eldavojohn (898314) writes "As odd as it sounds, candle flames contain all four known forms of carbon. Zixue Su, Yang Zhang and University of St Andrews chemistry Professor Wuzong Zhou have recently published a paper utilizing a new technique that leveraged anodic aluminium oxide films as collectors to actually observe diamond, graphitic, fullerenic and amorphous particles from a live candle flame. The result of a challenge from a colleague that claimed no one knows what a flame is actually made of, Dr. Zhou and his team deduced that around 1.5 million diamond nanoparticles are created every second in a candle flame. Some more light has been shed on how the flame transforms hydro-carbon molecules into carbon dioxide that could pave the way to a new nucleation mechanism for diamond growth and fullerene formation in a combustion synthesizing process."
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