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Security Analysis Reports for Managers?

Cliff posted more than 8 years ago | from the where's-that-universal-translator-when-you-need-it dept.


chaffed asks: "I've been tasked with translating a security analysis report for our powers that be and ultimately for our auditors. The manager's are not technically savvy, but they aren't PHBs, either. To what depth should one descend into Information Security and Technology topics? More generally, how would a technical person relate to a non-technical person? Should all technical terms be defined or just cryptic ones? What assumptions are reasonable to make about the reader (Non-Technical Managers)? What physical format should an analysis take, bulleted points or in depth discussion?"

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Resources (3, Funny)

luder (923306) | more than 8 years ago | (#15390654)

More generally, how would a technical person relate to a non-technical person?
I know a few guides [] on that one, seems to work pretty well.

To answer your question (1, Funny)

Anonymous Coward | more than 8 years ago | (#15390680)

  • Managers

  • Like

  • Bullet Points

Re:To answer your question (1, Interesting)

Anonymous Coward | more than 8 years ago | (#15392997)

The Problem is that
* Managers
* Like
* Your ass at stake

The only reasonable approach would be:
"I'm the security officer. You can be confident about me, so I'll give you no technical explanations *at all*; just what has to be done, or you can distrust me; then you should fire me and hire a new one of your confiedence".

Really, it is the only good approach.

Now: you dont believe it and:
* Go into a phb-ized version of your technical analisis. One one hand, they will disrespect you. Your job can't be so important if even non-trained people like them can understand it; your advantage is that you had the time to read some minor low-level details about your work; apart of this, they could be doing it themselves. But then something goes wrong. Then you tell your managers you told the risks. They cover by telling you didn't go into enough technicalities, so they wouldn't grant the OK under sounded ground (and rightly so: you really can't simplify your bussiness; you just can cover some facts that sooner or later will return to reclaim you their proper place). Anyway, it's your fault, not theirs (it's not an imagination. Don't you remember the "powerpoint-slides-and-the-shuttle-goes-boom" case?)
* Go into the deep technicalities and in four minutes your managers will tell that's not what they were looking for, it's too boring and anunderstandable so you are at fault *and* nothing goes approved ...but since its your fault, not theirs, anything awry that may happen is still your head, not theirs.

There was the case about the pharaoh asking Euclide for a shortway into learning maths. There's no shortways, not even for kings, Euclide answered.

Well, I'd bet that should be your answer too.

Other method- PRSC (2, Insightful)

Marxist Hacker 42 (638312) | more than 8 years ago | (#15395096)

The other method is a rather simple table:
Problem, Risk, Solution, Cost

This is what managers actually care about. A one sentence description of the problem, the risk of missing or stolen data as a percentage risk, a one sentence description of the solution, and the cost of that solution. That gives them what they need to know to work up your budget- and you implement what they want.

here is what I do.... (3, Interesting)

cavtroop (859432) | more than 8 years ago | (#15390681)

I sort the report by severity, and calculate statistics from that. the first few pages are the 10,000' view - i.e.: we have 7 systems with level 5 vulnerabilities, 38 systems with level 4, etc. etc.... Then, on the following pages, I break down the report into the nuts and bolts - that lets the managers that want just the overview to stop reading after the first few pages, and provides detail for the managers that want it. is that what you are looking for? pretty basic, actually...

Re:here is what I do.... (2, Interesting)

SatanicPuppy (611928) | more than 8 years ago | (#15390754)

Absolutely. Put in an executive summary, and you can pretty much fill the rest of the report with hardcore tech jargon. Generally I put in a summary page, then a mid-level summary that is light on the jargon, and then I just append a slimmed-down version of the raw data to the end.

It generally meets with approval.

hi there (-1, Troll)

Anonymous Coward | more than 8 years ago | (#15390690)

I'm having trouble doing my own job. Could someone please explain to me how to do that? I'm afraid to ask my supervisor what I'm supposed to be doing because I'm a coward. Thanks!

From experience (4, Insightful)

Opportunist (166417) | more than 8 years ago | (#15390694)

Make it as graphic as possible. I mean it literally. If there's a way to do it in a chart, do it. Managers also tend to read summaries first, and more often than not, only. So make sure the summary gets the point across.

They don't care about technical issues. They care about cost, threat level and benefit. Make sure you cover that bases. Don't try to construct too many "if" sentences, since they'll be brushed away with "won't happen, don't care" too easily, even if that "if" does actually mean "when".

