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TWEETHER Project Promises 10Gbps MmW 92-95GHz Based Wireless Broadband

MattskEE Re:TWT based (54 comments)

To get tens of watts from solid state in W-band yes you need either spatial or corporate (or both) combining of individual chips. So the amp ends up being of similar size to a mm-wave TWT but you don't need an expensive and large HV power supply or water cooling. Chip level output powers in GaAs I think have been done up to about 500mW, and 1-2W in GaN.

GaN for mm-wave still has some yield and reliability problems (pick at least one depending on supplier), and performance is not yet up to the ideal levels. But that's the same thing that GaN went through at lower frequencies, and mm-wave GaN is improving.

about a week ago
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TWEETHER Project Promises 10Gbps MmW 92-95GHz Based Wireless Broadband

MattskEE Re:TWT based (54 comments)

Solid state GaAs is slowly catching up to TWTAs at this frequency. They're not common but it is possible to buy a 30 watt solid state amplifier, probably for the same price you can get a TWTA that has a little bit more power. GaN still has lots of problems at this frequency but it's improving and will likely be competitive with tubes within 5-10 years.

But yes it seems like it would be much easier to do this at Ka band where solid state amps are now a better value than tubes for communication applications.

about a week ago
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TWEETHER Project Promises 10Gbps MmW 92-95GHz Based Wireless Broadband

MattskEE Re:Physics doesn't work like that. (54 comments)

In addition to penetrating solids the range is challenging (or expensive anyway) just because of limited transmit power levels. Power is important because that gives you your range, your cell phone and home wireless router transmit up to about 1 watt. A 1 watt output solid-state power amplifier at this frequency would cost $5-10k, or at least that was the case about a year ago. This project seems to propose using travelling wave vacuum tube technology which provides lots of drive power (50-100 watts) but at a high price (over $100-250k).

about a week ago
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Bill Gates Endorses Water From Human Waste

MattskEE Re:kW or kWh? (245 comments)

What's wrong with kWh? For industrial processes that's a common energy unit.

It may confuse you but it doesn't confuse other people. In fact it makes more sense to most people since they have some frame of reference for how much energy a kWh but they don't have an intuitive frame of reference for Joules.

about three weeks ago
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Tesla About To Start Battery-Swap Pilot Program

MattskEE Re:even better (133 comments)

Do you know how many solar panels it takes to charge an electric car? You're basically looking at a football field's worth, each.

Ah, to be young and full of made up numbers. Let's do the math.

The large Tesla battery is 85kWh. A solar cell typically has an efficiency of 10-20%, so with about 5kWh/m^2/day of typical solar radiation (check PVWatts for specifics in your town you can produce about 0.5-1kWh/m^2 per day.

If we assume 15% charging losses it will take 100kWh to charge a Tesla battery, which will require 100 to 200 square meters to produce in one day. A football field has about 5300 square meters, so we could expect one football field of tightly packed solar panels to charge around 26 to 53 Tesla's per day.

about a month ago
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Graphene: Fast, Strong, Cheap, and Impossible To Use

MattskEE Re:wimpy talk (187 comments)

Graphene in addition to the engineering challenges does have some very fundamental scientific challenges as well.

The most important challenge is its lack of a bandgap meaning that graphene transistors cannot be turned off. That drawback means that while it may have a ~500GHz cutoff frequency on par with silicon and below the InP records it will not modulate current in an energy-efficient way, and while it can create some forms of logic the lack of a bandgap limits its power amplifying frequency to a measly 50GHz, well below the competing technologies. Contrast that with Northrop Grumman's recent 1000GHz amplifier, which is admittedly not a great amplifier since it is run very near its cutoff frequency it has 1dB or less gain per stage, but it works which is still quite impressive.

