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BASIC Computer Language Turns 40

CmdrTaco posted more than 10 years ago | from the everybody's-training-wheels dept.

Programming 1042

5 REM nam37 codes
10 PRINT "In 1963 two Dartmouth College math professors had a radical"
20 PRINT "idea - create a computer language muscular enough to harness"
30 PRINT "the power of the period's computers, yet simple enough that even"
40 PRINT "the school's janitors could use it."
50 END

Sorry! There are no comments related to the filter you selected.

missing line (5, Funny)

squarefish (561836) | more than 10 years ago | (#9011100)

GOTO 10

Re:missing line (5, Funny)

Peridriga (308995) | more than 10 years ago | (#9011181)

shouldn't that be:

10 PRINT "First Post"
20 GOTO 10

Re:missing line (-1, Redundant)

Anonymous Coward | more than 10 years ago | (#9011221)

actually, I wanted it to be 45 GOTO 10 but I was in a hurry for fp and fucked it up a bit.

My first language too (0)

Anonymous Coward | more than 10 years ago | (#9011220)

Hey, that is the language I learned first, on a TRS-80.

I had alot of fun w/ this program:

10 NEW

and this one:

10 TRON
15 REM machine speed is 330 loops per second
20 FOR I = 1 TO 330
30 FOR J = 1 TO 10
40 NEXT J, I
50 LIST

Re:missing line (5, Funny)

CougarCat (673816) | more than 10 years ago | (#9011260)

10 print "BASIC? Boy does that ring a..." 20 print CHR$(7) 30 goto 10

FP (0, Troll)

crow_t_robot (528562) | more than 10 years ago | (#9011104)

10 PRINT "Who gives a shit..."

RE: FP (1, Funny)

Anonymous Coward | more than 10 years ago | (#9011188)

10 PRINT "YOU FAIL IT!"
20 GOTO 10

(note to mods: this is funny; please moderate accordingly)

ahem (0, Insightful)

linuxislandsucks (461335) | more than 10 years ago | (#9011108)

1963+40=2003

Re:ahem (2, Funny)

spotteddog (234814) | more than 10 years ago | (#9011147)

Obviously their arithmatic algorithm was flawed

Re:ahem (2, Funny)

pete-classic (75983) | more than 10 years ago | (#9011155)

It is notoriously easy to create off-by-one bugs in BASIC :-(

-Peter

Re:ahem (5, Informative)

bee-yotch (323219) | more than 10 years ago | (#9011156)

they started it in '63, they didn't finish it till '64. rtfa

Re:ahem (3, Informative)

jonnosan (300963) | more than 10 years ago | (#9011162)

RTFA - 1963 is when they had the idea. it took till May 1, 1964 to finish it.

RTFA, dillhole (1, Flamebait)

Anonymous Coward | more than 10 years ago | (#9011171)

A year later on May 1, 1964, the BASIC computer programing language (as demonstrated above) was born and for the first time computers were taken out of the lab and brought into the community.

Re:ahem (1, Funny)

djplurvert (737910) | more than 10 years ago | (#9011184)

um, how is the parent offtopic?

In other news, slashdot submitters use a Pentium to calculate important historical dates.

plurvet

Re:ahem (5, Funny)

deck (201035) | more than 10 years ago | (#9011206)

10 PRINT "Concived: 1963"
20 PRINT "Born: 1964"
30 END

Re:ahem (0)

codeonezero (540302) | more than 10 years ago | (#9011224)

Actually due to a poor implementation of Basic that /. that causes a floating point error it adds up to of 2003.99999999999999999
And the integer conversion yields 2004

Re:ahem (1)

LMacG (118321) | more than 10 years ago | (#9011283)

A little bit of RTFA and voila:

"A year later on May 1, 1964, the BASIC computer programing language (as demonstrated above) was born and for the first time computers were taken out of the lab and brought into the community."

Re:ahem (5, Funny)

nycsubway (79012) | more than 10 years ago | (#9011299)

That is because array indexes start at 1 instead of zero. So it's really 41 years if you start from year one.

fp (-1, Offtopic)

grub (11606) | more than 10 years ago | (#9011113)

10 REM first post!
20 END

Re:fp (0)

Anonymous Coward | more than 10 years ago | (#9011163)

10 CLS
20 PRINT "I fail it!"
30 END

Re:fp (0)

Anonymous Coward | more than 10 years ago | (#9011170)

10 PRINT "You fail" 20 PRINT "it" 30 END

10 print "Ha " (-1, Redundant)

log0n (18224) | more than 10 years ago | (#9011118)

20 goto 10

Re:10 print "Ha " (1)

log0n (18224) | more than 10 years ago | (#9011318)

(to the mod)

I knew someone here would have the same sense of humor ;-)

cool (-1, Redundant)

Anonymous Coward | more than 10 years ago | (#9011124)

10 PRINT "Best"
20 PRINT "Submission"
30 PRINT "Ever"
40 END

A Poem! (5, Funny)

American AC in Paris (230456) | more than 10 years ago | (#9011125)

10 PRINT "This is a"
20 PRINT "Haiku program"
30 GOTO 10

Re:A Poem! (2, Insightful)

glenebob (414078) | more than 10 years ago | (#9011298)

OMG the mods are smokin' it today, that's funny as hell!

Re:A Poem! (-1, Flamebait)

Gantic (460802) | more than 10 years ago | (#9011306)

Mod parent down, a Haiku is 575 not 343 (is program 3 or 4? If 4 then 353, either way it's wrong)

Re:A Poem! (1)

red floyd (220712) | more than 10 years ago | (#9011307)

Very well done.

They had a dream (5, Funny)

Xel'Naga (673728) | more than 10 years ago | (#9011128)

Obviously they failed, and so they created BASIC instead.