Explaining terms is fruitless, imo. They will skip over the parts they don't understand rather than look up terms in a glossary. The same is true for a lengthy prolog trying to explain terms. And don't try to create hyperlinked (or otherwise electronic) documents to make looking up things easier. They'll just print it and your time is wasted.

As said before, they don't care about technical details. They don't care where a potential attacker comes into the system. They care about the questions:

How do we prevent it?
How much time (in manhours/mandays) does it take?
How much does it cost?

Make sure you cover those 3 questions. Preferably in the summary.

Re:From experience (2, Informative)

techno-vampire (666512) | more than 8 years ago | (#15390796)

Don't try to construct too many "if" sentences, since they'll be brushed away with "won't happen, don't care" too easily, even if that "if" does actually mean "when".

In that case, if you mean "when that happens..." write it that way. Don't say "if" because they'll think it will never happen. "When" tells them it will happen, sooner or later. Say what you mean, not almost what you mean.

Re:From experience (-1, Troll)

Anonymous Coward | more than 8 years ago | (#15390826)

Make it as graphic as possible. I mean it literally.
"Suck me." "Wash it then." Rapidly I sluiced my injector, heard speaking in the adjoining room, ceased frigging the Fraulein, mounted the chair again, and saw her sister opening wide her thighs for the entry of that grand love staff, "He's fucking" I cried, and then with rapid multiplication of desires in my brain, wishing for all things voluptuous, to be fucking both the sisters at once, to be frigging him, cried out, "Suck me, suck me, mein lieben." Without a word or any hesitation, she took my penis in her pretty mouth, and so I stood, her tongue and palate ministering to my pleasure, whilst I saw the other two joined into one body, heaving, thrusting, writhing, as he plunged his pego up and down, till one long cry of pleasure, told that his sperm was shooting into her.

Then getting down furious for similar pleasure I mounted Mein Schwestei, fucked hard and quickly, and just as my pleasure was increasing, in came the elder start naked as before. I stopped for a second. "Come to the bed," I cried and moved my beauty and myself close to the wall to make room. The elder laid down, I buried my fingers in her lubricious cunt, put my prick again in the younger, and fucked out my sperm into her in a delirium of baudy desires, and visions of what I had just seen.

The man went away, the two washed their cunts, I spent another hour with them, they and myself naked, for it was a day on which nudity was alone tolerable, and then fucked my favorite after putting my prick first into her sister, then into her. The elder said she didn't know of that natural crack in the door, perhaps not, but perhaps thro that crack some one has seen me, fucking her what matters? I could not for health's sake fuck her as often as I desired, but visited her at times solely to see her naked and to gamahuche her, for now I love gamahuching a pretty cunt whether quite a young one or not, love to give a woman that pleasure which few whether harlot or modest can refuse. She told me she was born at **** and had four sisters. One was kept by an Austrian nobleman. Another was a gay lady at ' *". She and her sister there made the fourth. They were a harlotting family evidently, all beautiful and open to all the male sex. Thank beneficent providence for that.

I had returned to England, at the end of the autumn and was going along *&*&* Street at about half past eight one night in early winter; when I saw two, young, shortish women standing at the corner of a cross street. It was away from any main line of thoroughfare where doxies mostly pick up their friends. I looked hard at the one facing me as I crossed the road. What do you think of me? You'll know me again," said she. Gay from that I knew she was, I had not before been quite able to make up my mind whether they were strumpets, or not.

I felt larkish. "You're pretty, and I should know you again, if I felt you as well as saw you." "You'd better feel me then." I passed up the side street and at a few yards from the street lights stopped. She had followed me, and I offered her a present to feel her cunt. It was refused. I increased my offer, and next minute was groping a youngish quim, as I knew by the feel and the quantity of hair on it. "Come home and see me naked, we are only at number fifteen in next street," and she put her hand down and squeezed my ballocks outside my trowsers, whilst I was busy with her split. I agreed her fee for the amusement at her home. Then, "That's my sister and we live together." "She's not." "She is, look at her, we are like two peas." The other came now quite close. "Let me feel her cunt then and if I like the feel I will." "What are you going to give me," said sister. "Nothing for the feel unless I should go home with you." "Look if any one's coming Annie," said she to her sister, and so saying raised her clothes a bit. I felt her cunt and agreed she should come with us. In three minutes I was in their rooms, which were comfortable enough, in a respectable looking eight roomed house in a quiet street, and with fires both in sitting room and bedroom. There was also a small bed in the corner of the sitting room.

