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What is DevOps?

heidibrayer heidibrayer writes  |  2 days ago

heidibrayer (2976759) writes "Typically, when we envision DevOps implemented in an organization, we imagine a well-oiled machine that automates infrastructure provisioning, code testing, and application deployment. Ultimately, these practices are a result of applying DevOps methods and tools. DevOps works for all sizes, from a team of one to an enterprise organization.

DevOps can be seen as an extension of an Agile methodology. It requires all the knowledge and skills necessary to take a project from inception through sustainment to be contained within a dedicated project team. Organizational silos must be broken down. Only then can project risk be effectively mitigated.

While DevOps is not, strictly speaking, continuous integration, delivery, or deployment, DevOps practices do enable a team to achieve the level of coordination and understanding necessary to automate infrastructure, testing, and deployment. In particular, DevOps provides organizations a way to ensure

- collaboration between project team roles
- infrastructure as code
- automation of tasks, processes, and workflows
- monitoring of applications and infrastructure

Business value drives DevOps development. Without a DevOps mindset, organizations often find their operations, development, and testing teams working toward short-sighted incentives of creating their infrastructure, test suites, or product increment. Once an organization breaks down the silos and integrates these areas of expertise, it can focus on working together toward the common, fundamental goal of delivering business value.

Well-organized teams will find (or create) tools and techniques to enable DevOps practices in their organizations. Every organization is different and has different needs that must be met. The crux of DevOps, though, is not a killer tool or script, but a culture of collaboration and an ultimate commitment to deliver value.

Every Thursday, the SEI will publish a new blog post that offers guidelines and practical advice to organizations seeking to adopt DevOps in practice. We welcome your feedback on this series, as well as suggestions for future content. Please leave feedback in the comments section below."

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How Do Agile Software Teams Engage with Systems Engineering?

heidibrayer heidibrayer writes  |  2 days ago

heidibrayer (2976759) writes "Tension and disconnects between software and systems engineering functions are not new. Grady Campbell wrote in 2004 that “systems engineering and software engineering need to overcome a conceptual incompatibility (physical versus informational views of a system)” and that systems engineering decisions can create or contribute to software risk if they “prematurely over-constrain software engineering choices” or “inadequately communicate information, including unknowns and uncertainties, needed for effective software engineering.” This tension holds true for Department of Defense (DoD) programs as well, which historically decompose systems from the system level down to subsystem behavior and breakdown work for the program based on this decomposition. Hardware-focused views are typically deemed not appropriate for software, and some systems engineers (and most systems engineering standards) have not yet adopted an integrated view of the two disciplines. An integrated view is necessary, however, because in complex software-reliant systems, software components often interact with multiple hardware components at different levels of the system architecture. In this blog post, I describe recently published research conducted by me and other members of the SEI’s Client Technical Solutions Division highlighting interactions on DoD programs between Agile software-development teams and their systems engineering counterparts in the development of software-reliant systems."
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Protecting Organizational Data in a High-Risk Economy

heidibrayer heidibrayer writes  |  about a week ago

heidibrayer (2976759) writes "Earlier this month, the U.S. Postal Service reported that hackers broke into their computer system and stole data records including social security numbers for 2.9 million customers and 750,000 employees and retirees, according to reports on the breach. In the JP Morgan Chase cyber breach earlier this year, it was reported that hackers stole the personal data of 76 million households as well as information from approximately 8 million small businesses. This breach and other recent thefts of data from Adobe (152 million records), EBay (145 million records), and The Home Depot (56 million records) highlight a fundamental shift in the economic and operational environment, with data at the heart of today’s information economy. In this new economy, it is vital for organizations to evolve the manner in which they manage and secure information. Ninety percent of the data that is processed, stored, disseminated, and consumed in the world today was created in the past two years. Organizations are increasingly creating, collecting, and analyzing data on everything (as exemplified in the growth of big data analytics). While this trend produces great benefits to businesses, it introduces new security, safety, and privacy challenges in protecting the data and controlling its appropriate use. In this blog post, I will discuss the challenges that organizations face in this new economy, define the concept of information resilience, and explore the body of knowledge associated with the CERT Resilience Management Model (CERT-RMM) as a means for helping organizations protect and sustain vital information."
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DevOps and Agile

heidibrayer heidibrayer writes  |  about two weeks ago

heidibrayer (2976759) writes "Melvin Conway, an eminent computer scientist and programmer, create Conway’s Law, which states: Organizations that design systems are constrained to produce designs which are copies of the communication structures of these organizations. Thus, a company with frontend, backend, and database teams might lean heavily towards three-tier architectures. The structure of the application developed will be determined, in large part, by the communication structure of the organization developing it. In short, form is a product of communication.

