery performance will be very slow if your client PC does not have a gateway
configured. To configure a gateway, choose "Network" in the Control Panel, and then
look at Properties for the TCP/IP protocol. An input should appear for entering a
gateway address. See the online help for a more information on TCP/IP and gateways.
b. Multi-homed Machines
Multi-homed machines are not supported. In a multi-homed machine, it is not possible
to distinguish between multiple devices with the same IP address. A multi-homed
machine is a computer with more than one network connection. It is possible for two
or more devices on different networks to have the same IP address. A multi-homed
machine would see both devices and there would be no guarantee that you are
configuring the correct device. In this case, either disable all but the correct
network card, or configure the HP JetDirect print server from another PC that is on
the correct network and has only one network card. This problem may also occur on
PCs that contains both a network card and a dial-up adapter.
c. 0.0.0.0 IP Addresses
Assuming that an IP address is not assigned, a JetDirect-connected printer will have
an IP address of "0.0.0.0" for approximately 2 minutes after a factory reset. After
2 minutes the IP address will automatically be assigned "192.0.0.192". Attempts to
configure a "0.0.0.0" device through an IP print path will fail. You must wait until
the HP JetDirect device has a non-zero IP address before attempting to configure it.
d. Class A Subnet Masks
If the machine running the Hewlett-Packard Install Network Printer wizard has an IP
subnet mask of "255.0.0.0" (which is known as a "Class A" subnet mask), device
discovery will suffer a significant performance degradation. To improve discovery
performance you must change your subnet mask to a non-Class A subnet mask.

8. Driver Support
a. License Support
Some drivers require the acceptance of a license. When installing a driver, if a
dialog appears that requests acceptance of a license, you must approve the license
before the application will continue. Failure to approve the license will result in
the application hanging.
b. Have Disk Support
To support new printers or drivers, the "Have Disk" button can be utilized during
driver installation. For the "Have Disk" functionality to work, the media must
contain an "inf" file (e.g. filename.inf). Some driver updates available on the
World Wide Web are in the form of self-extracting archives and are not in a format
that "Have Disk" can utilize. In this case, install the driver before running the
Hewlett-Packard Install Network Printer wizard.
c. HP Driver Updates
Hewlett-Packard driver updates can be found on the World Wide Web at:
www.hp.com/go/support
NOTE: This URL is subject to change.

9. IPX Port Monitor and Data Corruption
Some printers may experience data corruption when used with the Hewlett-Packard IPX
Port monitor under Windows NT. These errors may be corrected either by installing an
appropriate hot fix for NT or by installing Service Pack 4 from Microsoft.

10. Printer Names
When naming a printer within the Hewlett-Packard Install Network Printer wizard you
must enter a name in English that conforms to the Microsoft Printer Naming rules
(i.e. what would be accepted in the Microsoft Add Printer wizard). If a localized name
is required, assign the printer name in English and finish the install. Then open the
printer folder from the Control Panel and select the desired printer. Select "Rename"
from the File menu and rename the printer with a localized name.

11. Printer Share Name
Spaces are not allowed for naming printer shared name.

12. Error Messages
Error writing to for : The system cannot write to the specified file.

This error message may appear when attempting to print a test page or during regular
use. It usually means the printer is out of paper or unavailable. Check the printer
and make sure it is plugged in, has paper, etc. If you were running the Hewlett-Packard
Install Network Printer wizard when this occurred, there is no need to rerun the
application. Simply locate the printer in the printer folder and right mouse click on
it. Choose "Properties" and select to print a test page. If you have corrected the
error condition, a test page should now print.

Driver cannot install. Must run printer's setup program.

When installing certain HP printers (see tables below under #11 and #12), the Hewlett-Packard
Install Network Printer wizard may not be able to install the driver. You will receive an
error message stating that you need to run the printer's setup program. The Hewlett-Packard
Install Network Printer wizard may create the printer in the printer's folder despite this error.
The installed printer will not function properly. After the wizard exits, run the setup
program that comes with the printer. You may have to identify the printer as existing on a
local port such as LPT1. Install the printer using this setup program. Now delete both
printers from the printer folder (the printer created by the HP wizard and the printer created
by the printer's setup program). Run the HP wizard a second time. This time choose existing
drivers. You will see two similar printer strings. One will be from the first HP wizard
install and one from the printer's setup install. Choose one. If the wizard exists
successfully you chose the proper driver. If the installation fails, rerun the wizard and
this time choose the other driver. Finally, check to make sure the printer created is the
default printer. This can be accomplished by right mouse clicking on the printer in the
printer's folder and seeing if "Set As Default" is checked.

13. Known Problems Installing HP Printer Drivers Under Windows 95/98
Some HP printer drivers do not install correctly using the printer .INF file and the
"Have Disk..." option. These drivers and the behaviors that they exhibit are listed
below, along with directions to install these drivers properly.

Printer Model: HP LaserJet 8100
Behavior: PCL 6 driver will not install. The user will receive a "Spool 32" error.
Solution:
1. Run the file Setup.exe that came with the printer driver to install the driver.
2. Run the "Install Network Printer Wizard" to install the printer with the PCL 6 driver.

Printer Model: HP LaserJet 8000
Behavior: PCL 6 driver will not install. The user will receive a "Spool 32" error.
Solution:
1. Run the file Setup.exe that came with the printer driver to install the driver.
2. Run the "Install Network Printer Wizard" to install the printer with the PCL 6 driver.

Printer Model: HP Mopier 320
Behavior: PCL 6 driver will not install. The user will receive an error message telling them
to run the setup program that came with this printer, and then to run the printer
installer again.
Solution:
1. Run the file Setup.exe that came with the printer driver to install the driver.
2. Run the "Install Network Printer Wizard" to install the printer with the PCL 6 driver.

Printer Model: HP LaserJet 4050
Behavior: PCL 5e driver will not install. The user will receive an error message telling them
to run the setup program that came with this printer, and then to run the printer
installer again.
Solution:
1. Run the file Setup.exe that came with the printer driver to install the driver.
2. Run the "Install Network Printer Wizard" to install the printer with the PCL 5e driver.

Printer Model: HP Color LaserJet 4500
Behavior: Postscript driver will not install. The user will receive an error message telling
them to run the setup program that came with this printer, and then to run the
printer installer again.
Solution:
1. Run the file Setup.exe that came with the printer driver to install the driver.
2. Run the "Install Network Printer Wizard" to install the printer with the Postscript
driver.

Printer Model: HP DeskJet 2500C
Behavior: The DeskJet 2500C driver will not install. The user will receive an error message
telling them to run the setup program that came with this printer, and then to run
the printer installer again.
Solution:
1. Run the file Setup.exe that came with the printer driver to install the driver.
2. Run the "Install Network Printer Wizard" to install the printer with the driver.

Printer Model: HP LaserJet 5M
Behavior: The following drivers will not install properly: PCL Standard, PCL Enhanced,
Postscript. The user will receive an error message telling them to run the setup
program that came with this printer, and then to run the printer installer again.
Solution:
The drivers for the HP LaserJet 5M can not be installed with the "Install Network
Printer Wizard." Please use JetAdmin or Web JetAdmin to install this printer and drivers.

Printer Model: HP Color LaserJet
Behavior: The following drivers will not install properly: HP Color LaserJet, HP Color LaserJet
5/5M (CLJ5FR), HP Color LaserJet 5/5M (HP). The user will receive an error message
telling them to run the setup program that came with this printer, and then to run
the printer installer again.
Solution:
1. Run the file Setup.exe that came with the printer driver to install the driver.
2. Run the "Install Network Printer Wizard" to install the printer with the driver.

Printer Model: HP Color LaserJet 5
Behavior: The following drivers will not install properly: HP Color LaserJet, HP Color LaserJet
5/5M (CLJ5FR), HP Color LaserJet 5/5M (HP), HP Color LaserJet 5/5M Postscript. The
user will receive an error message telling them to run the setup program that came
with this printer, and then to run the printer installer again.
Solution:
1. Run the file Setup.exe that came with the printer driver to install the driver.
2. Run the "Install Network Printer Wizard" to install the printer with the driver.

Printer Model: HP LaserJet 6P
Behavior: The following drivers will not install properly: PCL Standard, PCL Enhanced,
Postscript. The user will receive an error message telling them to run the setup
program that came with this printer, and then to run the printer installer again.
Solution:
1. Run the file Setup.exe that came with the printer driver to install the driver.
2. Run the "Install Network Printer Wizard" to install the printer with the driver.

Printer Model: HP LaserJet 6L
Behavior: The PCL Standard will not install properly. The user will receive an error message
telling them to run the setup program that came with this printer, and then to run
the printer installer again.
Solution:
1. Run the file Setup.exe that came with the printer driver to install the driver.
2. Run the "Install Network Printer Wizard" to install the printer with the driver.

Printer Model: HP OfficeJet Pro 1170C
Behavior: The OfficeJet Pro 1170C driver will not install properly. The user will receive an
error message telling them to run the setup program that came with this printer, and
then to run the printer installer again.
Solution:
1. Run the file Setup.exe that came with the printer driver to install the driver.
2. Run the "Install Network Printer Wizard" to install the printer with the driver.

Printer Model: HP DeskJet 1120
Behavior: There is a port monitor error right after installing the printer. The printer supplied
driver is not supported
Solution:
1. Run the Setup.exe that came with the printer to install the driver.
2. Run the "Install Network Printer Wizard" to install the printer with the driver.

14. Known Problems Installing HP Printer Drivers Under Windows NT 4.0
Some HP printer drivers do not install correctly using the printer .INF file and the "Have Disk..." option. These drivers and the behaviors that they exhibit are listed below, along with directions to install these drivers properly.

Printer Model: HP LaserJet 8100
Behavior: Windows NT 4.0 shared printers cannot install the Windows 95/98 PCL 6 client driver.
Solution:
1. Windows 95/98 client connecting to the Windows NT shared printer must install driver
manually.

Printer Model: HP LaserJet 5000
Behavior: Windows NT 4.0 shared printers cannot install the Windows 95/98 PCL 5 client driver.
Solution:
1. Windows 95/98 client connecting to the Windows NT shared printer must install driver
manually

Printer Model: HP LaserJet 4050
Behavior: Windows NT 4.0 shared printers cannot install the Windows 95/98 PCL 5 and PCL 6
client drivers.
Solution:
1. Windows 95/98 client connecting to the Windows NT shared printer must install driver
manually

Printer Model: HP LaserJet 2100
Behavior: Windows NT 4.0 shared printers cannot install the Windows 95/98 PCL and Poscript
client drivers.
Solution:
1. Windows 95/98 client connecting to the Windows NT shared printer must install driver
manually

Printer Model: HP Laser Jet 6L
Behavior: Windows NT 4.0 shared printers cannot install the Windows 95/98 Postcript client
driver.
Solution:
1. Windows 95/98 client connecting to the Windows NT shared printer must install driver
manually

Printer Model: HP Laser Jet 5P
Behavior: Windows NT 4.0 shared printers cannot install the Windows 95/98 Postcript client
driver.
Solution:
1. Windows 95/98 client connecting to the Windows NT shared printer must install driver
manually

Printer Model: HP Laser Jet 5L
Behavior: Windows NT 4.0 shared printers cannot install the Windows 95/98 Postcript client
driver.
Solution:
1. Windows 95/98 client connecting to the Windows NT shared printer must install driver
manually

Printer Model: HP Laser Jet 5
Behavior: Driver will not install. The user will receive an error message telling them to run
the setup program that came with this printer, and then to run the printer installer
again.
Solution:
1. Run the Setup.exe that came with the printer to install the driver.