They undressed, and whilst doing so we chatted. I'm so fond of seeing women undress. Both had blue eyes, brown hair, and were exactly the same height, they were not good looking. 'You're not sisters," I said, tho I believed from their look that they were. "We are tho," both cried out in chorus. "She's the eldest" One was nineteen, the other eighteen, they were dressmakers, but couldn't get enough to live by work. So you both turned out together, who was fucked first?" The eldest was, neither had been fucked more than a year. By that time they were naked. The eldest was a little stouter than the other, but both were slim, well made, and in form, colour and feature unmistakably sisters. "Now let me see your cunts." At the bedside, and then with their backsides towards me kneeling on the bed, I inspected the divisional slits of their bellies, and really in hairyness and colour, and generally in look of the locality they were wonderfully alike. I have before noticed in sisters a family likeness in cunts. It's a subject I have been curious about. On the contrary I once had two sisters (so calling themselves) who tho alike in features and form, differed much in colour, and between whose cunts there was no likeness whatever. I wonder whether the pricks of the boys of a family resemble each other, if cunts do, why should not pricks?

The elder had slightly more hair on her gap, and I selected her for my exercise. Undressing myself, I laid beside her and titillated her a good deal. She rubbed my already rigid love staff up and down vigorously and more than I liked, for I was in no hurry. "Leave off, I'm in no hurry." "Don't frig me then so much." "I'll do it till you're ready to spend, and then you will spend with me." "I shall spend with you, I'm nearly spending now, get on me." But I was going to prolong my pleasure, so leaving off frigging her, whilst she relinquished my tool, I cuddled her close to me, and put my prick up against her belly and squeezed it there with mine, and so we held ourselves close, clasping each other's naked arses.

The younger one all this time was standing naked with her rump to the fire looking at us and suddenly let a short, sharp, ringing fart. "Maria you beast," said her sister relinquishing me, and turning round (for her rump as she lay was towards her sister and my face was towards her). As she spoke, out from her sisters bottom came another short, sharp, cracking fart. "You dirty beast, what are you doing?" It's better out than in, we all do it sometimes," said the girl laughing. "Go into the sitting room" she went. I was disgusted, for I hate to hear a woman or man fart, but turned to my companion, mounted her, my prick began its work, and very soon we both spent with much enjoyment of each other, saucy whore tho she was. Then I dressed and gave the elder more money than the other. "Oh, give me the same as my sister." "I've not fucked you, and it's all I promised you." "You may fuck me tho if you like, do" and she threw herself on the bed, widening out her thighs and exposing her little crack invitingly. "You're a dirty little devil to stand there farting." "So she is," said the elder.

The idea of leaving a runt untasted which was at hand, and a nice, tight, youthful looking one, upset me. I didn't want another spend, yet longed to put into the cunt. It began to make me waver. "I can't, my prick won't stand." "I'll make it." "You must gamahuche it then." "I won't gamahuche," said she. But finding I was going she agreed to do it. I undressed again, laid naked with her on the bed, groped the little tight cunt, then had my shrunken pego brought to the stand in Maria's mouth, and fucked her cunt whilst the elder played with my balls, and incited by me. For the idea suddenly came to me as I fucked her sister, pressed my bumhole with her thumb. But it being so soon after my first emission, I took a long time in getting the second, and fucked away in her tight cunt long and heartily. "Oh I'm coming." said Maria, and I felt from her movements that she was. Then sensual excitement came at once to fever heat in me as I heard her words and sighs, and brought me to a crisis, and we mingled our juices in her runt at the same instant. "You're a dirty little devil," said I, laughing afterwards. "I never knew her do such a thing before," said the elder quite seriously. "Will you come and see us again, there are no other lodgers, we are believed to be dressmakers, and never go out or bring gentlemen home till it's quite dark, ask for Miss "*" if you call." I never did call.

I've seen a thousand and more females piddle and wash their notches, but don't think I've heard an accidental windy exhalation from half a dozen of them when at those operations. Of one or two of those I'm sure I have told in this history. I have however some dim recollection of a female intentionally farting, and of my disgust, and perhaps it is told of here. But am not at all sure even of the occurrence, and thinking back now more than thirty-five years, don't at this moment recollect the event or the woman.