Now, let’s look at the fundamental concept of Conway’s Law applied to the organization itself. The traditional-but-insufficient waterfall development process has defined a specific communication structure for our application: Developers hand off to the quality assurance (QA) team for testing, QA hands off to the operations (Ops) team for deployment. The communication defined by this non-Agile process reinforces our flawed organizational structures, uncovering another example of Conway’s Law: Organizational structure is a product of process.

As the figure shown above illustrates, siloed organizational structures align with sequential processes, e.g., waterfall methodologies. The DevOps method of breaking down these silos to encourage free communication and constant collaboration is actually reinforcing Agile thinking. Seen in this light, DevOps is a natural evolution of Agile thinking, bringing operations and sustainment activities and staff into the Agile fold.

Every Thursday, the SEI Blog will publish a new blog post that will offer guidelines and practical advice to organizations seeking to adopt DevOps in practice. We welcome your feedback on this series, as well as suggestions for future content. Please leave feedback in the comments section below."

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Using Cloudcomputing (Cloudlets) to Help Soldiers & Emergency Workers

heidibrayer heidibrayer writes  |  about two weeks ago

heidibrayer (2976759) writes "Soldiers in battle or emergency workers responding to a disaster often find themselves in environments with limited computing resources, rapidly-changing mission requirements, high levels of stress, and limited connectivity, which are often referred to as “tactical edge environments.” These types of scenarios make it hard to use mobile software applications that would be of value to a soldier or emergency personnel, including speech and image recognition, natural language processing, and situational awareness, since these computation-intensive tasks take a heavy toll on a mobile device’s battery power and computing resources. As part of the Advanced Mobile Systems Initiative at the Carnegie Mellon University Software Engineering Institute (SEI), my research has focused on cyber foraging, which uses discoverable, forward-deployed servers to extend the capabilities of mobile devices by offloading expensive (battery draining) computations to more powerful resources that can be accessed in the cloud, or for staging data particular to a mission. This blog post is the latest installment in a series on how my research uses tactical cloudlets as a strategy for providing infrastructure to support computation offload and data staging at the tactical edge."
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DevOps Enhances Software Quality

heidibrayer heidibrayer writes  |  about three weeks ago

heidibrayer (2976759) writes "A DevOps approach must be specifically tailored to an organization, team, and project to reflect the business needs of the organization and the goals of the project.

Software developers focus on topics such as programming, architecture, and implementation of product features. The operations team, conversely, focuses on hosting, deployment, and system sustainment. All professionals naturally consider their area of expertise first and foremost when discussing a topic. For example, when discussing a new feature a developer may first think "How can I implement that in the existing code base?" whereas an operations engineer may initially consider "How could that affect the load on our servers?"

When an organization places operations engineers on a project team alongside developers, it ensures that both perspectives will equally influence the final product. This is a cultural declaration that in addition to dev-centric attributes (such as features, performance, and reusability), ops-centric quality attributes (such as deployability and maintainability) will be high-priority.

Likewise, if an organization wants security to be a first-class quality attribute, a team member with primary expertise in information security should be devoted to the project team.

Every Thursday, the SEI Blog will publish a new blog post that will offer guidelines and practical advice to organizations seeking to adopt DevOps.
We welcome your feedback on this series as well as suggestions for future content. Please leave feedback in the comments section below."