Re:They had a dream (5, Funny)

Lane.exe (672783) | more than 10 years ago | (#9011301)

But without BASIC would we have QBASIC and that nifty gorilla-banana-chunking program?

First Post (0, Redundant)

gchan (621241) | more than 10 years ago | (#9011129)

10 PRINT "First Post" 20 END

And now we have ... (5, Funny)

mcx101 (724235) | more than 10 years ago | (#9011130)

... BASIC's much acclaimed successor, Visual Basic ;-)

BASIC, RIAA stylee (-1, Offtopic)

Anonymous Coward | more than 10 years ago | (#9011131)

10 File random lawsuits and scare people into settling
20 GOTO 10
run

Re:BASIC, RIAA stylee (0)

Anonymous Coward | more than 10 years ago | (#9011213)

SYNTAX ERROR IN 10

I miss the simple life (2, Interesting)

castlec (546341) | more than 10 years ago | (#9011132)

10 I miss basic on TI-80 calcs.
20 Programming in basic was my favorite thing to do in math class
30 my freshman year.

Re:I miss the simple life (3, Funny)

nomadic (141991) | more than 10 years ago | (#9011187)

ILLEGAL FUNCTION CALL

Re:I miss the simple life (1, Funny)

Anonymous Coward | more than 10 years ago | (#9011212)

Which you obviously didn't do very well. You don't even have a command in that!

Re:I miss the simple life (2, Funny)

castlec (546341) | more than 10 years ago | (#9011231)

yeah, i know, i tried to reply to the post, calling myself an idiot. apparently i'm even too stupid to reply to a post :o)

Janitors are programmers too! (5, Funny)

stienman (51024) | more than 10 years ago | (#9011133)

yet simple enough that even the school's janitors could use it

And that, children, is where the seeds of garbage collection were sowed.

-Adam

Re:Janitors are programmers too! (1)

jdh-22 (636684) | more than 10 years ago | (#9011172)

Castodian dick.

Re:Janitors are programmers too! (0)

Anonymous Coward | more than 10 years ago | (#9011216)

Its cUstodian :)

re: janitors are programmers too! (2, Funny)

ed.han (444783) | more than 10 years ago | (#9011200)

was that the impetus for dumpster diving? [j/k]

ed

Spinning in his grave (1)

FortKnox (169099) | more than 10 years ago | (#9011136)

And that professor must be spinning in his grave (if he's dead?) knowing the likes of VB and VB.NET has plagued the computer science field since MS got their claws on it....



Meant to be a joke... VB is a good tool for prototyping and simple stuff where it excels.

Re:Spinning in his grave (2, Informative)

LostCluster (625375) | more than 10 years ago | (#9011244)

VB is a good tool for prototyping and simple stuff where it excels.

VB is a power tool... if you use it correctly you can get a simple program done faster than you could in C. If you use it incorrectly, you end up with a memory hog application that could have been written better in C.

5 REM Testing.. (4, Funny)

pirodude (54707) | more than 10 years ago | (#9011138)

10 PRINT "I hearby declare..."
20 PRINT "that all comments in this story"
30 PRINT "be typed in basic"
40 END

Re:5 REM Testing.. (5, Funny)

Anonymous Coward | more than 10 years ago | (#9011169)

10 REM "In that case, they should be comments."
20 END

Re:5 REM Testing.. (5, Funny)

jared_hanson (514797) | more than 10 years ago | (#9011287)

System.out.println("10 PRINT \"Hell\"");
System.out.println("GOTO 10");

Ahhhh... (1)

darth_MALL (657218) | more than 10 years ago | (#9011140)

10 Good old grade 5 computer class. Thanks for the memories. GOTO 10.

Best Headline Ever (2, Insightful)

FatHogByTheAss (257292) | more than 10 years ago | (#9011144)

Really. Well done!

yah, well (0)

Anonymous Coward | more than 10 years ago | (#9011230)

Ctrl-C, Ctrl-V.

Not that hard.

Re:Best Headline Ever (1)

pvt_medic (715692) | more than 10 years ago | (#9011262)

i second that. Not only was the headline informative but was able to incorporate the topic into a comical presentation. Kudos.

School Janitors (5, Insightful)

FlatBlack (771571) | more than 10 years ago | (#9011145)

Ooo. Me Grandpa was a custodian and a very smart man. Watch your mouth. I work for a school and the janitors here are smart folks too. Most of all, they treat the lowly tech guy with respect in spite of his job and the fact that he lives in his parents basement and has never touched a girl (not a real girl anyway).

WHY! WON'T! IT! DIE! (1, Interesting)

Anonymous Coward | more than 10 years ago | (#9011148)

It is practically impossible to teach good programming style to students that have had prior exposure to BASIC; as potential programmers they are mentally mutilated beyond hope of regeneration. -- Edsger Dijkstra

So, I'm just curious. I've heard it claimed that BASIC was "invented" by Microsoft, or that they own it, or that their first product was a BASIC interpreter or something. Where did this story come from? What's the connection between MS and BASIC?

Re:WHY! WON'T! IT! DIE! (1)

johnpaul191 (240105) | more than 10 years ago | (#9011203)

i think they had their own version of it... like MS DOS

i wasn't using MS-BASIC on my Apple ][e, right?

That was Applesoft, from Microsoft (1)

AtariAmarok (451306) | more than 10 years ago | (#9011264)

"I wasn't using MS-BASIC on my Apple ][e, right?

That was "Applesoft", from, you guessed it, Microsoft. Before the PC, I think Microsoft built itself on that product. Please see this page [digibarn.com] .

Edsger Dijkstra? Does not like it (5, Interesting)

AtariAmarok (451306) | more than 10 years ago | (#9011215)

It is practically impossible to teach good programming style to students that have had prior exposure to BASIC; as potential programmers they are mentally mutilated beyond hope of regeneration. -- Edsger Dijkstra/

What it really means is that the programmers won't program exactly the way Dij wants them to do. It is not "good" or "bad": just different. Programming should not be a straitjacket: the more options and the more different ways to do thing, the better. Those who think that there is no place for anything like a GOTO should look at html.