Re:From experience (1)

bpb213 (561569) | more than 8 years ago | (#15390901)

I want to highlight a couple of your points:

"They don't care about technical issues. They care about cost, threat level and benefit.


However, I want to change around what you should present. Present the following:

1) How much does it cost us if we do nothing
2) What do we need to do to eliminate or reduce the cost of 1.
3) How much will step 2 cost. List both costs for eliminating step 1, as well as costs for reducing the majority of 1.

And to stress: SUMMARIZE, SUMMARIZE, SUMMARIZE. Prepare to back up any claim you make, but keep the summary short, sweet, and too the point.

Also, be prepared to compromise. You never seem to get 100% of a solution from a manager. Which is why you need to present the 75% or 90% solution, in addition to the 100% solution.

Re:From experience (1)

toadlife (301863) | more than 8 years ago | (#15391331)

"Also, be prepared to compromise. You never seem to get 100% of a solution from a manager. Which is why you need to present the 75% or 90% solution, in addition to the 100% solution."

In the public sector it's similar, except you take the 100% solution, double it, and then present it as the 100% solution.

To put it another way (1)

Beryllium Sphere(tm) (193358) | more than 8 years ago | (#15391301)

>Make sure you cover those 3 questions. Preferably in the summary.

Deliver a risk analysis rather than a security analysis. It's what most people really want and it's what HIPAA clients explicitly need according to statute.

Also from experience (1)

diverman (55324) | more than 8 years ago | (#15401526)

> How do we prevent it?
> How much time (in manhours/mandays) does it take?
> How much does it cost?

I think that some other things are more important to a manager:
What is the risk to the business? (regulatory violation, monetary loss, etc.)
How much will a breach cost? (fines, downtime, system replacement, recovery, lost business, loss of competitive advantage)
What is the risk of occurance? (how likely is a breach to occur?)

In all honesty (you may disagree), I think these questions come way before those you posted. Before a manager is going to ask about how to take action, they're going to want justification that they need to bother taking action. I agree that the answers to these questions (at least in short form) should be in the executive summary of the report.


In general; (4, Informative)

GoofyBoy (44399) | more than 8 years ago | (#15390751)

Everyone is different so I would take a manager and ask for feedback on a draft.

But in general;

>To what depth should one descend into Information Security and Technology topics?

Enough to make it clear as to why the topic is important and what impact it makes on the company. And not too long to make people bored.

> More generally, how would a technical person relate to a non-technical person?

With clear accurate words and descriptive and varied sentences. Interesting examples are good too. One of the best documents about a technical/complex topic I've read is at [] It was a long and boring inquiry about computer leasing, goverment procedures and its long and detailed. But reads like a trashy novel and very accessable and understandable. I enjoyed reading it and afterwards I felt I knew what had happened.

>Should all technical terms be defined or just cryptic ones?

Every single one of them in the glossery.

>What assumptions are reasonable to make about the reader (Non-Technical Managers)?

That they have at least a high-school level reading level and they need to know the information contained in your document.

>What physical format should an analysis take, bulleted points or in depth discussion?"

Yes. Use what ever you think you should need to use to clearly covey information. Formatting and layout are just tools.

I think Dilbert explained it best (2, Insightful)

hayden (9724) | more than 8 years ago | (#15390761)

"Well, something that you could never comprehend conflicts with something that you'd never understand."

It's Security (2, Insightful)

DivineOmega (975982) | more than 8 years ago | (#15390798)

It's security, thus you must make the most important points (i.e. those of greatest risk) the most prominent in any report and make them easy to understand. It'd recommend first bullet-pointing each security aspect in categories such as severe, medium and minor issues.

After this categorisation, it would be wise to describe each point in more detail in an after section using non-technical language, but making it obvious what the implications of ignoring these security issues could be. This should again, be priotised on the most major of these points.

If a manager is unable to understand a point or worse misunderstands, he may consider it trivial. And obviously, this could be disasterous over the long-term.

World's vaguest Ask Slashdot. Evar. (1)

Gothmolly (148874) | more than 8 years ago | (#15390848)

So I have, like, some security data. And some managers, and like, it was really good data, and I'm afraid if I give it to my managers, they'll go like, beep beep beep, and ask further questions, which I won't be able to articulate answers to, and then they'll hire $GARTNER_PICKED_CONSULTANCY_DU_JOUR and I'll be out of a job. Bummer.