Printer Model: HP LaserJet 5Si Mopier
Behavior: Windows NT 4.0 shared printers cannot install the Windows 95/98 client driver.
Solution:
1. Windows 95/98 client connecting to the Windows NT shared printer must install driver
manually

Printer Model: HP DeskJet 895C
Behavior: Windows NT 4.0 shared printers cannot install the Windows 95/98 client driver.
Solution:
1. Windows 95/98 client connecting to the Windows NT shared printer must install driver
manually

Printer Model: HP DeskJet 890
Behavior: Windows NT 4.0 shared printers cannot install the Windows 95/98 client driver.
Solution:
1. Windows 95/98 client connecting to the Windows NT shared printer must install driver
manually

Printer Model: HP DeskJet 870
Behavior: Windows NT 4.0 shared printers cannot install the Windows 95/98 client driver.
Solution:
1. Windows 95/98 client connecting to the Windows NT shared printer must install driver
manually

Printer Model: HP DeskJet 2000C
Behavior: Driver will not install. The user will receive an error message telling them
to run the setup program that came with this printer, and then to run the printer
installer again.
Solution:
1. Run the Setup.exe that came with the printer to install the driver.

Printer Model: HP DeskJet 2500C
Behavior: Windows NT 4.0 shared printers cannot install the Windows 95/98 client driver.
Solution:
1. Windows 95/98 client connecting to the Windows NT shared printer must install driver
manually

Printer Model: HP OfficeJet Pro 1170C
Behavior: No inf file that describe printer drivers.
Solution:
1. Run the Setup.exe that came with the printer to install the driver.

Printer Model: HP CopyJet
Behavior: No inf file that describe printer drivers.
Solution:
1. Run the Setup.exe that came with the printer to install the driver.

Copyright 1999 Hewlett-Packard Co. All Rights Reserved.

Save Money - Use Your Blender (-1)

Tasty Beef Jerky (543576) | more than 11 years ago | (#3646036)

I'm not much into a lot of high tech or 'new fangled' kitchen ware, preferring instead cast iron skillets on a wood cook stove. I resisted owning a microwave for years, and only got hooked when I got a small one several years ago for Christmas. I still have it, and yes, I use it to thaw meat and heat an occasional cup of water... a fairly expensive solution if you include the cost.

On the other hand, a blender and/or food processor can pay for its cost and the electricity it uses very quickly. It's a tool for the frugal, busy person that pays its way many times over.

With it, you can stir, grind, mix, puree and pulverize almost anything in seconds, from creating a cooling drink to making your own powdered sugar. A blender is a handy dandy gadget for sure!

One of my favorite uses is making sandwich spreads from leftover meat. Anything from chicken to roast to hotdogs is fair game. Just cut the meat into manageable sized pieces and add mayonnaise or salad dressing, pickles, onions, cheese, olives, boiled eggs... whatever you prefer, and whirl it until it's finely diced.

It's a good way to stretch a little meat to go a long way.

Ever get a hankering for an ice cream malted? It's a lot cheaper to make your own! You should find malt in the baking section of your grocery store (if you don't find it, ask!). That, along with some vanilla ice cream and a little milk is all it takes.

For one malt, put two or three hefty scoops of ice cream in the blender, add about 1/4 cup of milk and a couple of heaping tablespoons of malt. Blend until it's smooth, but don't overdo it. You can add whatever you like for flavoring too. Try real bananas, cocoa mix, frozen strawberries, flavored syrups, jellies... let your imagination go wild for this one.

Use your blender to make your own powdered sugar by adding a teaspoon of cornstarch to a cup of granulated sugar and blending until it's fine. You'll never have to buy powdered sugar again, and you'll always have it fresh, not to mention that granulated sugar is cheaper.

Need onion powder or garlic powder? Put dehydrated onions or garlic in the blender and turn it on! Need ground oregano when all you have are oregano leaves? Same thing.

Use your blender to chop nuts for toppings or breads, make cracker and bread crumbs, make salsas when the peppers are too hot to handle, puree real pumpkin for real pumpkin pies... the list goes on.

They're inexpensive and even the cheaply made ones usually last a few years. That means you can save a lot of money, with just the uses listed here.

Of all things this modern world has provided, the blender could very well be the busy and frugal cook's best friend.

'Make Your Own' Recipes [slashdot.org] - Lots of opportunity here to use that blender!

Baby Food [slashdot.org] - Make it naturally, safely - with a blender.

Instant Gourmet Coffee [slashdot.org] - Make it in your blender; give it for a gift or indulge yourself.

Fun Fruit Shakes [slashdot.org] - Quick, cheap and nutritious blender-made shakes.

FP for the CLIT sucka (-1)

Sexual Asspussy (453406) | more than 11 years ago | (#3645849)

I had always been fond of Mrs. Green. She was an elderly woman I guessed always to be about 45. She was my English Teacher and was very good as a teacher. I was 18 at time and very mature. We have known each other for 6 years since I was 12. I was currently having her for my A-levels. She was in good shape for her age and she had a trim figure. She was about 5ft 9 and she had blue eyes and brown hair. I have to admit her face had started turning wrinkly but that didn't matter. I had fancied her for a couple of years and I was called the teachers pet because she was very fond of me.

One day thought hat all changed. I was asked to stay and help with the display we were putting up. I was putting up one side and she put up the other. She came across and reached for the stapler and brushed against my cock and it I went into shock she just smiled I noticed she was wearing no bra and she had a nipple erection. I suddenly became erect as well. She noticed this.

"Oh Luke you look as if you need some help!"

"Yes miss."

I was near to crumbling. She walked over and as I held part of the display up she pressed her tits up against my back and cuddled me. With that she gripped my manhood. I could have exploded there.

"Come to the storeroom there is something I want to show you."

I couldn't wait I was that close to fucking my English teacher. I walked in shut the door, and locked it. I turned and to my total surprise she looked serious and said:

"Look Luke I don't know if we should do anything because I have been teaching for over 20 years and I have a reputation to uphold."

Shit she must be in her 40's. She is in good condition for that.

"Miss don't worry no one will see us and I wont tell anyone. Why would I be here if I would."

"Oh Luke I was hoping you were going to say that."

She approached me and kissed me on the lips. I was expecting her to taste of bad breath but she had he most wonderful aroma. I just didn't know what to do. So I opened my mouth and she slid her tongue in We must have stood there a while playing with each others tongues and exploring each others mouths. I was surprised then when she unzipped my flies and I pulled away.

"Don't you want this? Do you not find me attractive."

"No Miss I find you sexy but do you want to?" "Don't fuck about just satisfy me."

I took off my trousers. She pulled down her dress. I have to admit her breasts weren't firm but no where near saggy. Her body had hardly any ageing signs.

"No bad for a 47 year old grandmother. Eh."

I stood there gawping for a few seconds and pulled off all my clothes I stood there naked with a 6 ½ inch erection. She slid down her panties to reveal a well trimmed pussy. I reached down and pulled out a condom.

"Down worry about that I wanna have your cum inside me."

It then hit me how old she was and I was going to fuck her

"Luke if you think I'm too old then put on your clothes and go."

I didn't answer I just walked up to her and stuck my tongue down her throat. My hands were groping her ass but hers went further she put her middle finger up my ass. I breathed in sharply as she pushed it all the way. She started playing with my ass and I groaned.

"You like that?"

"Oh try two fingers."

She did and they fit fine. She played for a little longer before pulling out and licking her fingers clean.

"My turn." I said as I got on my knees and kissed her pussy. She sat on the desk behind her and spread her legs. I nearly cummed there and then. I buried my face into her pussy and licked it a and licked it. I slid in two fingers and I was playing with her. Then I found her G-spot. I spent 3 minutes licking and fingering. I felt her muscles tighten up as I rubbed.

"Luke oh I'm gonna cum please stop they'll hear me orgasm."

"No cum all over me just cum."

She was breathing heavily and I knew she was going to cum. She grabbed the nearest thing to her. My boxer shorts. Then with no haste they were in her mouth and she was gagged and screaming at the top of her voice as the cum started flowing. The muscles of her pussy were going frantic as the cum still flow and she still screamed. She was tossing her head and her eyes were rolling.

After she had stopped I pulled my damp, shorts out of her mouth.

"Good?"

"Amazing I haven't came like that in 30 years."

"Miss stand up and take it like a bitch."

"Oh, give it to me hard Luke."

With that instruction I backed her into a book case and she jumped and wrapped her legs around me I lowered her onto my cock. It made a squelching sound. She chuckled and pushed my face into her breasts. All I could do was suck on them as she moved up and down on my manhood. I couldn't believe I was here fucking my 47 year English teacher.

After 10 minutes of ravaging her pussy I felt the urge in cum.

"Ohhh miss I'm gonna cum."

"Go on Luke pump it deep inside me go on."

I then released a huge load inside Mrs. Green. The cum just kept flowing.

"Ohhh Miss how does it feel to be fucked by someone a third of you rage."

"(Groan) how do you think. Luke go faster please go faster."

Abiding by her orders I went faster and faster. After 2 minutes I let her down and put her on her hands and knees facing the wall. I gripped her hips and slipped my cock into her already well cum lubricated pussy. It was amazing how much more pleasure she was getting and I have to admit I came in under 10 minutes. But then kept going because I could feel her coming to an orgasm.

I kept pumping and pumping. I could feel her muscles tighten around my cock and her whole body go rigid. She started breathing heavily and groaning very loudly. So I slipped my cock out and put my whole fist inside her. I felt her muscles move aside as my hand went further and further. She said.

"That is fabulous. Now work on my ass."

"You mean fuck your ass."

"Luke, I don't think it'll fit."

"It will."

With that I eased it in inch by inch. It was so tight yet it could take it. Then I hit my fist. It had stretched the muscles so much it was taking up the space for her ass. I only had 5 inches of it in. Just over an inch to go. Shit. I couldn't get it any further.

The I nearly had a heart attack. Miss Forger knocked on the door and tried to open it.

"Oh ummm sorry Anita there's a lot of books pilled up there. Ill be out soon."

"Oh sorry I just wanted to ask where Luke was I need him."

We heard her walk away. I pulled my fist out and slammed my manhood the whole way in. Mrs. Green breathed sharply.