Re:WHY! WON'T! IT! DIE! (5, Informative)

Theatetus (521747) | more than 10 years ago | (#9011296)

I've heard it claimed that BASIC was "invented" by Microsoft

Microsoft certainly doesn't claim that.

or that they own it

Nor do they claim that

or that their first product was a BASIC interpreter

They do claim that, because it's true.

What's the connection between MS and BASIC?

BASIC was always the applications and scripting language at Microsoft. For a long time, DOS and the early Windows shipped with a free basic interpreter (sadly, those days are over).

Visual Basic remains one of Microsoft's flagship products. It's philosophy is similar to the original BASIC philosophy: you shouldn't have to be a comp sci graduate to write computer programs. Whether VB succeeds in that regard is another question, but it's what they intended.

BASIC is still Microsoft's language for application automation (think Visual Basic for Applications), Web development (ASP with VBScript), and as a tool control language for gluing together objects written in lower level languages. In a sense, some form of BASIC fills the roles in Windows that Scheme, Perl, and TCL occupy in UNIX.

Re:WHY! WON'T! IT! DIE! (2, Informative)

SmackCrackandPot (641205) | more than 10 years ago | (#9011297)

In the early days of the IBM PC and PC clones (1986), Microsoft supplied MS-BASIC which came free with MS-DOS.

This was at the same time as Borland came out with Turbo Pascal, so there really wasn't any incentive to learn MS-BASIC. Especially as computers were beginning to be networked to UNIX servers.

Whew! (1)

shut_up_man (450725) | more than 10 years ago | (#9011151)

I think this story wins the "formatting most likely to make people think Slashdot has been hacked" award.

Re:Whew! (0)

Anonymous Coward | more than 10 years ago | (#9011278)

Shut up man

From the Jargon File (4, Interesting)

idiot900 (166952) | more than 10 years ago | (#9011153)

Alright, I'll commence the BASIC-bashing by quoting from the Jargon File:


BASIC

[acronym, from Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code] n. A programming language, originally designed for Dartmouth's experimental timesharing system in the early 1960s, which has since become the leading cause of brain-damage in proto-hackers. This is another case (like Pascal) of the cascading lossage that happens when a language deliberately designed as an educational toy gets taken too seriously. A novice can write short BASIC programs (on the order of 10--20 lines) very easily; writing anything longer is (a) very painful, and (b) encourages bad habits that will make it harder to use more powerful languages well. This wouldn't be so bad if historical accidents hadn't made BASIC so common on low-end micros. As it is, it ruins thousands of potential wizards a year.

AAAaaaaghhh (2, Interesting)

Doesn't_Comment_Code (692510) | more than 10 years ago | (#9011157)

Damn I hated numbering each line of code!

And when you had to add something and have uneven spacing of line numbers... Oh it just drives the type A personality in me nuts!

The only good part about line numbers was how easy it made it to write GOTO statements.

Re:AAAaaaaghhh (1)

MikeXpop (614167) | more than 10 years ago | (#9011291)

You know, you didn't have to use numbers. Say for example, this would compile fine:
10 PRINT "I am a"
30 PRINT "functional member of society"
END
Or
PRINT "omg lol"
END

Re:AAAaaaaghhh (1)

grub (11606) | more than 10 years ago | (#9011311)


Most "modern" BASICs don't require line numbers. They support user-defined functions, etc.(that's based on Microsoft PDS (Professional Development System aka BASIC back in the early 90's.) I haven't touched a BASIC since but it was suprisingly grown up from the old 10 REM style of coding. Ah yeah it was compiled too. I'd guess that was the precursor to VB.

Re:AAAaaaaghhh (0)

Anonymous Coward | more than 10 years ago | (#9011320)

Didn't your interpreter have a RENUM command?

Excellent post (1)

Manhigh (148034) | more than 10 years ago | (#9011159)

Thanks for the creativity.

And then came VB (5, Insightful)

John Starks (763249) | more than 10 years ago | (#9011164)

Then VB came, and a language was created that was muscular enough to script Word macro viruses, but simple enough to enfuriate good programmers (I mean, really, no short circuit boolean operators? It makes me weep.)

Obligatory Dijkstra quote (5, Funny)

Kaa (21510) | more than 10 years ago | (#9011166)

"Learning BASIC causes permanent brain damage." -- E.Dijkstra

Re:Obligatory Dijkstra quote (0)

Anonymous Coward | more than 10 years ago | (#9011274)

Java? (0, Interesting)

Theatetus (521747) | more than 10 years ago | (#9011173)

The popularity of BASIC waned as computers got more sophisticated, and newer languages were developed to take advantage of the power. Many of those languages, including the Internet's Java, have their roots in BASIC.

That's an odd thing to say. In terms of syntax it's hard to call Java "rooted" in a non-algol language like BASIC. I guess it does share with BASIC the fact that both are marketed towards non-programmers (well, people who don't program for a living, at least).

Mrrrrr... (0)

Anonymous Coward | more than 10 years ago | (#9011229)

And we're supposed to trust advice on programming languages from someone with an Unlambda program in their sig???? ;)

Re:Java? (1)

ifreakshow (613584) | more than 10 years ago | (#9011270)

How is Java not marketed towards Programmers? This isn't ment to be a flame I just wonder how a non programmer could quickly learn java and the OO premises it operates on.

Perhaps you meant JavaScript?

...moderators? (0)

Anonymous Coward | more than 10 years ago | (#9011313)

Why on earth is the parent getting moderated down?? He makes an excellent point. BASIC was neither the first human-readable language nor in any way linguistically related to Java. In short, he's right.

