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Why Hasn't This Asteroid Disintegrated?

Zorpheus Re:Molten piece of crystalline rock with ionic bon (74 comments)

I would conclude that this was part of a larger body. It is a solid rock because it was molten at some point in its history. Probably resulted from a larger collision.

about two weeks ago
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Latin America Exhausts IPv4 Addresses

Zorpheus Re:On behalf of all network specialists, (197 comments)

Isn't the problem that only people without an IPv4 address will have problems? If they can not access large parts of the internet, and they are a small minority, it will be up to them to find a solution.

about 2 months ago
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Strange New World Discovered: The "Mega Earth"

Zorpheus Re:Science Writers: Stop Causing Us Intellectual P (147 comments)

Funny that we have exactly the same in German. The conclusion from the logical meaning is 3.3, but no one uses it this way. People who value the logical meaning say 2.3 times as large, they just would not use it, and the others use it the way that it is commonly used, although it is illogical.

about 3 months ago
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As NASA Seeks Next Mission, Russia Holds the Trump Card

Zorpheus Re:Simple (250 comments)

What I meant is: if the USA would start capturing Chinese spying satellites China would probably retaliate by destroying one or more American satellites. Currently the USA has an advantage due to a higher number and quality of satellites in orbit, if it starts to attack satellites it will lose this advantage due to the counterreactions.
The Chinese method is simple and produces lots of debris in orbit. If this is done a few times orbits will become unusable because the danger of collisions becomes too high. The USA can not use this method since it will block itself with it, but for China it is ok, especially as a counter-threat.

about 3 months ago
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As NASA Seeks Next Mission, Russia Holds the Trump Card

Zorpheus Re:Simple (250 comments)

China already showed that it can destroy satellites too. They left a big mess behind, but that won't be their problem if the USA decides to block their access to space anyway.

about 3 months ago
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Is There a Limit To a Laser's Energy?

Zorpheus Re:Spoiler at the end. Answer is "No" (135 comments)

I just searched for an answer to this question. Seems that pair generation by irradiation of matter (e.g. a mirror) is shown experimentally and can reach quite high intensities:
http://journals.aps.org/prl/ab...
Generation in vacuum though seems to be shown only in models until now:
http://iopscience.iop.org/0295...
http://journals.aps.org/pra/ab...
Seems that the reaction rate is much lower, so maybe this is not a limiting factor for building a laser.
Normally high intensities are achieved by building a pulsed laser. This produces a beam of laser pulses, which is then focussed into a tiny spot. Intensities in this spot can be alot higher than inside the laser cavity. You could achieve higher laser intensities just by building a larger laser (like http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/N... ).
Inside the laser cavity intensities are normally limited by the effects of nonlinear optics ( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/N... ), which occur in all kinds of matter.

about 4 months ago
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Is There a Limit To a Laser's Energy?

Zorpheus Re:Spoiler at the end. Answer is "No" (135 comments)

This is not only a problem for high photon energies on mirrors, but also for high energy densities in free space. If I remember correctly this starts at about 10^20 W/cm^2

about 4 months ago
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Physics Students Devise Concept For Star Wars-Style Deflector Shields

Zorpheus Re:Sorry but (179 comments)

Also the heat radiation from the plasma would toast your spaceship. If it surrounds the whole ship the ship will have no way to reduce its temperature. It will heat up to the temperature of the plasma, turning itself into plasma. So it can not work for a spaceship.

about 4 months ago
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Physics Students Devise Concept For Star Wars-Style Deflector Shields

Zorpheus Re:Sorry but (179 comments)

Hmm, to me the principle of holding a plasma in place by a magnetic field is sound. You can not block electromagnetic waves with any magnetic or electric fields, though the plasma absorbs all kinds of electromagnetic radiation.
Though both the high magnetic field strengths necessary and the energy loss due to thermal radiation probably make this impractical or impossible to build.

about 4 months ago
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Understanding the 2 Billion-Year-Old Natural Nuclear Reactor In W Africa

Zorpheus Re:How low can you go?(power density) (152 comments)

What bollocks. I think the actual question to ask is how it's possible to create the conditions for an very large (the size of the mine)and extremely low density (the concentration of natural ore) nuclear reactor.

In the days the preference for civilian reactors was to develop further along the design of the compact high density submarine reactors. The nuclear industry never got over that. There are prototypes of large reactors with much lower power density. It's a natural question to ask how low enrichment and low density one can go.