"I bet she needs me."

first pr0n! (-1, Offtopic)

Anonymous Coward | more than 11 years ago | (#3645867)

(Score:-1, Offtopic)

You are outside doing yard work on a hot summer day. It's too hot for that shit, but you want to get it done today so you can be free all day tomorrow. I stop by the house unexpectedly and you invite me to join you for a beer and ask if I'd mind sitting out back with you - you're too dirty to sit inside. So I join you out back and we throw a blanket down over the fresh cut grass and grab a couple beers.

By the end of the second beer, I'm losing track of the conversation and just watching the sweat roll from your neck down to the waistband of your cut offs. You are totally into telling me about the rest of your landscaping plans until you roll up to grab me another beer out of the cooler, and notice that my eyes are on your cutoffs.

You laugh it off, but I can see the thought of me watching you is making your cock swell. You hand me my beer with a comment about how hot it is. Now, me being me, I can't resist cooling you off and I take a long drag on the beer before leaning over and dragging the beer bottle down the inside of your thigh. You jump so quickly in surprise that you end up dumping half your beer down my chest and now we have both gotten cooled off. This sends us into gales of laughter. But our eyes aren't laughing; your boner is practically crawling out the bottom of your cutoffs and my nipples are so hard they ache.

Your eyes stay intently on mine as you lean in and pull my hair loose of the pony tail holder making my hair tumble down all over my shoulders and back. You draw a couple strands thru your fingers...and then pull on one of the strands drawing me in for a kiss. My hands come up against your chest for balance, and feeling you all sweaty, I just let 'em slide down to your waistband and around your back. Your lips press gently to mine, and your tongue finds mine and strokes.

Like a magnet my hair is drawn to your sweaty shoulders and chest, and we're making a whole new kind of heat. You push me down onto the blanket and follow me down. Your kiss is turning harder, more passionate and your hips are rocking with the rhythm of your tongue. You pull on the strings of my bikini top and kiss my neck until my back arches with my moan. You quickly reach under and pull the lower string loose too. Kissing my quickly down my neck, across my shoulders you lick the beer off my chest. Apologizing in a whisper for getting my top wet, you lick the beer off my nipples at the very tips.

My back arches and I whisper that more than my top is wet. You reward me by sweetly swirling your tongue against the nipples till they are both standing at attention and begging for more. My hips arch and I moan your name. By now I have forgotten where we are but as you lift up to pull my shorts off you notice your neighbor out in his yard with his eyes locked on us (and his hand jacking his lawn hose). You sink back down and kiss me firmly, letting me know exactly how much you want me. Then you whisper that your neighbor is watching, and ask me if we are going to cum inside or out. I laugh gently and whisper that I will cum inside and you can cum wherever you want. Kissing me firmly again you roll slightly to the side and say, "Take a look".

Peeking over your shoulder I see Mr. Middle America standing dumbly in the middle of his lawn. I quickly pull back and kiss you passionately till you have forgotten that he is there, and are reaching for my shorts again. Unable to resist my playful mood, I scream "Oooooh God, baby, ohh yes make me cum!" and then jump off the blanket and grab my top and run in the house. You curse and start to run after me, catching me just inside the house panting "You're not getting off that easy". "Definitely not, I'm planning on getting off on your very hard, very long cock baby" and I grab you and kiss you with my tongue simulating exactly the stroke and rhythm I want you to make me cum with.

You let me take the lead and I reach down and firmly cup your cock before letting my fingers find your zipper. Taking my time, I release you and listen to you moan your appreciation as you lean back against the kitchen counter and drop your head back. Your cut offs sound loud as they hit the floor, but not as loud as your breathing. I slowly engulf your warm sweaty cock in my mouth and listen for the catch in your breathing. Sure enough, your breath halts and then with a whoosh starts back up again, louder and harsher than a moment ago. You widen your stance, giving me plenty of room to lick and suck your cock. My tongue bathes you and I moan my appreciation of your taste. I suck you deep and stroke firmly with my hand at the base, letting my fingers ease under your balls and stroke behind them. I feel your legs tense and you moan loud and reach out and stroke my head and hair and start whispering to me. Over and over you tell me how good it feels, how hot and slick my tongue is, how badly you want me, how beautiful I am, how hard you are.

With every word I am more aroused, moaning and panting around your cock. My moaning and panting is driving you crazy and you pull me up for another torrid kiss, our lips and tongues mating wildly. You don't bother with my zipper, just running your hand down the inside of my shorts and find my bikini bottoms. Cursing you pull your hand out and reach with both hands for my button and zipper and then push the shorts and bikini bottoms off at once and slide your hand right into my furry mound. You waste no time and sink a finger deeply inside me, never letting go of my mouth and tongue. I moan and melt against you, my mouth going slack, unable to feel anything except your hand. Quickly you insert another finger and at the same time brush my clit with your palm and I shudder and squeeze your fingers with my love muscles.

I drag my lips up your neck to your ear and pant and whisper in your ear "now, now!" gasping and melting on your fingers. "Oh, no baby" you whisper back and stroke your fingers in and out of me, then spreading my juices over my clit. "My turn to tease you baby" you grin as you take your hand away and pick me up and slide me onto the kitchen counter. "Spread your legs and I'll make you cum" you tell me. Suddenly I feel open and exposed, until I notice that somewhere along the way you unzipped your pants and are slowly jacking your cock. Its rock hard, and all my attention is centered on it. When you lean close and spread my legs, my thighs part like melted butter. I lean back on my hands and let my head drop back until my hair is brushing the counter top. "Ohhhh yes, what a sweet juicy pussy you have baby" you moan. You swirl your tongue along my clit and down into my now sopping slit. The sound of your voice so rough and uncontrolled is like lightning in my soul. You take notice that I tense and shiver when you talk, and immediately start a rolling dialogue pausing only to flick your tongue on my clit. You slide your fingers in circles around my slit, not sliding them in, just around and around.

"Yes, I'm going to make your sweet pussy cum baby, you know I am. I want to feel this pretty pussy tighten all over my cock baby". I gasp and close my eyes, sinking deeper into the electricity your creating. You suck on my clit and continue to tease my slit until I moan that I can't hold back any longer, "I wanna come on your cock, pleeeeease baby". You immediately slide me off the counter and I wrap my legs around your waist and begin kissing you like tomorrow doesn't exist. You push me against the cold refridgerator door and split me open with your cock. I shudder and immediately begin cumming from the cold on my back and the heat in my slit. My pussy milks your cock hard until you start to cum too. It feels like one very long, very wet cum. I can't tell where mine stops and yours begins. Suddenly there is loud silence as the refridgerator momentarily pauses running. "Lets go to bed" you whisper. "What about the lawn?" I enquire and you laugh and tell me there's nothing left to do but take care of a bush while your hand strokes my furry mound again

hey wait (-1)

Sexual Asspussy (453406) | more than 11 years ago | (#3645957)

i've posted this exact story before! quit biting my style you ass-dilation solutions provider!!

i knew this looked familiar.

Nice turn of phrase there, SA. (0)

Anonymous Coward | more than 11 years ago | (#3646054)

"you ass-dilation solutions provider!!"

first post (3, Interesting)

hummassa (157160) | more than 11 years ago | (#3645874)

I think the problem with the study is the use of SourceForge as the source :) for the data.

no pun intended?

FP, anyway...?

Re:first post (0, Offtopic)

Servo (9177) | more than 11 years ago | (#3645892)

First post AND on topic. That's a first too.

Re:first post (-1)

Sexual Asspussy (453406) | more than 11 years ago | (#3646136)

okay. you've got a <10000 UID, so you've been here a while. let me tell you something you apparently lack the grey matter to have figured out in the last five years. the first post that you see when you browse at a threshold of 0 or greater may not be the real first post [goatse.cx] . in this case, it's not even fucking close.

you should browse at -1 because that's where all the interesting shit is anyway.

someone please mod this up to +1 so this fucking bonehead will realize he's fucking dim.

Re:first post (0)

Anonymous Coward | more than 11 years ago | (#3646034)

I think your absolutely correct. While sourceforge has helped many developers and is a genuine resource to the community, I believe the more established projects such as, apache, GNU, perl, python etc. have their own sites. While there are many one person projects on sourceforge, many do get input on regular basis from individuals who are not dedicating themeselves to a project. I have found and fixed a few bugs and I always send the info back to the developer(s). So even though a project may be a one man show, the project can still benefit from being open source.

Not Surprising (4, Insightful)

captain_craptacular (580116) | more than 11 years ago | (#3645877)

I can see where a large OSS project could get unwieldy really quickly with 100's of hobby developers scattered across the globe. As the number of "free" developers involved goes up, I'm sure the number of problems skyrockets. If you hand a large project to 4 dedicated people it will probably get done faster than if you farm it to 100. It seems fairly obvious to me that as the number of people working on a project grows, the number of people flaking out/not delivering on the project increases as well.

Re:Not Surprising (3, Interesting)

John Hasler (414242) | more than 11 years ago | (#3645969)

"I can see where a large OSS project could get unwieldy really quickly with 100's of hobby developers scattered across the globe. As the number of "free" developers involved goes up, I'm sure the number of problems skyrockets."

I guess that's why Debian is a total failure.

Re:Not Surprising (4)

CrosseyedPainless (27978) | more than 11 years ago | (#3646021)

If you're being sarcastic, yes, maybe that's why Debian has the problems it does.

If you're serious, Debian isn't a total failure, but it is getting less co-ordinated all the time, true.

Re:Not Surprising (0)

Anonymous Coward | more than 11 years ago | (#3646066)

It seems fairly obvious to me that as the number of people working on a project grows, the number of people flaking out/not delivering on the project increases as well.

Yes, but taken at face value, the average person would read them very differently.

The OSS movement has millions of very vocal supporters(many of which frequent this site), but only a few hundred core people doing the legwork(i.e. designing/coding/testing). You do the math.

...but... (4, Interesting)

FortKnox (169099) | more than 11 years ago | (#3645878)

How many projects were BASED on other open source projects?

Isn't that more of the point?

"Individuals rather than communities" (4, Insightful)

kpansky (577361) | more than 11 years ago | (#3645882)

I tend to agree with this point somewhat. The benevolent dictatorship model has proven to be by far the most efficient model for open source programming (Linux kernel). Ideally the world would work in a similar way: one ultimate being dictates what should happen (and its good) and people do it (and the result is good).

Re:"Individuals rather than communities" (1)

Servo (9177) | more than 11 years ago | (#3645983)

The benevolent dictatorship only works if that person has been placed on a pedastal by the people, and the people fully support him/her.

In the case of the Linux kernel, Linus's dictatorship works because he allows the individuals to make their own decisions, but steps when needed. He will say "Hey wait, we need to focus on X, not Y." And people say ok, lets do that. Then someobody will say "Hey Linux, My X2 works better, try this out." And if it works better, he'll accept it and run with it.

Re:"Individuals rather than communities" (4, Insightful)

SirSlud (67381) | more than 11 years ago | (#3645998)

>one ultimate being dictates what should happen

The trick is to to dictate what _should_ happen while not dictating _how_ it will happen. Giving underlings the freedom of choice with respect to implimentation leaves enough room for creativity (assuming you have the right dictator and underling army) to ensure that everyone is happy and benifits under said system.