Cute, but don't be stupid (1, Interesting)

Anonymous Coward | more than 10 years ago | (#9011193)

Don't rag on the janitors you elitist pricks.

huh? (1)

jdc180 (125863) | more than 10 years ago | (#9011201)

If it was born in 1963, wouldn't it have turned 40 last year? Seems a little sloooowww, kinda like my Timex sinclair which irritated me because you could only use the basic command preprogrammed into the keyboard.

Re:huh? (1)

hopemafia (155867) | more than 10 years ago | (#9011255)

RTFA...

It was conceived in 1963, but not born until May 1, 1964.

Most. Annoying. Story. Ever. (1)

Xoder (664531) | more than 10 years ago | (#9011202)

But I must admit I really loved BASIC in the day. But Perl runs my life now (or I wish it did!).

Nostolgia (4, Funny)

AKAImBatman (238306) | more than 10 years ago | (#9011205)

Ok, who remembers the Star Trek game from Dartmouth? You know, the one where you got to enter coordinates to move the ship to, then fire photons and phasers at Klingons? You could even consult the library computer! Failing that, who remembers coding the "trench" game?

| * |
| * |
| * |
| * |
|* |
| |
| |
*BOOM* YOU CRASHED. TRY AGAIN? [Y/N]

Re:Nostolgia (1)

eoyount (689574) | more than 10 years ago | (#9011315)

I've got that "trench" game on my HP-48GX, but it's called "cave." Got me through several math classes, too.

Re:Nostolgia (1)

ifreakshow (613584) | more than 10 years ago | (#9011321)

I loved programming this for the TI-81. Passed so many wonderful hours in Math class programming upgrades for it. Thanks for the trip down memory lane.

I would... (1, Funny)

FrYGuY101 (770432) | more than 10 years ago | (#9011217)

I would create a witty BASIC code responce, but my mind has shunned all knowledge of BASIC from my head.

It is practically impossible to teach good programming style to students that have had prior exposure to BASIC; as potential programmers they are mentally mutilated beyond hope of regeneration. (Edsger Dijkstra)

Man i remember when.... (1)

aberant (631526) | more than 10 years ago | (#9011226)

I has so much fun learning basic as a teen and doing some crazy stuff with QBASIC.. sure it's lame... but after making a simple polygon 3D engine i realized it's time for me to move on. Happy B-Day!

How did you do that? (0)

Anonymous Coward | more than 10 years ago | (#9011228)

Cool! How did you get that green link thing in your listing?

I'm looking at the commands printed on my ZX81's keyboard, but I can't find any color commands! Do I need an Apple ][ for that? ;)

For OS X users looking for some of that Old School goodnees, you can grab Chipmunk Basic [versiontracker.com] at Versiontracker.com

I hope Taco gets sued by $cientology! (-1, Offtopic)

Anonymous Coward | more than 10 years ago | (#9011238)

OT III
[Operating Thetan Level 3]

BODY THETANS

by L. Ron Hubbard

The head of the Galactic Federation (76 planets around larger stars visible from here) (founded 95,000,000 years ago, very space opera) solved overpopulation (250 billion or so per planet - 178 billion on average) by mass implanting..

He caused people to be brought to Teegeeack (Earth) and put an H-Bomb on the principal volcanos (incident II) and then the Pacific area ones were taken - in boxes to Hawaii and the Atlantic area ones to Las Palmas and there "packaged".

His name was Xenu. He used renegades. Various misleading data by means of circuits etc was placed in the unplants. When through with his crime loyal officers (to the people) captured him after six years of battle and put him in an electronic mountain trap where he still is. "They" are gone. The place (Confederation) has since been a desert.

The length and brutality of it all was such that this Confederation never recovered. The implant is calculated to kill (by pneumonia etc) anyone who attempts to solve it. This liability has been dispensed with by my tech development. One can freewheel through the implant and die unless it is approached as precisely outlined. The "freewheel" (auto-running on and on) lasts too long, denies sleep etc and one dies. So be careful to do only Incidents I and II as given and not plow around and fail to complete one thetan at a time.

In December 1967 1 know someone had to take the plunge. I did and emerged very knocked out, but alive. Probably the only one ever to do so in 75,000,000 years. I have all the data now, but only that given here is needful.

One's body is a mass of individual thetans stuck to oneself or to the body.

One has to clean them off by running incident II and Incident I. It is a long job, requiring care, patience and good auditing.

You are running beings. They respond like any preclear. Some large, some small.

Thetans believed they were one. This is the primary error.

Good luck.

For the purpose of clarity, by BODY THETAN is meant a thetan who is stuck to another thetan or body but is not in control.

A THETAN is, of course, a Scientology word using the Greek theta which was the Greek symbol for thought or life. An individual being such as a man is a thetan, he is not a body and he does not think because he has a brain.

A CLUSTER is a group of body thetans crushed or hold together by some mutual bad experience.

Character of Body Thetans

Body Thetans are just Thetans. When you get rid of one he goes off and possibly squares around, picks up a body or admires daisies. He is in fact a sort of cleared Being. He cannot fail to eventually, if not at once, regain many abilities. Many have been asleep for the last 75,000,000 years. A body Thetan responds to any process any Thetan responds to.

Some body Thetans are suppressive. A suppressive is out of valence in R6. He is in valence in Incident I almost always.

One can't run a human being on these two incidents since human beings are composites and would not be able to run the lot. Aside from that, non-clears are way below awareness required to even find these Incidents.

Huge amounts of charge have already been removed from the case and the body thetans by Clearing and OT I and OT II to say nothing of engrams and lower grades.

Awareness is proportional to the charge removed from the case.

Although a human is a composite being there is only one I (that is you) who runs things.

Body thetans just hold one back.

You will continue to be you. You, inside, can of course separate out body thetans and so solo auditing is the answer. How good do you have to be to run body thetans off? Well, if you didn't skip your grades, Clearing and OT II particularly, you. should be able to'command body thetans easily.