General plan here (4, Informative)

swordgeek (112599) | more than 8 years ago | (#15390852)

Here's how to write it as if you were an auditor. When it gets to the auditors, they'll eat it up.

First of all, the executive summary. "We are mostly secure/insecure, with (n) critical action items. Of these, (x) can be implemented with little effort or cost, (y) will require substantial effort and/or cost, and (z) will require a fundamental change in the way we do business." Actually, this breakdown might be a bit detailed for an ES. Yes, really.

Then provide the background: "The internet is a scary place. (n)% of security breaches come from inside. Personal laptops can sniff unencrypted traffic. Passwords are easy to hack. Security breaches can undermine us in some specific way, or cost $xxxMM. etc.."

Now the specifics: "Preliminary analysis of our network has uncovered some critical/significant/minor security flaws. These are blah, blah, and blah, in increasing/decreasing order of severity/cost-to-fix. A detailed analysis of these flaws is as follows:
The analyses should be broken down in a fair amount of detail, with technical terms defined in a glossary at the end of the report. Each one should contain the cost-to-fix and the cost-of-breach if possible, as well as the likelihood of a breach. Having a DMZ mail server taken down by hackers might be a huge pain in the ass, but ask (i)will it actually cost the company that much money in lost productivity, (ii)how likely is it to happen, and (iii)how much will it cost to improve? Alternatively, a disgruntled admin can potentially destroy your data centre--downtime at (d) dollars/hour, plus the cost of lost data since the last tapes. A third alternative is loss of proprietary data to a competitor, which might be bad, or might be enough to shut the company down permanently. Be VERY CAREFUL here, though: If you're writing a security analysis, then don't stray into trying to build an entire DR plan. Seriously. Don't.

Summary: Exactly that--summarise the detailed analysis, ordered by the the cost/benefit ratio. Make sure that the difficulty of implementation or added risks are considered as well. Remember that at this point, you're just summarising the data, not yet doing the...

Recommendations: "Based on the above data, we recommend implementing blah and foo immediately. These provide some/significant improvements in security, can be achieved with a minimum of effort or cost outlay, and carry little/no risk of introducing new problems. In the 1-3month timeframe, 3-6 months, 6-12..." That sort of thing.

Then of course, the glossary.

Don't ever forget: Security weaknesses are the cost of doing business. For example: Moving from telnet to ssh provides a significant benefit, and allows you to keep working. Shutting off all interactive logins doesn't provide much further benefit, and most likely substantially interferes with the company's ability to do work. Limiting ssh access to a few client boxes may provide a security benefit (hard to quantify), but may also increase the administrative overhead enough to make it not worthwhile. All managers and techs much understand that security isn't an absolute goal--it's a degree of risk acceptance. Eliminate all unnecessary risks (security or otherwise) be aware of all the necessary ones, and mitigate the risks as much as possible.

Taking that example (1)

Beryllium Sphere(tm) (193358) | more than 8 years ago | (#15391352)

>Limiting ssh access to a few client boxes may provide a security benefit (hard to quantify), but may also increase the administrative overhead enough to make it not worthwhile. All managers and techs much understand that security isn't an absolute goal--it's a degree of risk acceptance

This is where technical depth comes in. The next cheap big improvement to suggest to someone running ssh is to disable password authentication (especially given all the brute-force login attempts we've seen). Then everyone who needs ssh access gets a nerdstick to put on their keychain (if they lose it they lose their house keys) with the private key.

>All managers and techs much understand that security isn't an absolute goal--it's a degree of risk acceptance

A lot of managers are already there -- they live in a world of tradeoffs and many of them know it.

Re:Taking that example (1)

swordgeek (112599) | more than 8 years ago | (#15391881)

"The next cheap big improvement to suggest to someone running ssh is to disable password authentication (especially given all the brute-force login attempts we've seen). Then everyone who needs ssh access gets a nerdstick to put on their keychain (if they lose it they lose their house keys) with the private key."

This is definitely a win from a security point of view, but the cost analysis is a tough one. How much does it cost for the keyfobs, the software to manage them, and the time involved in tying authentication to them? How much more secure does it make your system, and is it quantifiable? Put another way, let's say the likelihood of a break-in without the things is x%/year, and the cost of a break-in is likely to be $y dollars. If you look at a long view of five years and find that the things cost the company more than y(1-((1-x)^5)), then it's generally not worth it. Furthermore, if it's a small cost benefit, then convenience and privacy should weigh-in. (One of my contracts just implemented fingerprint scanners on all of the PCs across the company--stupidest thing I've ever seen, and I've so far refused).

