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Last Three Years the Quietest For Tornadoes Ever

Layzej Re:And where are all the hurricanes? (179 comments)

Hardly a reason to presume he is exaggerating.

How do you figure? Have you read the literature? Have you even read the relevant IPCC section?

Methane is a feedback of CO2. If the feedback is as strong as some say then CO2 could be game over. Also, you didn't read through to the other links. Clearly scientists are doing a good job of presenting the science even in the face of those who would distort it for political ends.

4 hours ago
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Last Three Years the Quietest For Tornadoes Ever

Layzej Re:And where are all the hurricanes? (179 comments)

Is Hanson wrong? Should we expect to have seen a statistically significant change in storm intensity already? Did I not show many cases where scientists corrected journalists who overstated?

6 hours ago
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Last Three Years the Quietest For Tornadoes Ever

Layzej Re:And where are all the hurricanes? (179 comments)

I think you may have tinted glasses. I'm a lay person and I certainly didn't get the impression that the sky was falling after reading Mann's essay. Regarding the two other links - Cook isn't a climate scientist and Hanson didn't say anything about tornadoes except that he had been in one and that heat is the fuel for tornados but that we don't yet know if frequency will increase and we didn't have enough data to tell if there has been a trend. On the other hand, look at these links:

David Archer on methane increase: "Is this bad news for global warming? Not really, because the one real hard fact that we know about atmospheric methane is that it’s concentration isn’t rising very quickly. Methane is a short-lived gas in the atmosphere, so to make it rise, the emission flux has to continually increase " - http://www.realclimate.org/ind...

What about that Arctic methane bomb? "Shakhova et al (2013) did not find or claim to have found a 50 Gt C reservoir of methane ready to erupt in a few years. That claim, which is the basis of the Whiteman et al (2013) $60 trillion Arctic methane bomb paper, remains as unsubstantiated as ever. - See more at: http://www.realclimate.org/ind...

The fact that the ice core records do not seem full of methane spikes due to high-latitude sources makes it seem like the real world is not as sensitive as we were able to set the model up to be. - See more at: http://www.realclimate.org/ind...

Here's William Connoly betting against an arctic death spiral (and trying to engage in a bet against arctic ice recovery): http://scienceblogs.com/stoat/...

Here is the head of the NASA climate team explaining why he and others publicly mocked a colleague during a presentation where the colleague suggested that we may be experiencing an arctic death spiral. His excuse seems to include the fact that he was mocking both sides (read further for examples): The negative engagement stemmed both from the “green” end (which we would characterize as “things are worse than they seem”) and from the “blue” end (“things are not as bad as they seem”). We were actively deflecting negative criticisms from both blue and green “wings” throughout both meetings. - https://drive.google.com/file/...

12 hours ago
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Last Three Years the Quietest For Tornadoes Ever

Layzej Re:And where are all the hurricanes? (179 comments)

Good examples. For instance, in Michael Mann's piece he is correcting false representations of the IPCC report by journalists. He states: "The truth is that the impact of global warming on tornadoes remains uncertain, because the underlying science is nuanced and there are competing factors that come into play."

he goes on to say: "I pointed out to the journalist that there are two key factors: warm, moist air is favorable for tornadoes, and global warming will provide more of it. But important, too, is the amount of "shear" (that is, twisting) in the wind. And whether there will, in a warmer world, be more or less of that in tornado-prone regions, during the tornado season, depends on the precise shifts that will take place in the jet stream — something that is extremely difficult to predict even with state-of-the-art theoretical climate models."

He says that if he was a betting man he would give odds slight odds to the case for greater tornado activity: "So we've got one factor that is a toss-up, and another one that appears favorable for tornado activity. The combination of them is therefore slightly on the "favorable" side."

Very germane to this thread given that the deniers are somehow claiming that three years with low tornado activity somehow a failure of climate science. With such bad media reporting by the likes of WATTS and Muller. So yes - great examples of scientists correcting media reports that err in either direction.

yesterday
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Last Three Years the Quietest For Tornadoes Ever

Layzej Re:And where are all the hurricanes? (179 comments)

In my experience they are very conservative and often do correct media reports that err in either direction.