So far the various methods that can give graphene a bandgap also take away the extremely fast electron transport properties that made graphene so interesting for electronics in the first place. Some of us working on competing technologies wonder why hundreds of millions of dollars have been spent on graphene transistor development without solving the fundamental bandgap problem - of course we just want that money directed to our own research, but some of us try to be realistic about the capabilities of what we are developing ;-)

I'm sure graphene will be useful for some things but so far there are still some fundamental problems that need to be solved before using it for high-speed electronics for wireless applications or digital logic. We'll see how it does.

about a month and a half ago
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Military Laser/Radio Tech Proposed As Alternative To Laying Costly Fiber Cable

MattskEE Re:Imminent Domain (150 comments)

Is the domain about the happen any time now?

Check your own grammar before pointing out somebody else's mistake. ;-)

about 2 months ago
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Military Laser/Radio Tech Proposed As Alternative To Laying Costly Fiber Cable

MattskEE Re:Rain attenuates the radio signal (150 comments)

Implemented well it should have a slightly lower latency because the propagation of signals in air is faster than in fiber optics. But the delay from customer to the ISP is probably only a small part of the latency anyway.

about 2 months ago
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LG's 0.7mm Smartphone Bezel Is World's Narrowest

MattskEE Re:Usability Nightmare (63 comments)

Cynical much? One phone does not need to be all things to all people in order to be successful. Not all of us need cases on our smartphones: in my 4.5 years of smartphone usage and two smartphones I have yet to damage my uncased phones in any way.

Since you need a case on your smartphone you should buy a different one, others of us enjoy the beautiful design of a tiny bezel. But I hope to keep my phone at least another 1-2 years so I'm not in the market currently.

about 3 months ago
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Integrated Circuit Amplifier Breaches Terahertz Barrier

MattskEE Re:We use stuff like this (81 comments)

Why does the 3D printing matter? Some people do make ultra high frequency waveguide with 3D printing - in the case I'm familiar with they "printed" it on a stereolithgraphy machine out of a polymer, then gold plated all of the surfaces. It may have some applications for complex waveguide circuits which are not possible to make by other methods in a given size constraint. However, getting the plating thickness just right on such a small scale when you have to plate the inside of the long and super narrow waveguide tubes is difficult and conventional machining techniques are often faster and cheaper, and can have higher material quality than a printed or plated material.

The point of the Northrop Grumman work is that the circuit is integrated on a chip, so the waveguide interconnect will be relatively simple and simple objects can generally be made better, faster, and cheaper, by conventional techniques.

about 3 months ago
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Integrated Circuit Amplifier Breaches Terahertz Barrier

MattskEE Re:Not solid state... (81 comments)

No, the electron transport in vacuum tubes is in a vacuum. Vacuum is not a solid.

about 3 months ago
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What Will It Take To Make Automated Vehicles Legal In the US?

MattskEE Re:For Starters (320 comments)

If that is the rationale, then the car needs to be 100% automated, under all circumstances, with all liability going to whoever made the damned thing.

I don't see why that would be necessary. Effectively you are saying that insurance over the lifetime of the vehicle should be factored into the purchase price instead of allowing people to buy insurance policies. That's not a bad idea but I don't think that it should be a requirement.

Instead this can be treated like any product: you buy an insurance policy to cover damages and go after the manufacturer in cases of negligent manufacturing or design flaws.

about 3 months ago
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Haier Plans To Embed Area Wireless Chargers In Home Appliances

MattskEE Re:Sounds wasteful and stupid ... (61 comments)

They claim to use far-field power transmission (i.e. radiated power) rather than near field inductive coupling. The transformer analogy only works for near-field transmission but it tends to be difficult to get range. Far-field will be radiating power all over the place.

about 3 months ago
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Haier Plans To Embed Area Wireless Chargers In Home Appliances

MattskEE Re:Sounds wasteful and stupid ... (61 comments)

If power is transmitted using near-field methods such as the direct inductive coupling used in RFID, most cell phone wireless chargers, and electric toothbrush chargers then the power transmission is coupled directly to the recipient device, and if the device is removed and the transmitter is still running then very little power is radiated away. This is potentially quite efficient. If you use far-field transmission then power is being radiated away whether a device is there to receive it or not. In order for it to be efficient you need high antenna gains to focus the power into a narrow beam the size of your receiver antenna aperture and beamforming to actively steer it. Otherwise the antenna is just spraying a broad beam of power in the general direction of the receiver like your sprinkler analogy.