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Open Architectures in the Defense Intelligence Community

heidibrayer heidibrayer writes  |  about a month ago

heidibrayer (2976759) writes "In an era of sequestration and austerity, the federal government is seeking software reuse strategies that will allow them to move away from stove-piped development toward open, reusable architectures. The government is also motivated to explore reusable architectures for purposes beyond fiscal constraints: to leverage existing technology, curtail wasted effort, and increase capabilities rather than reinventing them. An open architecture in a software system adopts open standards that support a modular, loosely coupled, and highly cohesive system structure that includes the publication of key interfaces within the system and full design disclosure. One area where the Department of Defense (DoD) is concentrating on the development of service-oriented architectures and common technical frameworks is in the intelligence community, specifically the Defense Intelligence Information Enterprise (DI2E). As this blog post details, a team of researchers at the SEI Emerging Technology Center (ETC) and the Secure Coding Initiative in the SEI’s CERT Division, are working to help the government navigate these challenges in building the DI2E framework, which promotes reuse in building defense intelligence systems."
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Verifying Evolving Software

heidibrayer heidibrayer writes  |  about a month ago

heidibrayer (2976759) writes "When we verify a software program, we increase our confidence in its trustworthiness. We can be confident that the program will behave as it should and meet the requirements it was designed to fulfill. Verification is an ongoing process because software continuously undergoes change. While software is being created, developers upgrade and patch it, add new features, and fix known bugs. When software is being compiled, it evolves from program language statements to executable code. Even during runtime, software is transformed by just-in-time compilation. Following every such transformation, we need assurance that the change has not altered program behavior in some unintended way and that important correctness and security properties are preserved. The need to re-verify a program after every change presents a major challenge to practitioners—one that is central to our research. This blog post describes solutions that we are exploring to address that challenge and to raise the level of trust that verification provides.

As we strive to ease the burden of effort surrounding verification for practitioners, we attempt to answer this question:

How can we ensure that the amount of verification work is proportional to the size of the change, as opposed to the size of the system?"

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Collaboration with Google Yields Tool to Address Thread Safety Analysis in C/C++

heidibrayer heidibrayer writes  |  about a month and a half ago

heidibrayer (2976759) writes "With the rise of multi-core processors, concurrency has become increasingly common. The broader use of concurrency, however, has been accompanied by new challenges for programmers, who struggle to avoid race conditions and other concurrent memory access hazards when writing multi-threaded programs. The problem with concurrency is that many programmers have been trained to think sequentially, so when multiple threads execute concurrently, they struggle to visualize those threads executing in parallel. When two threads attempt to access the same unprotected region of memory concurrently (one reading, one writing) logical inconsistencies can arise in the program, which can yield security concerns that are hard to detect. The ongoing struggle with concurrent threads of execution has introduced a whole class of concurrency-related issues, from race conditions to deadlock. Developers need help writing concurrent code correctly. This post, the second in a series on concurrency analysis, introduces Clang Thread Safety Analysis, a tool that was developed as part of a collaboration between Google and and the Secure Coding Initiative in the SEI's CERT Division. Clang Thread Safety Analysis uses annotations to declare and enforce thread safety policies in C and C++ programs."
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Code Generation with AADL

heidibrayer heidibrayer writes  |  about a month and a half ago

heidibrayer (2976759) writes "Given that up to 70 percent of system errors are introduced during the design phase, stakeholders need a modeling language that will ensure both requirements enforcement during the development process and the correct implementation of these requirements. Previous work demonstrates that using the Architecture Analysis & Design Language (AADL) early in the development process not only helps detect design errors before implementation, but also supports implementation efforts and produces high-quality code. Our latest blog posts and a recent webinar have shown how AADL can identify potential design errors and avoid propagating them through the development process. Verified specifications, however, are still implemented manually. This manual process is labor intensive and error prone, and it introduces errors that might break previously verified assumptions and requirements. For these reasons, code production should be automated to preserve system specifications throughout the development process. This blog post summarizes different perspectives on research related to code generation from architecture models."
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CERT Java Coding Guidelines: Now Available Free Online

heidibrayer heidibrayer writes  |  about 2 months ago

heidibrayer (2976759) writes "While conducting the research that produced The CERT Oracle Coding Standard for Java, the Secure Coding Team in the SEI's CERT Division identified best coding practices that, if followed, would eliminate vulnerabilities and other defects in Java programs. Together with collaborators from other organizations, the team in 2013 published Java Coding Guidelines: 75 Recommendations for Reliable and Secure Programs. Now the CERT Division is making the content of the Java Coding Guidelines book available free online."
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Designing an Insider Threat Program