2 days ago
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Last Three Years the Quietest For Tornadoes Ever

Layzej Re:Blame stupidity on ignorance (179 comments)

Not sure about Al Gore, but the IPCC did not predict an increase in tornadoes over the last three years. General consensus is that we will have an increase in CAPE and a decrease in wind shear which will mean little or no change in the overall trend.

3 days ago
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Last Three Years the Quietest For Tornadoes Ever

Layzej Re: Blame global warming for everything (179 comments)

The consensus position (as stated in your linked article) is that an increase in CAPE and a decrease in wind shear will mean little change in the trend. Three years with little tornado activity hardly overthrows this consensus. Nor does a paper finding "a possible increase in the number of days supportive of tornadic storms."

3 days ago
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The Shale Boom Won't Stop Climate Change; It Could Make It Worse

Layzej phantomfive makin stuff up again (380 comments)

kind of a silly question given that it doesn't exist.

3 days ago
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The Shale Boom Won't Stop Climate Change; It Could Make It Worse

Layzej Re:"Could", (380 comments)

surely you would just produce the quote if one existed oh master of the googly ways.

3 days ago
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The Shale Boom Won't Stop Climate Change; It Could Make It Worse

Layzej Re:"Could", (380 comments)

It doesn't exist. Curious that you've invested so much in it considering...

3 days ago
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Last Three Years the Quietest For Tornadoes Ever

Layzej Re: Blame global warming for everything (179 comments)

Your sources don't show a link in the scientific literature between global warming and increased tornado activity. "as National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) tornado researcher Harold Brooks put it in a 2013 paper summarizing the consensus: "Climate model simulations suggest that CAPE will increase in the future and the wind shear will decrease." So even though higher overall heat might lead to the potential for more explosive storms, the expected decrease in shear meant that potential might not get realized. In other words, it was basically looking like a wash." - http://www.motherjones.com/env...

3 days ago
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Last Three Years the Quietest For Tornadoes Ever

Layzej Re: Time to openly admit... (179 comments)

Then it should be easy to cite a case that predicts a rise in tornado activity over the last three years? Nope. They don't exist. IPCC says of tornado trend: "we don't know."

3 days ago
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Last Three Years the Quietest For Tornadoes Ever

Layzej Re:And where are all the hurricanes? (179 comments)

The greenies may react badly, but anyone with any knowledge of the science would probably mod you down as well. I notice that aside from posting anonymously you also decided to omit citations showing any kind of consensus on the expected tornado count over the last three years. Likely because none exist?

3 days ago
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Last Three Years the Quietest For Tornadoes Ever

Layzej Re:And where are all the hurricanes? (179 comments)

Here's what the IPCC actually predicted for tornadoes in 2007: (TL;DR: we cannot predict)

Scientists don't have good enough long-term observational records of tornadoes to tell, if climate change is affecting tornadoes, and climate models don't shed any light on the issue, either. Here's the relevant statement in the 2007 IPCC report:

There is insufficient evidence to determine whether trends exist in small scale phenomena such as tornadoes, hail, lighting, and dust storms. - http://www.wunderground.com/re...

3 days ago
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The Shale Boom Won't Stop Climate Change; It Could Make It Worse

Layzej Re:"Could", (380 comments)

I'd love to see the quotes.

3 days ago
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The Shale Boom Won't Stop Climate Change; It Could Make It Worse

Layzej Re:"Could", (380 comments)

If you read his quote

Show me the quote? There is no quote - so how could I misinterpret it?

3 days ago
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The Shale Boom Won't Stop Climate Change; It Could Make It Worse

Layzej Re:"Could", (380 comments)

He's made bad predictions (and also some frighteningly accurate ones), but it is not clear that this is one of them. What did he actually say and what was the context? We cannot know since this article provides no source. It is a recollection of a conversation that took place 30 years prior. Certainly it does not match his published literature from the time...

3 days ago
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The Shale Boom Won't Stop Climate Change; It Could Make It Worse

Layzej Re:"Could", (380 comments)

It is hard to know what was said or what was meant since the article is a recollection of a conversation that had taken place 30 years prior. No quotes are available.