Incident II is over 36 days long. Capture on other planets was weeks or months before the implant. Those on Teegeeack (Earth) were just blown up except for Loyal officers who were (shortly before the explosion on Earth) rounded up.

Do not scan through the duration of 36 days. The volcanic explosion on Earth to the point where "the pilot" says he is mocking it up is only a few days.

Sequence of Incident II for thetans on another planet -

1. Capture (being shot),
2. freezing,
3. transport to Teegeeack (sometimes via a relay point),
4. being placed near a volcano,
5. beginning implant up to "the pilot",
6. various picture sequences,,
7. the 7s and C.C. and OT II materials,
8. 36 days of picture implants which give a vast array of materials and three explanations for the bombing,
9. transport to Hawaii or Las Palmas for packaging up into clusters.

The pictures contain God, the Devil, angels, space opera, theaters, helicopters, a constant spinning, a spinning dancer, trains and various scenes very like modern England. You name it, it's in this implant we call in its entirely "R6"- if one was a Loyal Officer on Teegeeack, the sequence was (1) capture (2) number 5 above on. If one was a citizen of Teegeeack there was only number 5 on.

The material given at the various "volcanos' was longer or shorter, but dovetailed into the same sequence of pictures. We have the whole text but it is needless.

People who feel dizzy have gotten into the spinning part.

Incident I occurred about 4 quadrillion years ago plus or minus. it is very much earlier than Incident II which occurred only 75 million years ago (a bit less).

Incident II is only peculiar and general on this planet and nearby stars, whereas Incident I is to be found on all thetans.

The Basic on BT's

I've isolated a way a thetan comes to be stuck to another thetan. This gives the basis of clusters and having BT's. A thetan collides with another. That one makes a picture of being collided with. Other BT's get stuck to the picture.

The moment of actual contact of thetans was brief but the picture (containing a stop or withdraw) tends to be permanent.

Thetans then get the idea they can be permanently stuck as they see pictures of it happening.

Thus we get the concept of a "black theta body". This would be actual BT's stuck to a thetan plus pictures of BT's stuck to a thetan.

An answer to all this is to find the first picture a thetan made of contacting another thetan.

If not at once available the earliest instance of a thetan contacting (colliding, running into, attacking) another thetan could be achieved by R3R on being suddenly hit with clusters or strange beings.

The idea is to find and run the "first picture" one made of another thetan.

This opens another way to "blow off" BT'S - run R3R on a BT to the first picture the BT ever made of another thetan.

Instructions

Locate by meter read or an area of pressure, a body thetan or group (cluster). Run Incident II. If the BT does not blow off or 'the group break up and blow, then run Incident I on individual BT's. Each will blow off with an FIN.

When you can find no more on which to run Incident I's, once wore locate a pressure area or by meter read on looking over body run another Incident II. Then Incident 1's on any.

Incident II made clusters of BT's. Severe impacts and experiences ALSO make clusters. (See the data called "Milazzo" in this pack.) Those who do not leave on running the impact or its chain will leave when Incident I Is run on them.

Incident II sometimes forms gigantic clusters. In such there is a leader, an alternate leader and several (eight to eighteen) more. These were all implanted in different volcanic areas with fractions of the nain 36 day implant and then "packaged" in Las Palmas or Hawaii. Thus if you run Incident II as far as "the pilot" it blows up or loosens up and those who don't go away can be run on Incident I's.

Do not speak your commands. Just "intend" them. A BT controls easily. BT's can be ARC broken by rough or careless auditing. You can also run an incident II on a BT and he doesn't blow, but you accidentally run in Incident I on another one and leave the first still there. The remedy is to run Incident I's on anything you find.

A very SP BT can be run on grades and Power and should then respond to Incident II and Incident I.

After a BT leaves, some other BT may copy him or the incident just run.

If you have found a cluster (pressure area) that does not respond or disintegrate to Incident II running, get Dianetic auditing, listing "What impact or incident would cause a cluster?" and R3R on the items found. Then do more Incident I's to clean up the strays with solo. This is a refined "Milazzo".

There are hundreds of BT's you will find.

If you find none, get audited on Dianetics in general and as above (impact list), and if you still find none, get a Review GF40 and handle all items, then go back to solo.

If you find only one or two, get the Dianetic impact list. done. All "none on OT III" cases were later found loaded.

Do Incident II and Incident I's on what you can find to begin with. You will do fine. Good hunting.

Certain "buttons" have to be gotten in where running a thetan through incidents. The EFFORT TO STOP the motion hangs up the action and gives a stuck picture. One gets the EFFORT TO STOP off and the scene races through.

The EFFORT TO WITHDRAW is important also and hangs up the action and creates a vacuum.

RUSH, PROTEST* NOT-IS, SUPPRESS are also present. These were actions - thoughts - the thetan had during the Incident and are picked up only when the incident doesn't run well. Sometimes two "buttons" such as STOP and WITHDRAW are in combination.

Thetans in the body may obsessively copy the pictures of other thetans. Therefore you can find it seems that the thetan who just left is still there because there is a picture left. Spot the fact that someone else copied it and it usually goes.

If you do an S & D on a body thetan be sure you give the right item to the right thetan.

Cross Auditing

When one runs Incident I out of one thetan and then Incident 11 out of another (thinking it was the first one) one can get a partially run body thetan who won't blow, but who may start to go on through the whole of R6 automatically (since the basic-basic Incident I is not run, yet Incident II is). One can get quite ill doing this as the illness in R6 can turn on.

One can also "feel no wish to audit". All "no desire to audit" is some large blunder on a case. The way you can run Incident I out of one thetan and Incident 11 out of another is rather easy. one fails to notice the first one blow on having Incident I run and runs Incident 11 on another.