2 billion years ago the concentration of U-235 was still 3% of the uranium. It decreased due to the shorter half-lifes of U-235.
A pressurized heave water reactor runs with today's unenriched uranium, so we are better than that already.

about 4 months ago
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Blood of World's Oldest Woman Hints At Limits of Life

Zorpheus Re:Not an upper limit (333 comments)

Cells form by division of other cells, they are not "made".
Though over many cell divisions these inclusions should get diluted. So I guess this is only an issue for cells that do not grow and divide any more.

about 4 months ago
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Blood of World's Oldest Woman Hints At Limits of Life

Zorpheus Re:Not an upper limit (333 comments)

But these inclusions of misfolded proteins would agglomerate over the generations. The telomers do not become shorter because of telomerase. There must also be mechanisms to solve the problem of misfolded proteins.

about 4 months ago
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Blood of World's Oldest Woman Hints At Limits of Life

Zorpheus Re:Not an upper limit (333 comments)

There must be mechanisms that can stop all these age-related degradations. Otherwise oocytes would get older with each generation of humans.

about 4 months ago
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Mathematical Proof That the Cosmos Could Have Formed Spontaneously From Nothing

Zorpheus Re:So "nothing" has quantum fluctuations (612 comments)

I know that the vacuum has quantum fluctuations, but they imply that the space itself is formed in these fluctuations.

about 4 months ago
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How Satellite Company Inmarsat Tracked Down MH370

Zorpheus Re:Flight recorder (491 comments)

The Indian ocean is very deep, it is a remote location and two weeks have passed already. This black box will be harder to find than that of the Air France flight which got lost over the Atlantic. Back then they said that the sender of the black box will run for a month. I don't believe that they will find it this time.

about 5 months ago
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Ask Slashdot: Do You Still Trust Bitcoin?

Zorpheus Re:As Frontalot says (631 comments)

Ok, but if a bank operates with bitcoins it might not just loose a few millions, but everything it possesses in a hack.

about 6 months ago
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Ask Slashdot: Do You Still Trust Bitcoin?

Zorpheus Re:As Frontalot says (631 comments)

What could you gain if you hacked a bank? Whatever changes you make, if they find out they will just undo them.
That is not possible with bitcoins.

about 6 months ago
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Scientists Study Permian Mass Extinction Event As Lesson For 21st Century

Zorpheus Comparable? (235 comments)

With such a massive volcanic eruption, doesn't mass extinction result mainly from dust in the atmosphere, which is blocking sunlight and stopping photosynthesis? And they still find something that can be compared to 21st century?

about 6 months ago
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Assange's Lawyers: Follow Swedish Law, Interrogate Him In the UK

Zorpheus Re:or stop hiding... (377 comments)

Under the circumstances, en interrogation in England is the best solution for every parties. If, following the interrogation, formal charges are layed and is is accused of rape, his situation will change anyway and probably won't have the choice to face the charges there, regardless where he is.

I think for some parties it is best when he stays locked into that embassy. So they are not gonna change anything and Assange must stay there until he is willing to risk to go to Sweden.

about 6 months ago

Submissions

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Negative effects of copyright laws in 19th century

Zorpheus Zorpheus writes  |  about 4 years ago

Zorpheus (857617) writes "While England, France and the USA introduced copyright laws in the 18th century, Germany did not have a effective copyright law until around 1870.
Eckhard Hoeffner compared the development in Germany with that in the other countries.
From the 18th century on there was a lot of discussion about the need of copyright laws to protect the interests of authors and publishers. Other publishers were selling cheap reprints, decreasing the income for the original books. The arguments were the same as today, that the lower income will lead to less publications, which makes it neccesary to introduce the copyright.
In Great Britain, which was the first country introducing a copyright law, publishers then made a good income selling small numbers of expensive books. Buyers were wealthies and aristocrates.
In Germany the book market developed much differently. Because the country was split up into dozens of small states, each with its own laws, the introduction of a copyright law was much more difficult. To counter income losses to cheaper reprints, publishers began to sell premium books for the wealthies and paperbooks for the general people. while only wealthy British people could afford books, even common people in Germany were building up their private library. While the British book market was small with only 1000 publications/year, up to 14000 works were published in Germany. There was an explosion of knowledge, which was probably the base of the fast development of Germany during that time.
After the copyright law was introduced, publishers increased the prices for books, resulting in a lower number of books sold. Interestingly the income of the Gernan authors became lower than it was before introduction of the copyright. The ideas behind the copyright laws — the protection of the work of the authors leading to higher income and higher number of publications — did not work out.
Original article is in German."

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