3 days ago

Submissions

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Global Warming Since 1997 Underestimated by Half

Layzej Layzej writes  |  about a year ago

Layzej (1976930) writes "A new paper shows that global temperature rise of the past 15 years has been greatly underestimated. The reason is that the weather station network covers only about 85% of the planet. Satellite data shows that the parts of the Earth that are not covered by the surface station network, especially the arctic, have warmed exceptionally fast over the last 15 years. Most temperature reconstructions simply omit any region not covered. A temperature reconstruction developed by NASA somewhat addresses the gaps by filling in missing data using temperatures from the nearest available observations. Now Kevin Cowtan (University of York) and Robert Way (University of Ottawa) have developed a new method to fill the data gaps using satellite data.

The researchers describe their methods and findings in this youtube video. "The most important part of our work was testing the skill of each of these approaches in reconstructing unobserved temperatures. To do this we took the observed data and further reduced the coverage by setting aside some of the observations. We then reconstructed the global temperatures using each method in turn. Finally, we compared the reconstructed temperatures to the observed temperatures where they are available... While infilling works well over the oceans, the hybrid model works particularly well at restoring temperatures in the vicinity of the unobserved regions."

The authors note that "While short term trends are generally treated with a suitable level of caution by specialists in the field, they feature significantly in the public discourse on climate change.""
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Global warming forcasts prove accurate

Layzej Layzej writes  |  about a year and a half ago

Layzej (1976930) writes "A recent Slashdot story noted a 1981 paper that predicted a rise in global mean temperatures and turned out to be surprisingly accurate — if a bit conservative. The guardian reports on a new paper that explores the performance of a forecast published in 1999. The new study predicted that the decade ending in December 2012 would be a quarter of degree warmer than the decade ending in August 1996 – and this proved correct to within a few hundredths of a degree. Compared to the forecast, the early years of the new millennium were somewhat warmer than expected. More recently the temperature has matched the level forecasted very closely" This relative slowdown has caused some journalists to speculate that global warming may have stopped. This paper shows that this is not the case. The author of the paper, Myles Allen, notes: "Of course, we should expect fluctuations around the overall warming trend in global mean temperatures (and even more so in British weather!), but the success of these early forecasts suggests the basic understanding of human-induced climate change on which they were based is supported by subsequent observations.""
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Paper on conspiratorial thinking invokes conspiratorial thinking

Layzej Layzej writes  |  about 2 years ago

Layzej (1976930) writes "Last summer a paper investigating the link between conspiratorial thinking and the rejection of climate science provoked a response on blogs skeptical of the scientific consensus that appeared to illustrate the very cognitive processes at the center of the research. This generated data for a new paper titled "Recursive fury: Conspiracist ideation in the blogosphere in response to research on conspiracist ideation" The researchers reviewed the reactions for evidence of conspirational thinking including the presumption of nefarious intent, perception of persecution, the tendency to detect meaning in random events, and the ability to interpret contrary evidence as evidence that the conspiracy is even greater in scope that was originally believed. Some of the hypotheses promoted to dismiss the findings of the original paper ultimately grew in scope to include actors beyond the authors, such as university executives, a media organization, and the Australian government. It is not clear whether the response to this paper will itself provide data for further research, or how far down this recursion could progress. I fear the answer may be "all the way""
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2012 another record-setter, fits climate forecasts

Layzej Layzej writes  |  about 2 years ago

Layzej (1976930) writes "Fox News reports: In 2012 many of the warnings scientists have made about global warming went from dry studies in scientific journals to real-life video played before our eyes. As 2012 began, winter in the U.S. went AWOL. Spring and summer arrived early with wildfires, blistering heat and drought. And fall hit the eastern third of the country with the ferocity of Superstorm Sandy. Globally, five countries this year set heat records, but none set cold records. 2012 is on track to be the warmest year on record in the United States. Worldwide, the average through November suggests it will be the eighth warmest since global record-keeping began in 1880 and will likely beat 2011 as the hottest La Nina year on record. America's heartland lurched from one extreme to the other without stopping at "normal." Historic flooding in 2011 gave way to devastating drought in 2012. But the most troubling climate development this year was the melting at the top of the world. Summer sea ice in the Arctic shrank to 18 percent below the previous record low.
These are "clearly not freak events," but "systemic changes," said climate scientist Stefan Rahmstorf of the Potsdam Institute in Germany. "With all the extremes that, really, every year in the last 10 years have struck different parts of the globe, more and more people absolutely realize that climate change is here and already hitting us.""