As a matter of data, the only trouble in a III OT run is running an Incident I on one thetan and an Incident II on another, thinking it was the first one. A pre-OT can freewheel into R6 if you run only an incident II. You can stop a freewheel at once by running Incident I off the same thetan you ran the Incident II on that started a freewheel.

Freewheel means that the PC goes on automatic continuous run. Incident II is R6 75,000,000 years ago. Incident I is about 4 quadrillion years ago. Both, all thetans on this planet and 21 nearby stars have in common. All thetans in the universe have incident I. Only those in this old Confederation have Incident II and R6. All C.C. and OT II materials are in R6 75,000,000 years ago. These are followed by 36 days worth of motion pictures - God, Devil, space opera, trains, cars, helicopters, crashes, stage etc. This R6 is 75,000,000 years ago and this planet and Confederation.

If the volcano bit is run as per III directions but the Incident I Is not run on the same thetan, R6 begins to run off on automatic, the Being can't sleep for days, the body dies. That's the way it was designed.

Overrun on III

The only way you can get a read on "Overrun on III" is to have accidentally run Incident I out, and then later run it out again on the same thetan or make a similar blunder. Example: One flattens Incident I by several passes on a body thetan. This body thetan for some reason (mostly because Incident 11 was then not run) does not fly off. Then, not noticing, one again finds the same thetan and once more seeks to run Incident 1. One then gets, in answer to the question "Overrun on III?" a lot of reads and overrun phenomena. The remedy is to find out WHO was overrun and get the charge off by that action. One then runs Incident 11 on that thetan or in any event, by getting off the charge of "overrun", letting the thetan depart. Just because one's meter reads "Overrun an III" is no reason to attest. Find out who was. lt's almost always a body thetan.

A BT can be overrun past erasure. This fact sometimes causes a solo auditor to believe OT Ill is overrun. If he asks "Is OT III overrun?" he may get a read and blowdown. This is actually usually just one BT or cluster that is overrun. The remedy is discovering and indicating the point of overrun. And carry on with OT III.

Running OT III

When running OT III the solo auditor handles body thetans as he would any other PC, for the general idea is to run them standardly and not ARC Break them. He does not scan through anything in order to find body thetans.

When a solo auditor can find no more body thetans he can attest, or run a pressure area down and handle as per his running Instructions.

The pre-OT could be exterior and the Interiorization processes can be run in Review to help him through.

Here are three reasons why a pre-OT might have trouble whilst running BT's on Incident II -

(1) It is the wrong area;
(2) it is not the volcano of the BT being run;
(3) it is not an Incident II, but another incident of a different date.

Check (1) and (2) If you are having any difficulty in running Incident 11 and handle by locating the correct area or finding the volcano of the BT being run. if it is not a II, simply check for the date and if different run it-.

OT III Errors

Amongst OT III errors are "a BT run on Incident I fails to blow". There are three reasons:

1. Auditor is trying to run a cluster with an Incident I. The right thing to do is date and get the character of the incident that made it a cluster and then run Incident Its on those left when it breaks up. Or get Dianetic auditing.
2. There is an earlier Incident I on the same BT. Find it and run it. The BT has a chain of them all by himself.
3. Another BT is copying the Incident I just run so it looks like it didn't blow. Failure to ever run Incident I can also cause a bog. Routine Dianetic auditing by a Dianetic HDC who is also on or above OT III using triple flows and LDN OT III also handles bogged OT III pre- OT's.

Cluster Formation - Cumulative

In doing a cluster one is likely to find it is made up of other earlier clusters. This looks like this. 1898 impact horse accident. When engram 1898 run on R3R, that part blows. No F/N occurs, TA remains up. Remainder will grind after the blow. Earlier portion dates as 93,000,000 years ago, electric shock. When run on R3R, that part blows, no FIN. TA remains up, will grind if run further. Earliest portion dares as 72 trillion implant. When run on R3R, all blow, FIN.

A cluster or engram which is a cluster can repeatedly FIN as BT's blow. Dates as 778 million explosion. After run once or twice an FIN occurs as one BT blows. Run again to second FIN as two more BT's blow. Remainder blow with a wider FIN. The cluster has gone. This happens (repeating FIN) when picture persists and noter check reveals it is not a copy. It will be more BT's in same cluster. So above repeating FIN occurs when pre-OT is moved through it. Clusters are found by meter dating, listing for type of incident and run as an engram. Clusters can occur at Incident .II and Incident I. They can also occur at 1 quadrillion, which is the Clearing course materials. They also occur at random dates for different reasons.

* * *

I have lately been C/Sing a number of failed OT cases and have found them all running well on solo now. The errors are made as follows:

1. The solo auditor cannot audit, needs more training.
2. Cases are not well prepared with Dianetics.

The remedy for all of these is to:

1. Run the PC for at least a score or two of Dianetic items by R3R, done of course by a good HDC,
2. then do a GF 40.

And then repeat it until necessary auditing is complete. These two actions take care of the majority of difficult cases on OT

The real End Phenomena of OT III and OT IV is exterior with full perception. You can and should accomplish full stable exteriorization on doing the materials of III.

Further III remedies:

3. High TA. This comes from not completing the Incidents I and II on body thetans.
4. The solo auditor puts too wide an intention on the BT and runs two or three when he is intending to run only one.
5. A cluster just won't break up. The remedy is a Dianetic session listing for impacts or incidents that would cause a cluster and doing R3R. The principle of earlier similar holds good. When this is completed, the solo auditor is sent back to solo to clean up the BT's shaken loose and to continue with OT III.
6. Rudiments go out on BT's. The remedy of course is to locate BT's who have out-ruds, put in the ruds and run Incident 1, at which the ST should leave.
7. A theta-bopping meter sometimes puzzles a solo auditor -on OT Ill. This means a BT is trying to exteriorize and can't. The remedy is to complete the partially run Incident 11 or Incident I or in extreme cages put the ruds in on the hung up BT.
8. One-hand electrode giving wrong TA read baffling the solo auditor with floating needles with a high TA. The remedy is to have two-hand electrodes handy and trim the trim knob so the one-hand electrode reads the same as two-hand electrodes.
9. A suppressive body thetan sometimes isn't auditable. The remedy is to run Grades IV or V on him.
10. By far and large the corniest error and which has been very prevalent is not knowing the materials of OT III or the content of Incident II or Incident I.