heidibrayer heidibrayer writes  |  about 2 months ago

heidibrayer (2976759) writes "Insider threat is the threat to organization’s critical assets posed by trusted individuals — including employees, contractors, and business partners — authorized to use the organization’s information technology systems. Insider threat programs within an organization help to manage the risks due to these threats through specific prevention, detection, and response practices and technologies. The National Industrial Security Program Operating Manual (NISPOM), which provides baseline standards for the protection of classified information, is considering proposed changes that would require contractors that engage with federal agencies, which process or access classified information, to establish insider threat programs. The proposed changes to the NISPOM were preceded by Executive Order 13587, Structural Reforms to Improve the Security of Classified Networks and the Responsible Sharing and Safeguarding of Classified Information. Signed by President Obama in September 2011, Executive Order 13587 requires federal agencies that operate or access classified computer networks to implement insider threat detection and prevention programs.

Since the passage of Executive Order 13587, the following key resources have been developed:

-The National Insider Threat Task Force developed minimum standards for implementing insider threat programs. These standards include a set of questions to help organizations conduct insider threat self-assessments.

-The Intelligence and National Security Alliance conducted research to determine the capabilities of existing insider threat programs

-The Intelligence Community Analyst-Private Sector Partnership Program developed a roadmap for insider threat programs.

CERT’s insider threat program training and certificate programs are based on the above resources as well as CERT’s own Insider Threat Workshop, common sense guidelines for mitigating insider threats, and in-depth experience and insights from helping organizations establish computer security incident response teams. As described in this blog post, researchers from the Insider Threat Center at the Carnegie Mellon University Software Engineering Institute are also developing an approach based on organizational patterns to help agencies and contractors systematically improve the capability of insider threat programs to protect against and mitigate attacks."

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7 Categories of Agile Metrics

heidibrayer heidibrayer writes  |  about 2 months ago

heidibrayer (2976759) writes "More and more, suppliers of software-reliant systems are moving away from traditional waterfall development practices in favor of agile methods. As described in previous posts on this blog, agile methods are effective for shortening delivery cycles and managing costs. If the benefits of agile are to be realized effectively, however, personnel responsible for overseeing software acquisitions must be fluent in metrics used to monitor these programs. This blog post highlights the results of an effort by researchers at the Carnegie Mellon University Software Engineering Institute to create a reference for personnel who oversee software development acquisition for major systems built by developers applying agile methods. This post also presents seven categories for tracking agile metrics."
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Eliciting & Analyzing Unstated Requirements in Sociotechnical Ecocystems

heidibrayer heidibrayer writes  |  about 2 months ago

heidibrayer (2976759) writes "As recent news attests, the rise of sociotechnical ecosystems (STE)—which, we define as a software system that engages a large and geographically-distributed community in a shared pursuit—allows us to work in a mind space and a data space that extends beyond anything that we could have imagined 20 or 30 years ago. STEs present opportunities for tackling problems that could not have even been approached previously because the needed experts and data are spread across multiple locations and distance. Since STEs can be complex and have many diverse stakeholders, a key challenge faced by those responsible for establishing and sustaining them is eliciting requirements to inform their development efforts. Yet stakeholders often have requirements that they are not aware of, so they do not specify them. Uncovering these unstated requirements can be hard and is not well-supported by traditional approaches to requirements elicitation. This blog post describes initial results of an effort by researchers at the Carnegie Mellon University Software Engineering Institute aimed at developing an approach for determining the unstated needs of stakeholders typical of large, diverse programs and especially STEs."
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Evolutionary Improvements of Quality Attributes: Performance in Practice