I'm sure I'll get flamed for this, but I'm imagining most people have a hero/dictator/guide they would listen to sans question, and be all to happy to exercise their creativity and intellegence in implementing the processes required to reach the dictated goal.

Which is a long winded way of agreeing with you.

Re:"Individuals rather than communities" (5, Insightful)

anthony_dipierro (543308) | more than 11 years ago | (#3646017)

The benevolent dictatorship model has proven to be by far the most efficient model for open source programming (Linux kernel).

And the great advantage of open source software is that the threat of forking forces the dictatorship to be benevolent. It's actually amazing how well the threat of forking is high enough to ensure that huge mistakes are not made, while still giving the dictator the freedom to make small decisions in the way s/he feels best. In other words, the cost of forking is high enough to maintain the dictatorship, as long as the dictator remains benevolent.

Re:"Individuals rather than communities" (1, Insightful)

Hack Shoeboy (441994) | more than 11 years ago | (#3646018)

WTF? Despite all of history's evidence to the contrary, you think government should work this way?

It works for software and other engineering, design, and business projects when people enter into the agreement voluntarily. They know that they can quit at any time, and so does the "all powerful" manager, which keeps objectives more realistic. It does not work when every morning you wake up and are forced to choose between following the dictator and going to jail.

How does this rationalize "More Eyeballs" (4, Insightful)

tshak (173364) | more than 11 years ago | (#3645883)

One of the biggest arguments for Open Source Software has been the "More Eyeballs" argument. Granted, if I use OSS I can view/edit the source myself, however, my company doesn't have the time nor the human resources to wade through the source code of even the smallest app. The other side is that with apps like Linux there can easily be multiple companies "distributing" their own versions, however, in the long term we haven't seen if this is a viable business model, especially outside of Linux.

Re:How does this rationalize "More Eyeballs" (1, Interesting)

Anonymous Coward | more than 11 years ago | (#3645955)

If something is useful and Used, then more and more eyes start looking over it. If it is not heavily used, then it withers. Basically, the eyes will go to where the heaviest use is. Which is the way it should be.

Re:How does this rationalize "More Eyeballs" (3, Insightful)

elflord (9269) | more than 11 years ago | (#3646000)

One of the biggest arguments for Open Source Software has been the "More Eyeballs" argument. Granted, if I use OSS I can view/edit the source myself, however, my company doesn't have the time nor the human resources to wade through the source code of even the smallest app.

Here's a free clue -- don't use software on sourceforge for security-critical functions (-; Seriously, the "many eyeballs" benefit is one that deserves scrutiny-- some packages, like the kernel, ssh, and core utilities really do have "many eyeballs" watching them. Others don't. To simply assert open source implies "many eyeballs" is clearly nonsensical, but on the other hand, it is true that a lot of important open source software does benefit from community scrutiny.

other bits 'n' bobs (1)

pfb (201727) | more than 11 years ago | (#3645884)

no technical bits but:

How many of the projects use opensource tools, "modules", and interact with other projects...

Looking at the larger picture and seeing smaller projects are a part of larger projects...

(I think that made sense)

My name is Sandeep (0)

Anonymous Coward | more than 11 years ago | (#3645886)

and I major in Statistics

in other news (0)

Anonymous Coward | more than 11 years ago | (#3645887)

top 100 projects at sourceforge determined to do the same thing; caveman inventor of wheel gets patent from ustpo

news at 11

Mode of 1 essentially meaningless (3, Informative)

Niban (227391) | more than 11 years ago | (#3645888)

the mode is merely the most common result, which just accounts for all the personal projects that are placed on ourgeforge and go nowhere for various reasons.

A truer survery would take into account codebase size vs. contributers or some other measure. (Which I believe occured some time back, with similar results to this one, the majority of work was done by a small group of individuals)

Re:Mode of 1 essentially meaningless (4, Informative)

elflord (9269) | more than 11 years ago | (#3645954)

he mode is merely the most common result, which just accounts for all the personal projects that are placed on ourgeforge and go nowhere for various reasons.

Except he selected the 100 "top mature" projects. So it was a select group of projects. I suppose it depends on what "top 100 mature projects" actually means. Though I suspect the largest projects aren't on that sucky sourcefourge site, since they usually have the resources to find another host.

What I would have liked to see is a carefully chosen selection of opensource projects. (XFree86, vim, kernel, koffice, ..... )

Re:Mode of 1 essentially meaningless (1)

IIRCAFAIKIANAL (572786) | more than 11 years ago | (#3645959)

Not quite true - it said that they went with the 100 most mature projects. So it depends on their definition of mature...

Re:Mode of 1 essentially meaningless (1)

filth grinder (577043) | more than 11 years ago | (#3645965)

True except the study only looked at the top 100 most mature projects. A presonal project put out on sourceforge that went nowhere doesn't make the cut as "most mature"

Re:Mode of 1 essentially meaningless (0)

zap42hod (303419) | more than 11 years ago | (#3645981)

It was based on 'top 100 mature products'. Codebase size wasn't taken into account though it seems.

Re:Mode of 1 essentially meaningless (0)

entrager (567758) | more than 11 years ago | (#3645987)

Not really, this was a survey of the top 100 mature projects. I wouldn't say that there are any in that bunch that didn't go anywhere.

Re:Mode of 1 essentially meaningless (0)

Anonymous Coward | more than 11 years ago | (#3646057)

Yeah, but he only chose the top 100 projects.

You're wrong (0)

Anonymous Coward | more than 11 years ago | (#3646122)

this was only the top 100 results...

Abstract and Introduction (0, Redundant)

Anonymous Coward | more than 11 years ago | (#3645894)

Starting with Eric Raymond's groundbreaking work, "The Cathedral and the Bazaar", open-source software (OSS) has commonly been regarded as work produced by a community of developers. Yet, given the nature of software programs, one also hears of developers with no lives that work very hard to achieve great product results. In this paper, I sought empirical evidence that would help us understand which is more common - the cave (i.e., lone producer) or the community. Based on a study of the top 100 mature products on Sourceforge, I find a few surprising things. First, most OSS programs are developed by individuals, rather than communities. The median number of developers in the 100 projects I looked at was 4 and the mode was 1 - numbers much lower than previous numbers reported for highly successful projects! Second, most OSS programs do not generate a lot of discussion. Third, products with more developers tend to be viewed and downloaded more often. Fourth, the number of developers associated with a project was positively correlated to the age of the project. Fifth, the larger the project, the smaller the percent of project administrators.

Starting with Eric Raymond's ground-breaking work, "The Cathedral and the Bazaar" [firstmonday.org] , open-source software (OSS) has commonly been regarded as work produced by a community of developers. Ghosh's cooking pot markets [firstmonday.org] , similarly, point to a communal product development system. Certainly, this is a good label for some OSS products that have been featured prominently in the news. For instance, Moon and Sproull [firstmonday.org] point out that by July 2000, about 350 contributors to LINUX were acknowledged in a credits list in the source code of the kernel.

However, my goal in this paper is to ask if the community-based model of product development holds as a general descriptor of the average OSS product. I systematically look at the actual number of developers involved in the production of one hundred mature OSS products. What I found is more consistent with the lone developer (or cave) model of production rather than a community model (with a few glaring exceptions, of course).

This is not to say that there is no community in the OSS movement. For instance, the findings of Butler, Kiesler, Sproull and Kraut [mit.edu] (2002) point to participation by individuals other than the creators of OSS-program-related mailing lists. My contention is only that communities do things other than produce the actual product - e.g. provide feature suggestions, try products out as lead users, answer questions etc. Formally separating software production from other steps in the development of OSS programs will provide greater clarity to the discussion of the OSS phenomenon.

We like to work alone. Yes? (1)

Onionesque (455220) | more than 11 years ago | (#3645904)

Even in my company, which uses eXtreme programming, we sometimes find ourselves engaged in solitary hacking. The code we write is an expression of the way our very thoughts are organized. It's difficult to get two people aligned in the way they decompose a problem. Even relatively well-defined and small subtasks can be approached from radically different angles.

So it's no wonder that most projects have few developers. It takes like minds, or people who have extraordinary capacity for fruitful disagreement, to build software.

Also, most programmers take pleasure in re-inventing wheels (I am not among them). It's the solving, and not the solution, that thrills them. That means that you'll see multiple solutions to the same problems, each sponsored by a small number of people.

Has the individual maintainer changed over time? (1)

casio282 (468834) | more than 11 years ago | (#3645915)

But has the individual maintainer changed over time? This is one aspect of the open source development model(s) that their conclusion seems to be overlooking. Even though "mature" software seems to be mostly maintained by individuals, those maintainers tend to change over time.

Further, isn't this somewhat self-selecting? In other words, is mature software generally software that requires the least active development?

And isn't it amazing... (3, Insightful)

InterruptDescriptorT (531083) | more than 11 years ago | (#3645919)

...that the OSS always seems to turn out better than commercial software?

I am a software developer for a video driver developer in a team of about 7. I'm disgruntled as hell--the process is overwhelming, the design is far too rigid and thus things take about ten times as long as they would be a smaller team. Yet, when I go home and work on my personal projects, I'm as happy as can be. No code standards, no review processes, no cumbersome integrating of six other peoples' changes into my code, nothing.

If the success of small-team OSS projects is any indication, why do software managers think that throwing more people on a project will increase efficiency? It won't!

Re:And isn't it amazing... (4, Insightful)

Steve G Swine (49788) | more than 11 years ago | (#3645992)

Um, it's not about increasing efficiency?

It's about reducing risk. Take seven projects, have the group work on each, they'll all pretty much succeed equally. Assign each to an individual, and your risk of tanking at least one shoots up.

Nobody cares if a single-developer open source project tanks. Just have fun. But the approach does have the vices of its virtues...

Re:And isn't it amazing... (5, Interesting)

Mr_Silver (213637) | more than 11 years ago | (#3646031)

...that the OSS always seems to turn out better than commercial software?

(emphasis mine)

Always? Why is it that when everyone says this they can only quote about 3 or 4 projects?

Just because Apache is better than IIS doesn't mean that every commercial product is inferior to the OSS version.

Please don't delude yourself. The majority of the time commercial stuff is better than OSS because they have the time and resources to get people working on it.

I still find OpenOffice poorer than MS Office, GIMP poorer than Photoshop and so on.

Yes there are exceptions (such as Apache) but generally OSS is of a slightly poorer quality than commercial - but more than makes up for it by the fact that it's free and doesn't come with restrictive licencing agreements.

Re:And isn't it amazing... (1)

fidget42 (538823) | more than 11 years ago | (#3646071)

the process is overwhelming, the design is far too rigid

I take it that you are one of the very few who have not had to maintain someone elses code. The process is in place to ensure a consistent product (not high quality, but consistent). If the implementation is consistent than some poor slob like myself will have a better chance at fixing and enhansing it. As for the rigid design, it helps prevent feature creep and delayed deadlines. Both are probably in place to fix problems in the past, not slow down development.