"A lot of managers are already there -- they live in a world of tradeoffs and many of them know it."

No doubt about that, but both managers and techies can fall into the binary solution mode: Something is either broken, or it's fixed. It's either insecure or it's secure. If we need to be secure, how much will it cost? Don't give me shades of grey, give me a PO that I can sign!

No slight intended against managers by my comment--I just meant that it is THE MOST IMPORTANT part of security, and something that doesn't often get applied to computer security as often as it should. It's one of those 'obvious' points that needs to be put in papers for the same reason that all of those 'obvious' technical definitions need to be there. Someone might not realise it, or they might have forgotten what the real target is.

Risk versus CounterMesure cost (1)

Anonymous Coward | more than 8 years ago | (#15391016)

Your manager need to know what the vulnerabilities, what is the risk of exploitation, how it will cost if the exploitation succeed and how cost the counter measure to mitigate this risk. Think a your public webserver that can be defaced because you forget to put a security patch, the cost of the security patch is maybe few hour time, but if it's exploited the time to shutdown, the time to recover, loss of customer confidence, etc.. will be very expensive. But sometime you have specific software with security problem and the cost will be very high (because you didn't include security fix in your maintenance contract) and the risk will be lower (no public access). All is about money, cost versus safety, no report to the manager should be technical, but only to explain in a high level what are the vulnerability (both software, hardware, physical and human), what is the risk, and how you can fix the situation. try to put critical first, sometime your critical is not the manager critical (easy flaw in the billing versus possibility of a remote overflow on a custom CGI) and try to allocate budget to the fixe, and try to provide alternative if it's too expensive (don't elimate the 100% of the risk but lower it to a acceptable level). Dont forget, no manager can do the difference between some apache overflow, php forum exploit or SQL injection but the will understand "unauthorized access to our server with possibilities to execute untrusted command" and "altering the integrity of our database".

Re:Risk versus CounterMesure cost (3, Insightful)

maciunas (191444) | more than 8 years ago | (#15391229)

Apart from poor formatting and errors in spelling etc, I have to agree with this.

Having done many such reports (as an independant "audit" process), I just have to add one thing that goes against the general flow of the postings so far. Don't dumb-down the report - people who have management roles are generally literate and have active brain cells. They need to make their own call on how important things are, they are looking for your narrow technical viewpoint and will add that to the other narrow viewpoints from the rest of the organisation.

So you need to make the important issues clear and upfront and with some kind of cost of not-doing. I've never written a report with $ costs, just in expected down-time to fix etc. I've always found this quite effective in getting the point across - there is the list of critical must-do's and then the should-do's with rough time-and-materials costings.

I think most of my "should-do's" were done and the must-do's scared the pants off some of the managers - on the basis that the costs for the lower priority items were so high.

Probability, avoidance, resolution (2, Insightful)

Bogtha (906264) | more than 8 years ago | (#15391027)

Security is a complex business, but the effect each potential problem has on an organisation can be summed up in simple terms.

Probability: What is the chance of a particular problem actually happening?

Avoidance: What would it take to avoid/reduce the chance of this problem occurring? How much will this cost? What will the effects be on productivity? What about morale?

Resolution: If the problem does happen, what will it take to fix it? How much will that cost? Downtime? Legal liability? Bad press?

Those are the three main variables a manager needs in order to decide whether to take action on a potential security problem. For example, if something costs a lot to mitigate, but is very unlikely to happen, then it probably won't be worth doing anything about unless the costs for fixing the problem are extreme.

You only need to go into the technical stuff in order to explain the above. You don't have to explain how the attack works beyond its immediate ramifications for avoidance etc. In-depth discussion will be skimmed, so break stuff into bulleted lists, charts and tables wherever it makes sense to do so, with a clearly marked summary for each section, so even the laziest PHBs will have an overview.

Oh, and not specifically work related, but if you are going to be writing stuff for other people to read in a professional capacity, then making obvious grammatical errors [] is unprofessional.

Re:Probability, avoidance, resolution (1)

MrNougat (927651) | more than 8 years ago | (#15391112)

(Mod this redundant if you must.)

That's basically the formula laid out in Fight Club [] .
A new car built by my company leaves somewhere traveling at 60 mph. The rear differential locks up. The car crashes and burns with everyone trapped inside. Now, should we initiate a recall? Take the number of vehicles in the field, A, multiply by the probable rate of failure, B, multiply by the average out-of-court settlement, C. A times B times C equals X. If X is less than the cost of a recall, we don't do one.