heidibrayer heidibrayer writes  |  about 3 months ago

heidibrayer (2976759) writes "Continuous delivery practices, popularized in Jez Humble’s 2010 book Continuous Delivery, enable rapid and reliable software system deployment by emphasizing the need for automated testing and building, as well as closer cooperation between developers and delivery teams. As part of the Carnegie Mellon University Software Engineering Institute's (SEI) focus on Agile software development, we have been researching ways to incorporate quality attributes into the short iterations common to Agile development. We know from existing SEI work on Attribute-Driven Design, Quality Attribute Workshops, and the Architecture Tradeoff Analysis Method that a focus on quality attributes prevents costly rework. Such a long-term perspective, however, can be hard to maintain in a high-tempo, Agile delivery model, which is why the SEI continues to recommend an architecture-centric engineering approach, regardless of the software methodology chosen. As part of our work in value-driven incremental delivery, we conducted exploratory interviews with teams in these high-tempo environments to characterize how they managed architectural quality attribute requirements (QARs). These requirements—such as performance, security, and availability—have a profound impact on system architecture and design, yet are often hard to divide, or slice, into the iteration-sized user stories common to iterative and incremental development. This difficulty typically exists because some attributes, such as performance, touch multiple parts of the system. This blog post summarizes the results of our research on slicing (refining) performance in two production software systems. We also examined the ratcheting (periodic increase of a specific response measure) of scenario components to allocate QAR work."
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An Appraisal of Systems Engineering: Defense v. Non-Defense

heidibrayer heidibrayer writes  |  about 3 months ago

heidibrayer (2976759) writes "In today’s systems it’s very hard to know where systems end and software begins. Software performs an integrating function in many systems, often serving as the glue interconnecting other system elements. We also find that many of the problems in software systems have their roots in systems engineering, which is an interdisciplinary field that focuses on how to design and manage complex systems over their life cycles. For that reason, staff at the Carnegie Mellon University Software Engineering Institute (SEI) often conduct research in the systems engineering realm. Process frameworks, architecture development and evaluation methods, and metrics developed for software are routinely adapted and applied to systems. Better systems engineering supports better software development, and both support better acquisition project performance. This blog post, the latest in a series on this research, analyzes project performance based on systems engineering activities in the defense and non-defense industries."
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Research to Create Automated Buffer Overflow Protection

heidibrayer heidibrayer writes  |  about 3 months ago

heidibrayer (2976759) writes "According to a 2013 report examining 25 years of vulnerabilities (from 1998 to 2012), buffer overflow causes 14 percent of software security vulnerabilities and 35 percent of critical vulnerabilities, making it the leading cause of software security vulnerabilities overall. As of July 2014, the TIOBE index indicates that the C programming language, which is the language most commonly associated with buffer overflows, is the most popular language with 17.1 percent of the market. Embedded systems, network stacks, networked applications, and high-performance computing rely heavily upon C. Embedded systems can be especially vulnerable to buffer overflows because many of them lack hardware memory management units. This blog post describes my research on the Secure Coding Initiative in the CERT Division of the Carnegie Mellon University Software Engineering Institute to create automated buffer overflow prevention."
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A Taxonomy for Managing Operational Cybersecurity Risk

heidibrayer heidibrayer writes  |  about 4 months ago

heidibrayer (2976759) writes "Organizations are continually fending off cyberattacks in one form or another. The 2014 Verizon Data Breach Investigations Report, which included contributions from SEI researchers, tagged 2013 as "the year of the retailer breach." According to the report, 2013 also witnessed “a transition from geopolitical attacks to large-scale attacks on payment card systems.” To illustrate the trend, the report outlines a 12-month chronology of attacks, including a January “watering hole” attack on the Council on Foreign Relations website followed in February by targeted cyber-espionage attacks against The New York Times and The Wall Street Journal. The well-documented Target breach brought 2013 to a close with the theft of more than 40 million debit and credit card numbers. This blog post highlights a recent research effort to create a taxonomy that provides organizations a common language and set of terminology they can use to discuss, document, and mitigate operational cyber security risks."
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Case Study: The Changing Role of Software and Systems in Satellites

heidibrayer heidibrayer writes  |  about 4 months ago

heidibrayer (2976759) writes "The role of software within systems has fundamentally changed over the past 50 years. Software’s role has changed both on mission-critical DoD systems, such as fighter aircraft and surveillance equipment, and on commercial products, such as telephones and cars. Software has become not only the brain of most systems, but the backbone of their functionality. Acquisition processes must acknowledge this new reality and adapt. This blog posting, the second in a series about the relationship of software engineering (SwE) and systems engineering (SysE), shows how software technologies have come to dominate what formerly were hardware-based systems. This posting describes a case study: the story of software on satellites, whose lessons can be applied to many other kinds of software-reliant systems."
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