OT III is a vital grade. One fronts up to it and does it. When he is really done, the rewards of OT III and IV exceed his wildest dreams.

Rudiments Going Out On BT's

When the ruds go out on BT's during the session the solo auditor recognizes the following:

BT critical - withhold from auditor
BT antagonistic - bypassed charge in session
No TA problem
BT sad ARC Break
Soaring TA - Overrun or protest (also more than one BT being run in error or it's a cluster)
Auditor tired - no sleep or incomplete Incident I's
Auditor dope-off - bypassed FIN or not enough sleep
Auditor no-interest - out ruds on BT's

A solo auditor who isn't sure what it is, but runs into trouble with a BT is smart to end off the session quickly, write down the full observation and get it to the C/S. The solo auditor who knows what he is looking at as per the above scale (and the C/S the C/S would give), handles it promptly.

BT critical = w/h = pull the withhold
BT antagonistic = BPC assess proper list (such as LlC) and handle
No TA (or case gain) problem = locate the problem and handle
BT sad = ARC Break - locate and handle itsa E/S itsa
Soaring Ta = C/R or protest (also more than one BT being run in error or it's a cluster) - find which and handle (running more than the one intended comes from too wide an intention)
Auditor tired = no sleep or incomplete Incident I's = check which it is and handle
Auditor dope-off = lack of sleep or bypassed F/N = check On sleep or rehabilitate F/N
Auditor no-interest = out-ruds on BT's = put in ruds.

OT III Auditing

OT III pre-OT's got a reputation of being hard to run on Dianetics early on in Dianetic re-development. Only five reasons exist for this.

1. A person that high on OT grades audits fast and a comm- laggy Dianetic auditor can drive him up the wall.
2. Too quiet or too blurred TR 1.
3. A tendency to evaluate instead of using TR 4.
4. The numerousness of BT chains on the same item (the BT's being separated now) making several chains on the same item, which if not all run separately leave the PC ARC Broken with the bypassed charge of unrun BT's.
5. The OT II who is still on OT III and has been on it a while probably himself has no pictures and all the pictures he has are BT pictures.

The lower grades PC (before Clear) reacts as a composite Being, all on one chain, so to speak. He is separated into himself and the individual BT's and clusters of them when he gets to OT II, and so audits differently. He easily misowns the pictures thinking they are his. The big blowdowns you get on such a PC's item indicates several BT's have it in common. A solo III however will be found to have the same item on more than one BT in many cases.

* * *

The reason for low TA is unflat OT III phenomena. If a person has had a low TA in lower grades the keynote is to take it easy as auditor and COS. This applies also to any auditing given on upper OT levels.

That a PC's TA goes below 2.0 is a certain indicator of unflat OT III. He's still got some. When a person cannot handle OT III he is too much at effect. He cannot project his intention. And so can't run OT III. The new OT I and OT II, particularly OT II, are designed to increase a PC's ability to project his intention to others. If he can't, they overwhelm him and you get low TA or "none on III". Harsh, overbearing auditing or life. incidents have to occur, apparently, to drive the TA down.

Overts, disagreements expressed as obsessive agreement and other lower level matters are at the bottom of this in any Being.

But any case of low TA I have ever found has been:

1. overwhelmed in life;
2. unable to project intention;
3. physically inactive;
4. loaded with BT's;
5. tends to go out of valence easily.

in all this number (4) is the important point.

Endless OT III and low TA are alike - inability to project Intention, PC at effect. Remedy by lightly causing PC to come to cause, to be able to project his intention and thus flatten OT III. That will complete and finish off low TA.

* * *

It does not matter whether or not you ran Incident I and II on self. The End Phenomena of III is getting rid of all body thetans. This does not necessarily include self. If you overrun Ill it will be by trying to get rid of tore body thetans than there were or by then, having gotten rid of the others, starting In on self. So Ill is complete for purposes of overrun as above. If you have not done Incident I and II on self when above is achieved, attest completion and then do I and 11 on self.

EP's No BT's left [End Product: no BodyThetans left] - OT III

L. RON HUBBARD
FOUNDER

Some abbreviations:

BT - BodyThetan

Incident One - The first incident on the Whole Track (see) for each Thetan (see). It consisted of an Angel blowing a trumpet and some noises. Hubbard explained that this was so powerful that from then on the Thetan compulsively continued recording every incident that happened over 4 quadrillion years until now.

Incident Two - The second major incident on the Whole Track (see).

Rud - Rudiment.

SP - Suppressive Person. A critic of Scientology. Fe anyone who thinks that OT 3 is nonsense.

TA - Tone Arm action - change of electrical resistance, supposed to show relief of emotional "charge" on the 'E-meter' (crude lie detector, price ~$4,000)

Thetan - "An individual being ... not a body". This is Scientology's name for the soul or spirit.

Valence - An adopted personality.

Whole Track - The mental recording of all of the experience of the Thetan (see). Hubbard said that the Whole Track was 4 quadrillion years long. Eventually Thetans became the victims of their recordings and became entrapped (via the mechanism of the "Bank"). Hubbard claimed that only through Scientology could this compulsive recording of incidents stop.