If it costs less to recover from a failure than to prevent the failure in the first place (taking into account the number of predicted failures over the expected lifespan of the prevention implementation), you plan to recover from the failure instead of preventing it.

Think beyond a 'security gap' (1)

MrNougat (927651) | more than 8 years ago | (#15391077)

Make sure the powers that be understand the concept of driving an exploit into a single small security gap, and using that to bootstrap into higher and wider levels of access. Don't let them think that because they've assigned budgeting to address the top two tiers of security holes that they can let the bottom three tiers slide. Surely, the most glaring gaps deserve the most immediate attention, but that doesn't mean that you can rest on your laurels after you've tackled the big issues.

I see too many non-technical business leaders want to implement some technology or other, then expect it to go on and on forever without any further attention. I have to think that there are companies out there that have the same view of security. "Well, we did that already, so we don't have to do it again."

Maybe all that doesn't apply to you, what with the non-pointiness of your bosses' heads.

Ever noticed how much security is like dentistry? (1)

Beryllium Sphere(tm) (193358) | more than 8 years ago | (#15391422)

Small problems can open the door to large problems. You have to pay daily attention to the small problems to control them. Periodically you need a professional to look things over. Problems can be agonizing and/or make you look bad.

And none of it's any fun to the patient.

OR (1)

WedgeTalon (823522) | more than 8 years ago | (#15391140)

Or you could just ask your managers this question. I imagine that they'd be able to give a more accurate answer than a couple thousand random people.

But maybe that's just me.

Re:OR (1)

karlto (883425) | more than 8 years ago | (#15391335)

Or if you are really feeling adventurous, you could use a standard formal report structure similar to those that have already solved the problem of reporting technical information... Synopsis => Findings => Conclusions => Recommendations...

AC Suggestion (1, Insightful)

Anonymous Coward | more than 8 years ago | (#15391496)

Use bullet-point list, but elaborate on each. Keep it succint and focused on managerial point of view, however - you want to get points across, not show off your depth of knowledge. Analogies help, but make it clear that extending them is dangerous. Little bit of scare tactics (with stats, news clipping, etc.) can be helpful on points you feel strongly, but this is risky and should be used sparingly if at all.

And on points you do not feel completely certain, let them know that you don't know. This often times actually boost the level of confidence they'll place on you.

Actually, the above applies to most situations where you are making a presentation, not just tech-to-management.

Nice timing... (1)

wildblue7272 (943982) | more than 8 years ago | (#15391635)

I actually just turned in a security analysis to my boss yesterday. (We are a small non-profit business.) After giving it much thought, I decided to go into a little more depth than what I knew he would understand, but broke it down (mainly bullet format) as much as possibile. My goal was to draw questions out of him, that way we could have a meaningful discussion about INFOSEC. (Plus it never hurts to flex the ole' brain muscle around the boss every now and then.)

You can be technical... but don't forget what the boss TRUELY cares about: the big picture. Let him/her know the current status of everything... what really needs to be done to preserve (or establish) INFOSEC... and how much it's gonna cost.

Good luck!

I happen to write these reports every so often... (2, Informative)

Cybersonic (7113) | more than 8 years ago | (#15391873)

Ill make this short, informative, and somewhat dumbed down, just like the type of report they are looking actually for.

Go here and read: []

They want a few powerpoint slides worth of information in a doc/pdf really... Lots of pictures and graphs. Highlight the risks and list the tasks needed to mitigate them.

Try to cover your own analysis of the products you have in place to protect your company.

  • Network-based Firewalls
  • Network-based Anti-Virus
  • Network-based IPS/IDS
  • Network-based Anti-SPAM
  • Host-based Firewalls
  • Host-based Anti-Virus
  • Host-based IPS/IDS
  • Host-based Anti-SPAM
  • Patch Management
  • Vulnerability and Application Assesment
  • VPN (IPSEC and/or SSL-based)
  • Authentication (LDAP, Radius, 2-Factor, etc...)
  • Anti-SPAM
  • Event Management
  • Logging Servers
  • Content Filtering
  • Wireless Security

I hope you have at least some idea of a plan for each of these areas...

you should... (1)

ohzero (525786) | more than 8 years ago | (#15405584)

speak klingon. klingon is not technical.
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