They say it's using far-field transmission of power:

WattUp's RF transmission, which operates at 5.7MHz and 5.8MHz, is referred to in the industry as "far-field" wireless charging. Energous is not the first company to come up with the idea.

At such low frequencies it would be very hard for them to implement high gain antennas and beam forming. Also at such low frequencies I wonder how it can really be far field since the receiver will be well within a quarter wavelength of the transmitter.

More information is needed to fully answer the question, but this sounds like a convenience feature rather than an efficient one.

about 3 months ago
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When will the first successful manned Mars mission happen?

MattskEE Re:oil discovery = terraforming (219 comments)

Isn't it nice not to have any locals complaining about extinction-size impacts?!

The Martian robots will be pretty pissed off though.

about 3 months ago
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Z Machine Makes Progress Toward Nuclear Fusion

MattskEE Re:Meanwhile in a suburban garage... (151 comments)

You take one Ampere-second (i.e. 1 Coulomb) of electrons per second, and accelerate them.

about 4 months ago
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No Nobel For Nick Holonyak Jr, Father of the LED

MattskEE Re:The Nobel Prize Committee blew it (276 comments)

The blue LED may have been harder than the red LED for the reasons that you give, but Holonyak did make some key accomplishments including the demonstration of a ternary alloy semiconductor and tuning the bandgap and thus color by varying alloy composition which has paved the way for achieving all of the different colors for LEDs in use today and is also used for the InGaN emission layer in the blue LEDs.

An alloy semiconductor instead of having, for example, one group III and one group V element in perfect 50% ratio in a uniform crystal structure mixes it up and uses two or more group III elements and two or more group V elements. In the case of Holonyak he used two group V elements: Arsenic and Phosphorous. At the time at least some people did not think that an alloy semiconductor would even work, and it is a little weird because the crystal structure is now non-uniform where a given group V crystal site contains one element or the other at random. In fact this randomness does slow down the electrons. Holonyak also showed that the bandgap could be tuned by varying the relative concentrations of the group V elements. You can read more about him in a nice IEEE profile.

I don't know enough about the history to say who should have gotten the Nobel, but certainly no matter who they selected somebody would have been snubbed.

about 4 months ago
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2014 Nobel Prize In Physics Awarded To the Inventors of the Blue LED

MattskEE Re:It's a boring choice (243 comments)

There isn't a limit of one prize per invention or discovery. The Physics and Chemistry Nobel prizes are frequently awarded decades after the original work was done.

The Nobel prize announcement did state that the significant impact of this invention was a factor in the selection. In addition to the huge commercial and societal impact of the work these researchers' work had a major scientific impact on the entire field of growth and properties of nitride semiconductors. LEDs are certainly the biggest application of nitride semiconductors but their work has also paved the way for nitride transistors in wireless and power electronics applications.

about 4 months ago
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IBM Solar Concentrator Can Produce12kW/day, Clean Water, and AC

MattskEE Re:12kW/day? (268 comments)

Yes, it's a very crude estimate, and more of a summertime number too here in the US.

In the US I would refer them to PV Watts which will take examine a database of historical solar data and tell you how much daily energy to expect through the year for different types of setups, even including solar panel fixed angle or angle tracking systems. But it will not take into account your point on the effect of diffuse light on concentrated systems.

about 4 months ago
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IBM Solar Concentrator Can Produce12kW/day, Clean Water, and AC

MattskEE Re:12kW/day? (268 comments)

It could also be 12kW peak, which with typical sunlight variation over a day would work out to around 60kWh per day.

Most of the time I see a non-technical article about solar with a kilowatt figure it's the peak power available from the cells, and as a first estimate you can multiply the peak solar power by 5 hours to get the daily output.

about 4 months ago

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