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Report: Climate change behind rise in weather disasters

Layzej Layzej writes  |  more than 2 years ago

Layzej (1976930) writes "A new report by reinsurance company Munich Re finds that North America has been most affected by weather-related extreme events in recent decades. The study shows a nearly quintupled number of weather-related loss events in North America for the past three decades, compared with an increase factor of 4 in Asia, 2.5 in Africa, 2 in Europe and 1.5 in South America. Anthropogenic climate change is believed to contribute to this trend, though it influences various perils in different ways. Climate change particularly affects formation of heat-waves, droughts, intense precipitation events, and in the long run most probably also tropical cyclone intensity. Even after adjusting for population spread and increased property values, Munich Re still says there were significant increases in the costs of weather disasters. At the same time non-climatic events (earthquakes, volcanos, tsunamis) have hardly changed. Some have cautioned that thirty years is not an appropriate length of time for a climate analysis, however the findings are consistent with expectations set out in the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) as well as in the special report on weather extremes and disasters (SREX)."
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The Motivated Rejection of Science

Layzej Layzej writes  |  more than 2 years ago

Layzej (1976930) writes "New research to be published in a forthcoming issue of Psychological Science has found that that those who subscribed to one or more conspiracy theories or who strongly supported a free market economy were more likely to reject the findings from climate science as well as other sciences. The researchers, led by UWA School of Psychology Professor Stephan Lewandowsky, found that free-market ideology was an overwhelmingly strong determinant of the rejection of climate science. It also predicted the rejection of the link between tobacco and lung cancer and between HIV and AIDS. Conspiratorial thinking was a lesser but still significant determinant of the rejection of all scientific propositions examined, from climate to lung cancer. Curiously, public response to the paper has provided a perfect real-life illustration of the very cognitive processes at the center of the research."
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A Conservative's Approach to Combating Climate Change

Layzej Layzej writes  |  more than 2 years ago

Layzej (1976930) writes "Law professor Jonathan H. Adler writes that even if the contrarians are right, and global warming ends up on the lower end of the projections, it will still produce property rights violations — an idea that is antithetical to Libertarian philosophy. Critical of the current EPA regulations and of cap and trade legislation, Adler proposes four conservative approaches to combating climate change including technology inducement prizes, reducing procedural barriers to the development and deployment of alternative technologies, and adopting a revenue-neutral carbon tax. This last point is gaining traction among republican thought leaders who feel that we have a fundamentally backward system in the United States that imposes taxes on things people want more of: income and jobs. At the same time, the U.S. allows something we want less of — carbon dioxide pollution — to be emitted without penalty."
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Canadian scientists muzzled by government

Layzej Layzej writes  |  more than 2 years ago

Layzej (1976930) writes "Prior to the International Polar Year 2012 conference in Montreal, Canadian government scientists were warned not to talk to the media without governmental supervision. The message sent to scientists was clear: Big Brother is watching you. This is one of several recent examples where the Canadian government attempted to intimidate scientists into not saying anything that might be considered “off-message”. But worrying about what might or might not be off-message is not the responsibility of a scientist. Scientists should only worry about being honest about their data and how to best communicate their findings. If those findings happen to go against government policy, that should never be a scientist’s problem."
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Last bastion for climate dissenters crumbling.

Layzej Layzej writes  |  more than 2 years ago

Layzej (1976930) writes "The New York Times reports: "For decades, a small group of scientific dissenters has been trying to shoot holes in the prevailing science of climate change, offering one reason after another why the outlook simply must be wrong." Initially they claimed that weather stations exaggerated the warming trend. This was disproven by satellite data which shows a similar warming trend. Next solar activity was blamed for much of the warming. This looked like a promising theory until the 80's when solar output started to diverge from global temperatures. Now, climate contrarians are convinced that changes in cloud cover will largely mitigate the warming caused by increased CO2. The New York Times examines how even this last bastion for dissenters is crumbling. Over the past few years, Several papers have shown that rather than being a mitigating factor, changes in cloud cover due to warming may actually enhance further warming."
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NASA Chief Scientist responds to ex-employees