Re:And isn't it amazing... (1)

IIRCAFAIKIANAL (572786) | more than 11 years ago | (#3646190)

I firmly believe that small teams result in faster, cleaner and better code generation. And that's why large projects should be made up of a number of small teams.

However, the fact is that code standards and reviews mitigate risk (both for the current project and future projects involving the same code) and are necessary for a successful project. You have obviously never had to maintain other peoples code. I have to all the time and it's hard enough with the standards we have in place.

Would you build a bridge based on a sketch on a napkin? Then why the hell would you code without proper design? That's just stupid. Maybe your team suffers from "Death by Design" but that hardly rules the benefits of proper design out. In fact, using proper design I would say that I am twice as productive, easily.

tortured loners (1)

OpenMind(tm) (129095) | more than 11 years ago | (#3645921)

So, then, the socially scarred developer holed up in his parents basement coding all night is not a myth?

Seriously, I think much of open source software begins as something that gets built by an individual to make his job easier, that he decides to feed back to the community. Generally patches are accepted on merit, but many of the authors are more interested in working on it when convenient than becoming a part time project manager for something which they came up with to same them time in the first place.

Re:tortured loners (1)

e2d2 (115622) | more than 11 years ago | (#3646075)

I think you hit the nail on the head, one developer sees an obvious gap in software and decides to roll their own solution. They then release this code to the public and it grows over time, sometimes bringing in others who want to contribute or branch the code to fit their own needs, but I think it generally starts from one person and works it way out. Not that that person had an idea that no one else ever thought of, just that they decided to take action and act on the idea. Not all of these ideas ever make it past day one or release code, which could account for all of the dead projects on sourceforge [sourceforge.net] . Even Linux was started by one person, Linus. Not that he didn't build on other's work or ideas, but it took him to get the ball rolling.

Another thing to note: I released an open source project [sourceforge.net] on sourceforge and have had numerous offers to help. But when I follow up I usually don't get any response or the people change their minds or have something else to do, etc. I don't get mad because I can relate to this as having done the same thing myself with the Jabber.net project and an attempt to help convert HttpUnit to c#. I found that my excitement alone was not enough and it required more time than I was willing to give.

But my experience is limited to small open source projects and many large projects are now having great success such as Apache, Linux, Mono, etc. I bet most of those started with one person also.

Projects without a strong central figure will fail (2)

anthony_dipierro (543308) | more than 11 years ago | (#3645929)

It's nearly impossible to build software without someone being in charge. In traditional software development, that's your manager, or the CTO, or the CEO, etc. In linux, there's linus to guide the direction of the software the way he wants it to go.

I bet you'll see that even with the major projects with 4 people working on it, there is a definitive one that stands out as the lead developer. Testing and bug fixing can be worked on by many people independently, but when it comes to developing the actual software, there needs to be a single person to make the ultimate large scale decisions.

I like crap (-1)

News For Turds (580751) | more than 11 years ago | (#3645935)

crap is cool

Hewlett-Packard Install Network Printer Wizard
v 02.00

Table of Contents
1. Overview
2. DHCP
3. DNS
4. IP Address Support
5. Suggest IP Address (Autonet)
6. NetWare Support
a. Supported Versions
b. NDS Multiple Tree Support
c. NetWare 5 Support
d. No Novell Print Path
e. No NDS volumes
f. Support for NDS localities
7. Device Discovery
a. Gateway
b. Multi-homed Machines
c. 0.0.0.0 IP Addresses
d. Class A Subnet Masks
8. Driver Support
a. License Acceptance
b. Have Disk Support
c. HP Driver Updates
9. IPX Port Monitor and Data Corruption
10. Printer Names
11. Printer Share Name
12. Error Messages
13. Known Problems Installing HP Printer Drivers Under Windows 95/98
14. Known Problems Installing HP Printer Drivers Under Windows NT 4.0

1. Overview
This Read Me file contains last-minute product information for the Hewlett-Packard
Install Network Printer wizard for Windows 95/ 98 and Windows NT.

2. DHCP
If you try to change just the subnet mask on an HP JetDirect print server that has
been configured via DHCP, you will get an error message while using the Hewlett-Packard
Install Network Printer wizard. Once a JetDirect print server has been manually
configured, it will store the IP address, subnet mask and default gateway statically
instead of trying to obtain them dynamically. Allowing a static change only to the
subnet mask would cause DHCP-configured IP conflicts in the future. For more information
on this subject, see the HP JetDirect documentation.

3. DNS
In a DNS environment, the Hewlett-Packard Install Network Printer wizard will
automatically set up the port with the host name rather than the IP address. If you have
a DNS environment that allows Host lookup by IP, but not the reverse lookup, the printer
will never print a page. We consider this environment to be an invalid DNS environment.
To fix the port without changing the DNS environment, view Properties for the printer.
Select the ports tab. Select the port that is in use for that printer. Click Configure
Port. Change the host name to the correct IP address.

4. IP Address Support
Hewlett-Packard Install Network Printer Wizard do not support class D IP address. Class D IP
addresses are those addresses with the form of 224.xx.yy.zz

All addresses of the form 127.xx.yy.zz are reserved for loopback testing. They are not valid IP
to be used to configure device on the network.

5. Suggest IP Address (Autonet)
The algorithm for obtaining the IP address for the "Suggest Settings..." button is
derived from the Internet Draft DHC-IPV4-AUTOCONFIG by R. Troll entitled "Automatically
Choosing an IP Address in an Ad-Hoc IPv4 Network". The algorithm for generating the IP
address is to randomly generate an address in the 169.254.x.x reserved address range,
then determine if it is in use on the network. If it is in use, generate another address
in the range. Repeat until an address is generated that is not in use. The resulting
address is not intended for use on the Internet. Microsoft uses a similar scheme for
determining an IP address on Windows 98 and Windows 2000 when the system is in an environment
that doesn't have a DHCP or bootp server, and the system is configured to dynamically
determine and IP address.

6. NetWare Support
a. Supported Versions
The supported versions of NetWare are: 3.11, 3.12, 3.2, 4.11, 4.2. For Novell
queue creation, you must be logged into a Novell bindery or NDS server using a Novell
supplied client requester. See www.novell.com for client updates.
b. NDS Multiple Tree Support
The Hewlett-Packard Install Network Printer wizard only provides support for the NDS
tree the user is currently logged into. If a different tree is desired you must quit
the application, change your login to the desired tree and rerun the application.
c. NetWare 5.0 Support
If NetWare 5 is configured for IPX, and an IPX connection is being used on the client,
the Hewlett-Packard Install Network Printer Wizard can be used to create an NDS print
queue. If NetWare 5 is configured for TCP/IP and a TCP/IP connection is being used on
the client, the Hewlett-Packard Install Network Printer wizard can be used to create
an IP print path. If the client on which the application is being run has an IPX
connection to the NetWare 5 server, and the client is logged in, an NDS queue server
print path will be recommended. If IPX is not in use but TCP/IP is, a TCP/IP print
path will be recommended. In order to create NDS queues, an IPX connection with a
login must be present.
d. No Novell Print Path
The Hewlett-Packard Install Network Printer wizard relies upon several DLLs that ship
with the Novell Client for 95 and NT. The application will look for these DLLs and
the associated entry points within them. If any of the necessary DLLs are missing,
or if they do not have the needed entry points (perhaps an old version), a Novell
print path will not be available although other supported print paths will be. If a
Novell print path is not available when you think one should be, try upgrading your
Novell client software to a newer version.

e. No NDS volumes shown in NetWare 4.11
There is a known problem reading the list of available NDS volumes in NetWare 4.11 with
service pack prior to version 7. This problem has been seen in cases were the user
logs into an NDS context that is at a lower level than the available volumes. The solution
is to install the NetWare 4 Support Pack 7 or upgrade to NetWare 4.2.

f. Support for NDS localities
The Hewlett-Packard Install Network Printer Wizard cannot recognize localities in the
NDS context.

7. Device Discovery
a. Gateway
Discovery performance will be very slow if your client PC does not have a gateway
configured. To configure a gateway, choose "Network" in the Control Panel, and then
look at Properties for the TCP/IP protocol. An input should appear for entering a
gateway address. See the online help for a more information on TCP/IP and gateways.
b. Multi-homed Machines
Multi-homed machines are not supported. In a multi-homed machine, it is not possible
to distinguish between multiple devices with the same IP address. A multi-homed
machine is a computer with more than one network connection. It is possible for two
or more devices on different networks to have the same IP address. A multi-homed
machine would see both devices and there would be no guarantee that you are
configuring the correct device. In this case, either disable all but the correct
network card, or configure the HP JetDirect print server from another PC that is on
the correct network and has only one network card. This problem may also occur on
PCs that contains both a network card and a dial-up adapter.
c. 0.0.0.0 IP Addresses
Assuming that an IP address is not assigned, a JetDirect-connected printer will have
an IP address of "0.0.0.0" for approximately 2 minutes after a factory reset. After
2 minutes the IP address will automatically be assigned "192.0.0.192". Attempts to
configure a "0.0.0.0" device through an IP print path will fail. You must wait until
the HP JetDirect device has a non-zero IP address before attempting to configure it.
d. Class A Subnet Masks
If the machine running the Hewlett-Packard Install Network Printer wizard has an IP
subnet mask of "255.0.0.0" (which is known as a "Class A" subnet mask), device
discovery will suffer a significant performance degradation. To improve discovery
performance you must change your subnet mask to a non-Class A subnet mask.

8. Driver Support
a. License Support
Some drivers require the acceptance of a license. When installing a driver, if a
dialog appears that requests acceptance of a license, you must approve the license
before the application will continue. Failure to approve the license will result in
the application hanging.
b. Have Disk Support
To support new printers or drivers, the "Have Disk" button can be utilized during
driver installation. For the "Have Disk" functionality to work, the media must
contain an "inf" file (e.g. filename.inf). Some driver updates available on the
World Wide Web are in the form of self-extracting archives and are not in a format
that "Have Disk" can utilize. In this case, install the driver before running the
Hewlett-Packard Install Network Printer wizard.
c. HP Driver Updates
Hewlett-Packard driver updates can be found on the World Wide Web at:
www.hp.com/go/support
NOTE: This URL is subject to change.

9. IPX Port Monitor and Data Corruption
Some printers may experience data corruption when used with the Hewlett-Packard IPX
Port monitor under Windows NT. These errors may be corrected either by installing an
appropriate hot fix for NT or by installing Service Pack 4 from Microsoft.

10. Printer Names
When naming a printer within the Hewlett-Packard Install Network Printer wizard you
must enter a name in English that conforms to the Microsoft Printer Naming rules
(i.e. what would be accepted in the Microsoft Add Printer wizard). If a localized name
is required, assign the printer name in English and finish the install. Then open the
printer folder from the Control Panel and select the desired printer. Select "Rename"
from the File menu and rename the printer with a localized name.