Rem: Students and Basic (1)

mfh (56) | more than 10 years ago | (#9011243)

Oh boy, I can remember my first exposure to computers was in the basement of a friend-of-the-family, when I learned how to program in basic for the first time.
10 print "Scott rules!!"
20 goto 10
Seriously though, where would we be today without Basic? Even the most complex systems rely on the knowledge we have received after years of mistakes in computational design. Some mistakes are still around, and leading the trends of computing, and others have disappeared. But the same thing happens whenever I teach a class in PHP; students revert to the Basic model as a basis for everything, until they learn how to break up their code into blocks, functions and classes. I guess that kind of knowledge only comes from experience, after many wasted hours in the lab. That's when you know who has cheated on their latest assignment; when they don't understand the fundamentals that can only come from hours of pushing through the code revisions.

Jave derived from BASIC??? (2, Interesting)

the morgawr (670303) | more than 10 years ago | (#9011249)

How is that so? Was B derived from basic? I'm pretty sure it wasn't. Smalltalk maybe? I thought the flow went like this:

  1. B (short for Bell, where it was written)
  2. C
  3. Objective-C (C with some smalltalk stuff added)
  4. Java

Then they got high. . . (1)

bplipschitz (265300) | more than 10 years ago | (#9011254)

and BASIC was born.

It always struck me that BASIC was easier to understand if you were high.

New Slashdot Poll: (1)

mschiller (764721) | more than 10 years ago | (#9011263)

10 Print "How old were you when you wrote your first basic program?" 20 Print "A) 0-5 years old" 30 Print "B) 5-7 years old" 40 Print "C) 8-10 years old" 50 Print "D) 11-13 years old" 60 Print "E) 14-16 years old" 70 Print "F) >16 years old" 80 Print "G) Basic, What's Basic?" 90 Input x .... I for one would fit into catagory A, on a commodore 64.. Knew how to format a floppy at age 5, much to my brother chargrin when I wiped out their saved games and papers.... Got in BIG trouble for that one...

Ah, computers. (2, Insightful)

wookyhoo (700289) | more than 10 years ago | (#9011268)

Now we have languages [perl.com] that are hard enough for gurus to read half the time, and others [ruby-lang.org] that are so wonderful and elegant that I believe janitors of today could learn and use quite easily [poignantguide.net] .

I remember using my first computer at age 5 and playing around with BASIC, and I could do a reasonable amount with it. Lets be glad though that most of us have moved on :>

Inevitable (0, Troll)

stomer (236922) | more than 10 years ago | (#9011272)

10 for x = 1 to 2
20 x = x -1
30 print "ALL YOUR BASIC ARE BELONG TO US"
40 next x

Wow, you totally blew it. (1)

juuri (7678) | more than 10 years ago | (#9011310)

This is basic, remember?

10 PRINT "ALL YOUR BASIC ARE BELONG TO US"
20 GOTO 10

GOTO, the staple of a master basic programmer.

sniff sniff (0)

Anonymous Coward | more than 10 years ago | (#9011279)

My first language way back in the day...

I wrote a simple geology DB to identify minerals, a 2-handed spade game that could beat most people, and kept improving StarTrek games. All on a slow time-shared HP2000F with a TTY terminal and paper tape storage.

I learned from a slim paperback called "My Computer Likes Me (when I speak in Basic)". It had the best explanation of how and why each statement worked. I am still looking for a copy of this for my collection of computer books.

I moved on to more complete languages that allowed me to create bigger programs, but in many ways, the first language was the most fun.

Ah, the memories... (2, Interesting)

Phoenix-kun (458418) | more than 10 years ago | (#9011284)

I wrote my very first program in Basic on an 8K PDP-8/I computer ("Hello World!") back in 1975. We had to toggle in the bootstrap instructions using the toggle switches, load the OS from a paper tape and then finally the Basic application off the DECtape drive. I was just amazed at the possibilities and would come in on my own time just to write silly little programs.

Did anyone try to write a Zork like game way back? (1)

Prince Vegeta SSJ4 (718736) | more than 10 years ago | (#9011285)

10

.

.

70 INPUT "Do you want to talk to the White Fuzzy Animal?";Q$

80 IF (Q$ = "Y") OR (Q$ = "y") THEN GOTO 90

85 Print "Your squire takes out the Holy Hand Grenade!"

90 Print "A Rabbit [trollandtoad.com] with big pointy teeth bites your head off"

Awesome times (1)

divine_13 (680820) | more than 10 years ago | (#9011288)

I find BASIC an excellent language. It got me into all this programming. I started learning it when i was about 7, then later moved up on HTML. After that came ASP, then my dad got me into PHP, i did some Java, now i'm stuck with C. Although, i still feel the urge to open up a Windows command line, and type QBASIC. That... that was the good ole' times :)

Mixed Case? (1)

Ann Elk (668880) | more than 10 years ago | (#9011295)

Of course, the odds are the computers used back in 1963 had UPPER CASE letters only. Real programmers don't need lower case!

I tried to enter this message in just upper case, but it pissed off the lameness filter. Lame.

Links (0)

Anonymous Coward | more than 10 years ago | (#9011302)

Funny... I don't remember having hyperlinks in my BASIC programs.

Jupiter Ace (1)

Draoi (99421) | more than 10 years ago | (#9011308)

Oh yes. Back in the good old days when every single home computer ran BASIC and nothing else, one computer shone out. The Jupiter Ace [aol.com] - gods, I loved it.

What did it run? Forth [forth.com] , of course!

(Sorry, just had to show there was a better alternative to BASIC back in the early '80s. I still do Forth regularly in OpenFirmware)

SlashBasic (0, Troll)

AtariAmarok (451306) | more than 10 years ago | (#9011324)

10 POST TROLL 20 IF MSG = GOATSE THEN CLOSE WINDOW 25 SET X = MODPOINTS 30 FOR N = 1 TO X 35 TROLLMOD = TROLLMOD -1 40 NEXT N

Now we know when it was born... (1)

gmuslera (3436) | more than 10 years ago | (#9011325)

BASIC
1964-2005
Requiscat in Pace
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