Layzej Layzej writes  |  more than 2 years ago

Layzej (1976930) writes "Last week a fellow at the Heartland Institute, a group now notorious for their plan to subvert public science education, gathered a coalition of 49 ex-NASA employees to sign a petition urging NASA to reconsider its position on climate change. For perspective, NASA currently employes over 18,000 people, and there are likely tens of thousands of ex-employees. In their letter the group requested that NASA refrain from publishing unproven remarks. Since no theory can ever be considered proven, this appears to be an attempt to silence discussion. NASA Chief Scientist Waleed Abdalati has since responded: "Our Earth science programs provide many unique space-based observations and research capabilities to the scientific community to inform investigations into climate change... After these studies have met the appropriate standards of scientific peer-review, we strongly encourage scientists to communicate these results to the public. If the authors of this letter disagree with specific scientific conclusions made public by NASA scientists, we encourage them to join the debate in the scientific literature or public forums rather than restrict any discourse.""
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30-year-old global temperature predictions close to spot-on

Layzej Layzej writes  |  more than 2 years ago

Layzej (1976930) writes "The Register reports on a 30 year old paper published in Science in 1981 that projected global mean temperatures up to the year 2100. "When the 1981 paper was written, temperatures in the northern hemispheres were declining, and global mean temperatures were below their 1940 levels. Despite those facts, the paper's authors confidently predicted a rise in temperature due to increasing CO2 emissions." The prediction turns out to be remarkably accurate — even a bit optimistic. The article concludes that the 1981 paper is "a nice example of a statement based on theory that could be falsified and up to now has withstood the test.""
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Tennessee senate passes "monkey bill"

Layzej Layzej writes  |  more than 2 years ago

Layzej (1976930) writes "The Tennessee Senate has passed a bill that allows teachers to "teach the controversy" on evolution, global warming and other scientific subjects. Critics have called it a "monkey bill" that promotes creationism in classrooms. In a statement sent to legislators, eight members of the National Academy of Science said that, in practice, the bill will likely lead to "scientifically unwarranted criticisms of evolution." and that "By undermining the teaching of evolution in Tennessee's public schools, HB368 and SB893 would miseducate students, harm the state's national reputation, and weaken its efforts to compete in a science-driven global economy,""
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Ken Cuccinelli's climate-change witch hunt

Layzej Layzej writes  |  more than 2 years ago

Layzej (1976930) writes ""IF VIRGINIA Attorney General Ken Cuccinelli II (R) needs examples of official waste and abuse as he runs for governor, he could cite the harassment that he conducted against climate scientist Michael E. Mann, a costly episode of government overreach that is finally over.

The state’s highest court wrote in an opinion that Cuccinelli lacked the authority to subpoena records — including e-mails, drafts and handwritten notes — from the University of Virginia involving well-known climate scientist Michael Mann’s research. Now that the Supreme Court has shut Mr. Cuccinelli down, what’s left is a range of consequences that can only hurt the commonwealth. The university had to raise nearly $600,000 for legal fees — money the cash-strapped university should have been able to use for something productive. On top of that are the public resources of the attorney general’s office that Mr. Cuccinelli wasted. Scientists in Virginia now have reason to wonder whether they will suffer similar pressure if they publish research government officials don’t like."

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AAAS president "Scared to Death" of New Dark Era

Layzej Layzej writes  |  more than 2 years ago

Layzej (1976930) writes "Nina Fedoroff, the president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), recently confessed at an 8000 member strong meeting that she is scared to death "we are sliding back into a dark era." She stated that she is "profoundly depressed at just how difficult it has become merely to get a realistic conversation started on issues such as climate change or genetically modified organisms." Her remarks are backed by a recently published Union of Concerned Scientists report, that chronicles the methods used by corporate businesses to harass individual scientists, ghost-write scientific articles to raise doubts about government research, and undermine the use of science to form government policy. Discover Magazine gives specific examples such as the Heartland Institute's recently revealed plan to subvert public science education, as well as the offer by the the American Enterprise Institute of $10,000 a pop to each scientists or economists who was willing to write op-eds or essays critiquing the IPCC climate report — before it was even published. The AAAS meeting was "set against a background of an entire intellectual discipline that realises that it, and its practitioners, are now under sustained attack.""
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Source of Leaked Heartland Documents Revealed

Layzej Layzej writes  |  more than 2 years ago

Layzej (1976930) writes "Scientist and journalist Peter Gleik has has admitted to leaking documents that reveal the internal strategies of the Heartland Institute.. In his statement he writes "At the beginning of 2012, I received an anonymous document in the mail describing what appeared to be details of the Heartland Institute's climate program strategy. It contained information about their funders and the Institute's apparent efforts to muddy public understanding about climate science and policy. I do not know the source of that original document but assumed it was sent to me because of my past exchanges with Heartland and because I was named in it.