11. Printer Share Name
Spaces are not allowed for naming printer shared name.

12. Error Messages
Error writing to for : The system cannot write to the specified file.

This error message may appear when attempting to print a test page or during regular
use. It usually means the printer is out of paper or unavailable. Check the printer
and make sure it is plugged in, has paper, etc. If you were running the Hewlett-Packard
Install Network Printer wizard when this occurred, there is no need to rerun the
application. Simply locate the printer in the printer folder and right mouse click on
it. Choose "Properties" and select to print a test page. If you have corrected the
error condition, a test page should now print.

Driver cannot install. Must run printer's setup program.

When installing certain HP printers (see tables below under #11 and #12), the Hewlett-Packard
Install Network Printer wizard may not be able to install the driver. You will receive an
error message stating that you need to run the printer's setup program. The Hewlett-Packard
Install Network Printer wizard may create the printer in the printer's folder despite this error.
The installed printer will not function properly. After the wizard exits, run the setup
program that comes with the printer. You may have to identify the printer as existing on a
local port such as LPT1. Install the printer using this setup program. Now delete both
printers from the printer folder (the printer created by the HP wizard and the printer created
by the printer's setup program). Run the HP wizard a second time. This time choose existing
drivers. You will see two similar printer strings. One will be from the first HP wizard
install and one from the printer's setup install. Choose one. If the wizard exists
successfully you chose the proper driver. If the installation fails, rerun the wizard and
this time choose the other driver. Finally, check to make sure the printer created is the
default printer. This can be accomplished by right mouse clicking on the printer in the
printer's folder and seeing if "Set As Default" is checked.

13. Known Problems Installing HP Printer Drivers Under Windows 95/98
Some HP printer drivers do not install correctly using the printer .INF file and the
"Have Disk..." option. These drivers and the behaviors that they exhibit are listed
below, along with directions to install these drivers properly.

Printer Model: HP LaserJet 8100
Behavior: PCL 6 driver will not install. The user will receive a "Spool 32" error.
Solution:
1. Run the file Setup.exe that came with the printer driver to install the driver.
2. Run the "Install Network Printer Wizard" to install the printer with the PCL 6 driver.

Printer Model: HP LaserJet 8000
Behavior: PCL 6 driver will not install. The user will receive a "Spool 32" error.
Solution:
1. Run the file Setup.exe that came with the printer driver to install the driver.
2. Run the "Install Network Printer Wizard" to install the printer with the PCL 6 driver.

Printer Model: HP Mopier 320
Behavior: PCL 6 driver will not install. The user will receive an error message telling them
to run the setup program that came with this printer, and then to run the printer
installer again.
Solution:
1. Run the file Setup.exe that came with the printer driver to install the driver.
2. Run the "Install Network Printer Wizard" to install the printer with the PCL 6 driver.

Printer Model: HP LaserJet 4050
Behavior: PCL 5e driver will not install. The user will receive an error message telling them
to run the setup program that came with this printer, and then to run the printer
installer again.
Solution:
1. Run the file Setup.exe that came with the printer driver to install the driver.
2. Run the "Install Network Printer Wizard" to install the printer with the PCL 5e driver.

Printer Model: HP Color LaserJet 4500
Behavior: Postscript driver will not install. The user will receive an error message telling
them to run the setup program that came with this printer, and then to run the
printer installer again.
Solution:
1. Run the file Setup.exe that came with the printer driver to install the driver.
2. Run the "Install Network Printer Wizard" to install the printer with the Postscript
driver.

Printer Model: HP DeskJet 2500C
Behavior: The DeskJet 2500C driver will not install. The user will receive an error message
telling them to run the setup program that came with this printer, and then to run
the printer installer again.
Solution:
1. Run the file Setup.exe that came with the printer driver to install the driver.
2. Run the "Install Network Printer Wizard" to install the printer with the driver.

Printer Model: HP LaserJet 5M
Behavior: The following drivers will not install properly: PCL Standard, PCL Enhanced,
Postscript. The user will receive an error message telling them to run the setup
program that came with this printer, and then to run the printer installer again.
Solution:
The drivers for the HP LaserJet 5M can not be installed with the "Install Network
Printer Wizard." Please use JetAdmin or Web JetAdmin to install this printer and drivers.

Printer Model: HP Color LaserJet
Behavior: The following drivers will not install properly: HP Color LaserJet, HP Color LaserJet
5/5M (CLJ5FR), HP Color LaserJet 5/5M (HP). The user will receive an error message
telling them to run the setup program that came with this printer, and then to run
the printer installer again.
Solution:
1. Run the file Setup.exe that came with the printer driver to install the driver.
2. Run the "Install Network Printer Wizard" to install the printer with the driver.

Printer Model: HP Color LaserJet 5
Behavior: The following drivers will not install properly: HP Color LaserJet, HP Color LaserJet
5/5M (CLJ5FR), HP Color LaserJet 5/5M (HP), HP Color LaserJet 5/5M Postscript. The
user will receive an error message telling them to run the setup program that came
with this printer, and then to run the printer installer again.
Solution:
1. Run the file Setup.exe that came with the printer driver to install the driver.
2. Run the "Install Network Printer Wizard" to install the printer with the driver.

Printer Model: HP LaserJet 6P
Behavior: The following drivers will not install properly: PCL Standard, PCL Enhanced,
Postscript. The user will receive an error message telling them to run the setup
program that came with this printer, and then to run the printer installer again.
Solution:
1. Run the file Setup.exe that came with the printer driver to install the driver.
2. Run the "Install Network Printer Wizard" to install the printer with the driver.

Printer Model: HP LaserJet 6L
Behavior: The PCL Standard will not install properly. The user will receive an error message
telling them to run the setup program that came with this printer, and then to run
the printer installer again.
Solution:
1. Run the file Setup.exe that came with the printer driver to install the driver.
2. Run the "Install Network Printer Wizard" to install the printer with the driver.

Printer Model: HP OfficeJet Pro 1170C
Behavior: The OfficeJet Pro 1170C driver will not install properly. The user will receive an
error message telling them to run the setup program that came with this printer, and
then to run the printer installer again.
Solution:
1. Run the file Setup.exe that came with the printer driver to install the driver.
2. Run the "Install Network Printer Wizard" to install the printer with the driver.

Printer Model: HP DeskJet 1120
Behavior: There is a port monitor error right after installing the printer. The printer supplied
driver is not supported
Solution:
1. Run the Setup.exe that came with the printer to install the driver.
2. Run the "Install Network Printer Wizard" to install the printer with the driver.

14. Known Problems Installing HP Printer Drivers Under Windows NT 4.0
Some HP printer drivers do not install correctly using the printer .INF file and the "Have Disk..." option. These drivers and the behaviors that they exhibit are listed below, along with directions to install these drivers properly.

Printer Model: HP LaserJet 8100
Behavior: Windows NT 4.0 shared printers cannot install the Windows 95/98 PCL 6 client driver.
Solution:
1. Windows 95/98 client connecting to the Windows NT shared printer must install driver
manually.

Printer Model: HP LaserJet 5000
Behavior: Windows NT 4.0 shared printers cannot install the Windows 95/98 PCL 5 client driver.
Solution:
1. Windows 95/98 client connecting to the Windows NT shared printer must install driver
manually

Printer Model: HP LaserJet 4050
Behavior: Windows NT 4.0 shared printers cannot install the Windows 95/98 PCL 5 and PCL 6
client drivers.
Solution:
1. Windows 95/98 client connecting to the Windows NT shared printer must install driver
manually

Printer Model: HP LaserJet 2100
Behavior: Windows NT 4.0 shared printers cannot install the Windows 95/98 PCL and Poscript
client drivers.
Solution:
1. Windows 95/98 client connecting to the Windows NT shared printer must install driver
manually

Printer Model: HP Laser Jet 6L
Behavior: Windows NT 4.0 shared printers cannot install the Windows 95/98 Postcript client
driver.
Solution:
1. Windows 95/98 client connecting to the Windows NT shared printer must install driver
manually

Printer Model: HP Laser Jet 5P
Behavior: Windows NT 4.0 shared printers cannot install the Windows 95/98 Postcript client
driver.
Solution:
1. Windows 95/98 client connecting to the Windows NT shared printer must install driver
manually

Printer Model: HP Laser Jet 5L
Behavior: Windows NT 4.0 shared printers cannot install the Windows 95/98 Postcript client
driver.
Solution:
1. Windows 95/98 client connecting to the Windows NT shared printer must install driver
manually

Printer Model: HP Laser Jet 5
Behavior: Driver will not install. The user will receive an error message telling them to run
the setup program that came with this printer, and then to run the printer installer
again.
Solution:
1. Run the Setup.exe that came with the printer to install the driver.

Printer Model: HP LaserJet 5Si Mopier
Behavior: Windows NT 4.0 shared printers cannot install the Windows 95/98 client driver.
Solution:
1. Windows 95/98 client connecting to the Windows NT shared printer must install driver
manually

Printer Model: HP DeskJet 895C
Behavior: Windows NT 4.0 shared printers cannot install the Windows 95/98 client driver.
Solution:
1. Windows 95/98 client connecting to the Windows NT shared printer must install driver
manually

Printer Model: HP DeskJet 890
Behavior: Windows NT 4.0 shared printers cannot install the Windows 95/98 client driver.
Solution:
1. Windows 95/98 client connecting to the Windows NT shared printer must install driver
manually

Printer Model: HP DeskJet 870
Behavior: Windows NT 4.0 shared printers cannot install the Windows 95/98 client driver.
Solution:
1. Windows 95/98 client connecting to the Windows NT shared printer must install driver
manually

Printer Model: HP DeskJet 2000C
Behavior: Driver will not install. The user will receive an error message telling them
to run the setup program that came with this printer, and then to run the printer
installer again.
Solution:
1. Run the Setup.exe that came with the printer to install the driver.

Printer Model: HP DeskJet 2500C
Behavior: Windows NT 4.0 shared printers cannot install the Windows 95/98 client driver.
Solution:
1. Windows 95/98 client connecting to the Windows NT shared printer must install driver
manually

Printer Model: HP OfficeJet Pro 1170C
Behavior: No inf file that describe printer drivers.
Solution:
1. Run the Setup.exe that came with the printer to install the driver.

Printer Model: HP CopyJet
Behavior: No inf file that describe printer drivers.
Solution:
1. Run the Setup.exe that came with the printer to install the driver.

Copyright 1999 Hewlett-Packard Co. All Rights Reserved.

That's because... (1)

Jonboy X (319895) | more than 11 years ago | (#3645942)

...most of the coders who write OS software do so to escape the litany of the design-by-committee approach they're used to at their day jobs. More coders means more design meetings, more arguments, and less time for the coding that makes it fun.

Not startling (2, Insightful)

fizban (58094) | more than 11 years ago | (#3645944)

This is absolutely not startling at all. Most projects are started with an idea. Ideas are generated by individuals. Therefore, most projects are the work of individuals. But the same can be said for "normal" closed-source businesses as well. They are started by individuals.

The difference however, is that most open source projects are done in "spare" time while most closed source projects are done in "work" time. Work time is usually well-funded and allows for the creation and gathering of additional resources, while spare time work is in the same nature of hobbies and is self-funded, which makes it hard to justify adding additional resources. More resources means more to manage and the cost analysis tends to steer people away from wanting to do that. Open source projects are usually started as a way for someone to have fun with a topic they are interested in or to learn new skills. They are not started with the intention of creating more management headaches.