Given the potential impact however, I attempted to confirm the accuracy of the information in this document. In an effort to do so, and in a serious lapse of my own and professional judgment and ethics, I solicited and received additional materials directly from the Heartland Institute under someone else's name. The materials the Heartland Institute sent to me confirmed many of the facts in the original document, including especially their 2012 fundraising strategy and budget. I forwarded, anonymously, the documents I had received to a set of journalists and experts working on climate issues."

The Guardian writes "while acts of deception cannot be condoned, it is also important to note that the documents obtained by Gleick provide an insight into how some of those groups that are fundamentally opposed to reducing emissions of greenhouse gases attempt to convey the impression that their arguments are founded on science rather than on ideology.""

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Heartland Institute threatens to sue anyone who comments on leaked documents

Layzej Layzej writes  |  more than 2 years ago

Layzej (1976930) writes "Bloggers around the world have been commenting on recently leaked Heartland Institute documents that reveal their internal strategies to discredit climate science. These posters are now under threat of legal action. According to the Heartland Institute "the individuals who have commented so far on these documents did not wait for Heartland to confirm or deny the authenticity of the documents. We believe their actions constitute civil and possibly criminal offenses for which we plan to pursue charges and collect payment for damages"

Are hundreds of slashdotters now at risk after having commented when the story was posted here?"

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2011 sets climate records

Layzej Layzej writes  |  more than 2 years ago

Layzej (1976930) writes "Despite being a La Nina year, 2011 was the world's 10th warmest year, and the warmest year with La Niña event According to preliminary results from the World Meteorological Organization. 2011 also saw Arctic sea ice volume minimum continue to plummet. Volume dropped to 4,300 km^3 after being relatively stable at about 14,000 km^3 in the eighties. In the US, heat records outnumbered cold by 2.8:1. For comparison, in 2010 the ration was 2.3:1, and the average for the 80's, 90's and 2000's were 1.14:1, 1.36:1, and 2.04:1 respectively"
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Fresh round of hacked climate science emails leake

Layzej Layzej writes  |  about 3 years ago

Layzej (1976930) writes "A fresh tranche of private emails exchanged between leading climate scientists throughout the last decade was released online on Tuesday. The unauthorised publication is an apparent attempt to repeat the impact of a similar release of emails on the eve of the Copenhagen climate summit in late 2009. The initial email dump was apparently timed to disrupt the Copenhagen climate talks. The lack of any emails post-dating the 2009 release suggests that they were obtained at the same time, but held back. Their release now suggests they are intended to cause maximum impact before the upcoming climate summit in Durban which starts on Monday. In a statement, the University of East Anglia said "As in 2009, extracts from emails have been taken completely out of context. Following the previous release of emails scientists highlighted by the controversy have been vindicated by independent review, and claims that their science cannot or should not be trusted are entirely unsupported""
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Climate panel says prepare for weird weather

Layzej Layzej writes  |  about 3 years ago

Layzej (1976930) writes "Extreme weather, such as the 2010 Russian heat wave or the drought in the horn of Africa, will become more frequent and severe as the planet warms, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) warns in a report released today. Some areas could become “increasingly marginal as places to live in", the report concludes. Critics of the report note that “Governments have in the past considerably weakened the language of IPCC summaries for policymakers,” and that the IPCC process tends to water down even the most obvious conclusions."
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World emissions of carbon dioxide soar higher than

Layzej Layzej writes  |  more than 3 years ago

Layzej (1976930) writes "The global output of heat-trapping carbon dioxide jumped by the biggest amount on record in 2010, the U.S. Department of Energy calculated. A chart accompanying the study shows the breakdown by country. The new figures mean that levels of greenhouse gases are higher than the worst case scenario outlined by climate experts just four years ago. It is a “monster” increase that is unheard of, said Gregg Marland, a professor of geology at Appalachian State University, who has helped calculate Department of Energy figures in the past. The question now among scientists is whether the future is the IPCC's worst case scenario or something more extreme."
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