If you really think about it, it's not that surprising that most open source projects are run by individuals.

Open source is not really about communities coming together to contribute to a project. Open source is really about communities learning and growing from the shared knowledge of the individuals in that community.

most of the time (0)

super-flex-o-matic (517410) | more than 11 years ago | (#3645945)

because of the lack of comments in their source code, or the rather strange way in which even libraries are developed, when things hardly get to compile on one distro but not another lots of people get scared away, or just won't bother to help out.

there are also more C/C++ tutorials around the net dealing with microsoft and the happy VC compiler. being a pain in the a* to keep up with the current development of the graphical toolkits (working with CVS when developing), bad API documentations make linux developing quite a deal of work.

Doesn't surprise me (2)

cecil36 (104730) | more than 11 years ago | (#3645947)

Given the nature of open source development, a programmer would have to have an interest in the project itself if they wanted to contribute. For a few months, I was an active participant in the Quadra [sourceforge.net] project. My role was revising the documentation (available at Geocities [geocities.com] ). I've played around with the source a little bit, but now, I just enjoy playing the game. There is one person who posted to the Quadra discussion list that he wants to revive the project. The lead developer replied to the discussion list that many of the key developers are busy with other things, but he is more than welcome to take Quadra in a new direction. At last count, Quardra had 18 people working on the project.

false positive; sourceforge != OSS community (5, Insightful)

RealisticWeb.com (557454) | more than 11 years ago | (#3645960)

Is there anyone here that belives that sourceforge IS the OSS community? I just don't see how anyone can claim to have an accurate study when using only one source! The most widespread and well know OSS projects are not hosted on sourceforge at all! Don't get me wrong, I love SF personally, but since anyone can post somthing on there and call it a project, it's not a good representation of the whole community. I can't tell you how many projects I have seen that sound cool, so I go to them and they say somthing like "This is a dynamic webpage for C programmers, we are currently looking for a Dynamic web designer and a C programmer".

Improper Survey (1)

Tomah4wk (553503) | more than 11 years ago | (#3645962)

To be honest, i think they whole survey is badly designed. The authour takes the most mature - which is a field the developer, not the user base or sourceforge administrators control, therfore the judgement for each project is different. A better survey would be based on the userbase of the project, where projects like gnome, kde, the linux kernel, gcc and openoffice would rate highly. Also note that none of those projects are located on sourceforge. The better survey method in my opinion would be to take the top linux/BSD distributions, and look at the software they install by default. This would almost definately provide a mean possibly greater than 10 or 15, and a mode of at least 5 or 6. Some better mention of commercial projects wouldnt hurt either, so developer numbers could be compared.

Re:Improper Survey (1)

jhoger (519683) | more than 11 years ago | (#3646098)

Yeah, the study is pretty much bullshit. And you know the Microsofts of the world will pick up on this to spread FUD by labelling all open source work as one or two guys in a garage.

Bad data, bad conclusions (5, Insightful)

melquiades (314628) | more than 11 years ago | (#3645964)

This study apparently takes as its presumption that the developers listed in Sourceforge projects are the developers who have actually contributed. Most projects take code from a much wider base than those listed on SF, taking bug fixes from emails.

So a SF project with two developers listed might only have two dedicated people working on it all the time, but might include tidbits of code from 30 different people.

The study's basic conclusion is probably sound: OSS is usually developed by very small core groups. But they need better data before they try to quantify that.

Re:Bad data, bad conclusions (3, Insightful)

jhoger (519683) | more than 11 years ago | (#3646045)

Looking at the report, I agree 100%. The study is fatally flawed. The only way to really determine the core developers on a project is to lurk on the mailing list, or ask someone. No one keeps the developer lists on SourceForge up to date (if they're ever accurate at all).

Re:Bad data, bad conclusions (2, Insightful)

soulcuttr (555929) | more than 11 years ago | (#3646209)

I would tend to agree with you -- however it goes both ways. I am in the middle of developing a project on SourceForge [sourceforge.net] , and I have found that I've recieved a couple of emails containing sources (additions rather than fixes, though) which I have added, or am adding to my project.

If you follow my link, however, you'll notice that there are 4 developers for my project -- and yet I am the only person actively working on it. So the number of submissions I've received pretty much evens out with the number of people inactively listed as members of my project. I'm not saying this is the case for all projects, but it may be the case for many of them.

-Sou|cuttr

Re:Bad data, bad conclusions (1)

anonymous_wombat (532191) | more than 11 years ago | (#3646212)

My impression of open source projects in general is that while anyone can contribute code, the architecuture of the software does not differ significantly from that of a proprietary solution.

For developers to be motivated to contribute to a project, a more distributed architecture needs to be used where a larger group can contribute to the high level design as well as just submit bug fixes. This is obviously a very challenging problem, and some projects are more suited to this approach than others.

One developer, with some help from his/her friends (2)

fruey (563914) | more than 11 years ago | (#3645967)

Not exactly, but that's the best title I could come up with

Anyway, the point is that one key developer, within a structure like open source, means that others can read what he's done, and submit patches, etc.

What makes a lot of good Open Source Software so good is that one developer has got something that works done, and then others finetune it until it becomes a formidable thing. And others still take it and make something new out of it.

Of course there's just one developer per project. But then each project on it's own is not worth much without a mesh of other products. The Linux model - a loosely knit team of hackers - means exactly that. But it does work. And credit to those pioneers who have the dedication to actually code a working program alone, and then put up with criticism and limited praise for no reward.

the point is (0)

Anonymous Coward | more than 11 years ago | (#3645968)

the point is, without _STANDARDS_, developed BY a COMMUNITY, individual projects such as these would not succeed.

Don't I know (5, Insightful)

Mr_Silver (213637) | more than 11 years ago | (#3645974)

I've got a couple of GPL'ed projects (Avantslash [fourteenminutes.com] , Tellyguide [fourteenminutes.com] , MovieGuide [fourteenminutes.com] ) and whilst they have a reasonable amount of usage, when it breaks, everyone sits around and waits until I fix it.

So much for the wonderful idea of many eyes helping me out. Maybe with large projects (although I doubt it, tending to think that you only get a small number of people who actually contribute anything) but for the projects like mine it just doesn't happen.

I've got a crappy FAQ script which I'm rewriting and will also go under the GPL. At the moment it's under some wierdass restrictive job because at the time (1999) I didn't properly understand the GPL and how cool an idea it is - the rewrite will be GPL'ed but i don't expect to be inundated with patches, suggestions and code.

Recently I mooted my SMS application eGenie [wibble.org.uk] as going GPL in the next version. I got 1 person interested and 50 people emailing me demanding I give them the code - no, they weren't interested in helping out - they just wanted the code. Bah, sod that then.

I'm fully aware of the Cathedral and Bazar idealogy, but when there is no-one in the Cathedral and you're the only person giving in the Bazar, GPL suddenly doesn't seem to be this wonderful solution to bugs, features and support.

Count Accuracy (2, Interesting)

fidget42 (538823) | more than 11 years ago | (#3645978)

I do some work on FlightGear and the number of people contributing to that Open Source project is greater than the number that SF shows. I know that when I submit changes, I send them to one of the people on the SF list and they commit the changes. I would venture a guess that many programs are like this.

reliable developer count ? (0)

Anonymous Coward | more than 11 years ago | (#3645984)

Where does he get the number of developers from ? Does he take it from the entry in the sourceforge page ? How close to reality is that ? How many small bug fixes by lots of individuals are listed there ? Does he take into account bug reports ? Bug reports by lots of individuals ?

I contribute to an open source project, but all the points I mentioned can not be easily found when just looking at the sourceforge page. Also, the listed developers are not really the only main developers now.

Misleading........ (3, Insightful)

_LORAX_ (4790) | more than 11 years ago | (#3645988)

This "STUDY" does not take into account all of the various audits that have taken place in the distributions that use them ( RH, OBSD, ... ) nor does it take into account all of the smaller patches that have been sent in by dedicated users. What about those projects that are "obvious" but never make it into "mature" according to source forge. I would be much more interested in the study if it included "stable/production" projects as well.

I would say this study does more to sterotype OSS developers as 1-man shows rather than a developer with LOTS of feedback from their users.

Obvious, or maybe not (2)

Otter (3800) | more than 11 years ago | (#3645991)

I'd have said this is completely obvious: the fast majority of projects are done by one or two people and highly successful projects are much more likely to have large developer communities.

But there seems to be such a strong idea [slashdot.org] that as soon as you put a project on Freshmeat or Sourceforge, a pack of developers rushes in to join your team, while a vaster number reviews your code, finds bugs and seurity holes and submits patches. As long as Eric Raymond continues to insist that that's the rule and not the exception, it's valuable to have studies like this to demonstrate otherwise.

DEAR ALL NIGGERS: ***I HATE YOU*** (-1, Flamebait)

Anonymous Coward | more than 11 years ago | (#3645994)

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Look at the last table! (5, Insightful)

marick (144920) | more than 11 years ago | (#3645997)

If you look at the last table in the paper, it's clear that alpha projects have the most developers.

In fact, mature projects should have fewer developers since there's much less left to do. In many cases, it's likely that the one remaining developer can accept all the patches and fix all reported bugs themselves.

Furthermore, the most popular Open Source projects aren't even hosted on Sourceforge. Where's the data on Mozilla, OpenOffice.org, Apache, Bind, the Linux kernel?

Isn't sourceforge designed as an incubator for smaller projects?

Finally, suppose it's true that there are only a few developers on a list? That doesn't mean they're the only bug-finders, even. Where's the statistics on numbers of bugs found?

In short, is this just another example of sample-bias?

They miss the point (3, Insightful)

mocm (141920) | more than 11 years ago | (#3646007)

when they say that the open source community is not a community. Not only are many open source projects not that large that they need a whole bunch of developers, but even then most of them depend on feedback from the users who report bugs and send in small fixes and even suggestions for further development. Those people usually are not listed as developers, but are sometimes mentioned and thanked in the READMEs. They are nevertheless as much part of the development process as the ones that develop the program. And may even become developers themselves after some time. They form the community.

Furthermore, I am not sure if sourceforge is an accurate representation of the OSS community.

Re:They miss the point (1)

duplicate-nickname (87112) | more than 11 years ago | (#3646179)

However, in the case of closed-source software, users will often report bugs and test fixes (especially if a piece of software has a small user base with access to developers or decent support). I don't think that "bug reporters" can be considered part of the community.

Now, if you include those that actually submit fixes...that's a little different. Although, in the case of my project, it usually easier to write the fixes myself for a bug instead of accepting someone else's (especially since I'm anal about the code that goes in my distribution). Fixing/writing my own code is usually faster than figuring out someone else's convoluted, buggy patch.

I look at most of the open source software I use, and they are all projects developed by one person or a very small group of people.

The paper is only as good.... (2, Insightful)

mansemat (65131) | more than 11 years ago | (#3646011)

The paper is only as good as the data from which it is derived.

He used data from SourceForge, and (apparently, I couldn't read through the whole thing) did not contact the individual projects for specifics.

Who is to say that just because a project is on sourceforge, that this is the only means being used to manage the development of the project.

A project may only have one developer listed in sourceforge, but who's to say that the sole developer listed is only the maintainer, and the maintainer collects bugfixes, feature upgrades, etc. by some other means (for example a personal CVS server), then thakes the code fixes and publishes them to SourceForge for distribution?

Add that to the countless small bigfixes that are sent into developers via email from random people, and it's easy to through this papers theories out the window.

Not a very comprehensive sample (1)

slyborg (524607) | more than 11 years ago | (#3646022)

It seems to me to be a pretty small sample size of the "universe" of OSS projects. I make his detailed sample to be 0.3% of all of the projects listed on Sourceforge.

It's also a well-known fact that "mature" products by their nature show a drop in participation, indeed, there is typically 1 or perhaps 2 "maintainers" who handle such projects. Most hackers like to be involved in earlier stage projects for many reasons, perceived ability to impact the project, novelty, etc.

How many Microsoft suits does it take to... (1)

gotscheme (246456) | more than 11 years ago | (#3646023)

stop a bus?

Not enough (te hehe).

Does anyone have hard research on the number of programmers contributing to Linux?

I know this is a little off-topic, but has anyone considered thoroughly the ramifications of regulating Microsoft's code (not their business practices)? Let's say Microsoft is forced to share its code or to conform to some Linux-like standard. What happens then? Does Microsoft show its own code, quickly making the most recognizable OS the most quickly patched? Does it create its own distro, using its financial strength to ultimately overtake Redhat's market share? I believe Microsoft "wins" in these scenarios because they have the financial and arguably the programmer resources to do so. For a massively complex beast like an OS, I think it is possible that central organization offers a major benefit, but other /.ers may have different views that I haven't considered, and I would like to read those thoughts.

Not an accurate picture (1)

milliyear (132102) | more than 11 years ago | (#3646037)

This would seem to imply that more attributed developers equals better code. That's just not true.
What about all the eyeballs that tried out an app and didn't find anything wrong? What about all the eyeballs that tried an app, found something that could be better, and submitted a bug report or suggestion for the developers, rather than write code for whatever reason?

IMHO, it's not the number of developers that makes for good, stable code. It's the number of dedicated, vocal users that are willing to take something for a test drive and report their results and suggestions. And Open Source users are not afraid to offer their opinions, good, bad, or otherwise. ;-)

nature of the problem (0)

Anonymous Coward | more than 11 years ago | (#3646039)

The conclusion of this post (small teams of one are the most common) should be rather obvious.

Let's face it, the majority of all freely available software projects are to solve a small - but specialised - problem. The person who starts the project will typically be the one who needs to make use of it. Most programmers can also be fairly defensive to others who want to contribute code to their baby.

Larger projects need more time and people. The easiest way for this to happen is to pay them. Wrap a company around a development team, and you probably wouldn't give away the project on SourceForge.

OS increases pool of developers (2)

Bodrius (191265) | more than 11 years ago | (#3646052)

I think the difference Open Source makes is not the amount of developers dedicated to the project, but the pool of developers from which these will be chosen.

Basicly, there can only be a limited number of people in any reasonably sized project before they start stepping on each other's toes. Other people can only give very limited help (report bugs, mostly) without breaking their stuff, which is not too satisfying.

The thing is that when these people disappear or lose interest, there is a greater pool of people aware of the project and with knowledge of the code who can step in and take their place.

My Experiences (1)

duplicate-nickname (87112) | more than 11 years ago | (#3646055)

My open-source project (a web-based help desk), has basically been ran by me for the last two and a half years.

"Developers" come and go, and can be more hindrance than anything. Most developers stick around for 2-4 months, contribute a few things that they want to use, and then I never see from them again.

I am definately of mind-set that open source has nothing to do with a "community". It really comes down to one person who believes in something and enjoys spending time working on it. Without that one person pushing forward, most OSS projects would fizzle and die.

My project isn't massive by any means, but we do average about 3000 downloads a month, with a install base probably around 2000.

On SourceForge, I have two project admins (the other admin being the only person who has consistently been around for the last year) and eight developers (only three of which have contributed in the last two months.).

This article is worthless... (0)

Anonymous Coward | more than 11 years ago | (#3646077)

... unless he talked to all the project leaders and asked them how many contributors they have.

My guess is that on most projects only the core members or maybee even only the creator of the project is registered, the rest of the developer just sends him patches.

It's like saying that there is only one person developing the linux kernel, because only Linus Torvalds has write-access to the 2.5 tree.. and we all know there's loads of people helping out..

//Andreas Henriksson

Brats (2, Flamebait)

litewoheat (179018) | more than 11 years ago | (#3646078)

This is because most OSS programmers are whiny little kids who don't work together well. Just look at the flame fests within the Linux community. Its only a matter of time before Linux forks dramatically with people (like JWZ (not JWZ, like JWZ)) taking their toys and going elsewhere. OSS was doomed from the start. This is not utopia. Everyone is not "in it" for the common good. OSS depends on that and that is its biggest weakness.

What about the silent helpers (0)

way_out_on_the_dark_ (583525) | more than 11 years ago | (#3646087)

I am no programmer and I am proud of it. I am a Systems Admin on the other hand and I often try out new software developments from SF and freshmeat. Although the software is normally buggy or slighly problematic it is useful software. I often run into problems and because I have the source I can make some changes and get the program working. I then very often submit my changes to the maintainer/author who-ever and the problem is fixed in the next release. I do not put my name in the list of developers but yet I do develop. Normally, I don't even see my name in the README but I still develop.

These numbers are skewed way to the low end and no one will ever know the real numbers. There are too many silent ones like myself out there who work but get no credit.

Mythical Man Month (2, Informative)

fisman (66079) | more than 11 years ago | (#3646092)

According to the Capability Maturity model [cmu.edu] the only way a company on level 1 - Initial (also called chaos) can be a success is if there are so-called super-programmers saving but most of the time.

In my experience of working on open-source most projects are governed by chaos and judging them according to the CMM there cannot be a single open source project on anything above level 1.

This leaves one to, by logical deduction, assume that open source projects can only be a success if there are a couple of super-human programmers involved.

I think most of you guys will agree that this has been proven in practice over and over again.

Unfortunately due to the eccentric nature of these extraordinary programmers it is very seldom that more than 2-3 of them can agree and co-exist without trying to prove themselves superior.

If it was possible to move a opensource project to level 3 or 4 and get a team of say 100 programmers working on it we could tackele a large project in a small timeframe and thus speed up progress by a couple of orders in magnitude.

According to F.P. Brooks in The Mythical Man Month this has been one of the major limitations in getting big projects done - they need big teams to be complete before they are obsolte - and this is the area where opensource needs some work.

According to me that is - of course

no committees (0)

Anonymous Coward | more than 11 years ago | (#3646102)

The Jesuits have a saying:

God so loved the world, he sent his only Son,
... and not a committee.

The stats are probably misleading, because there are probably many developers and only one person in charge. There's this guy named Linus who handles things the same way.

KEC

Open Source Libraries (5, Insightful)

DeadSea (69598) | more than 11 years ago | (#3646107)

I doubt that this includes the developers of the open source libraries that a project uses. If a game uses the SDL libraries, do the SDL developers get counted? Probobly not.

I am probably a developer on a dozen projects that use my open source Java libraries [ostermiller.org] . Open source is just different than normal development.

contributors not listed as developers (1)

dirvish (574948) | more than 11 years ago | (#3646113)

For my buddies OSS project (Ilohamail) he is the only developer listed on Sourceforge but he has quite a few contributors. He has a forum where people contribute ideas and report bugs. He also has five or six people who have translated his program into different languages for him. This shows that though there may only be a few core developers there are often many other contributors to open source projects.

Bah. (3, Informative)

cjpez (148000) | more than 11 years ago | (#3646142)

If he's only using Sourceforge as the primary data source, then things are obviously going to be skewed. How many times have you contributed to an Open-Source project by emailing a patch to a mailing list or an author? Let me guess how often that shows up on sourceforge. It's like Freshmeat's "Vitality Rating." Unless you do ALL of your project management stuff via Freshmeat, it considers you basically a dead project.

Testing (2, Insightful)

TornSheetMetal (411584) | more than 11 years ago | (#3646150)

One thing that takes a lot of man hours to do is testing. If the software crashes, a OSS user is many times able to do a backtrace on the core file and give vital information to the developer. This is much harder to do in a commercial product because you usually have to remove any debugging information. Even more mature OSS projects usually go through a release candidate phase. The "release early, release often..." quotes heard with OSS implies we are using you as software testers. Also a user is more likely to submit bug reports if they know they will be heard and the quickly fixed. Another reason bugs are fixed quickly is because of the pride and ego associated with the software.

No surprise here (5, Insightful)

Rogerborg (306625) | more than 11 years ago | (#3646204)

What did we expect, that the Mongolian Hordes [tuxedo.org] technique actually works, or that Brooke's Law [tuxedo.org] is purely theoretical? Lean really is mean, especially for the RAD category that a lot of open source falls into.

Anyway, these figures are spurious: I occasionally submit bug reports, fixes and enhancements to dev team on sourceforge projects, but I don't join the teams, because I can't commit the effort. But I did review the code, there's just no metrics that capture it. In fact, everyone who downloads, compiles and runs the source is testing the code to some extent.

In any case, I think you'll find tacit agreement that on most software projects (especially once the sales guys panic and start telling you what the customers actually want, halfway through development) that creationism [tuxedo.org] is indeed a false ideal, and that it's a few dedicated (obsesses/fanatical/insomniac) individuals that do the vast bulk of the actual code development, while unseen teams break the ground in terms of hardware, requirement capturing and high level design, and clean up squads follow on to fix and maintain the stable versions. There's a lot of scope to be an unsung hero in development; I recently caught a bunch of minor memory leaks in a piece of software that had already been written, reviewed, fixed, and reviewed twice more (i.e. we're still catching bugs on the sixth iteration). And yet, because it's a single file controlled by one developer, it looks like only one person really ever worked on it.

Frankly, I think that for every developer who leaves his fingerprints on the code, there's room for at least three unseen backup guys and gals who do nothing but pave the way, clean up afterwards, and interdict management before they can distract the one productive guy. You just can't let management know that's actually the way it works, because it looks - on paper - like an inefficient process. That's quite apart from the testers, the technical writers, the people who do small parts of any GUI, the IT guys who keep the machines and servers running, the sales, marketing and customer support people who tell you varying shades of truth, and even the receptionist fielding calls for you. Even commercial enterprises don't tend to count these people; my current team has nine developers, but there at least another two dozen non-technical people who we absolutely rely on who aren't counted as part of our team. Open source seems to be similar, only with fewer people, and with even some technical people (like testers and casual bug fixers) not being captured in the team size statistics.

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