top Trees vs. Atmospheric Carbon: A Fight That Makes Sense?
Ah, I missed the "day" and "year" parts (should have made those ALL CAPS too, I guess), so we'll need closer to 500,000 trees, assuming "several" really is 50. Still, I think the numbers have enough orders of magnitude (trees are cheap) that we're still looking fairly competitive.
top Trees vs. Atmospheric Carbon: A Fight That Makes Sense?
Want to absorb 50 POUNDS of carbon a year? Plant a tree. Want to absorb several TONS of carbon per day? Then build a single carbon sequestration plant on the edge of town.
Assuming your numbers are correct... how many is several? Let's say 50. That's a pretty generous "several." So, you're looking at 100,000 pounds of carbon a day. That's a lot! To match that with trees, it would take... 2000 trees.
I'm willing to bet that I can obtain and plant 2,000 trees cheaper than you can build a carbon sequestration plant. (I'm willing to bet this is true for 20,000 trees, too. Maybe 200,000.) Your plant is made of concrete and steel, both of which produce carbon emissions.
This page suggests that I'll need somewhere in the neighborhood of 11-12 acres of land for my 2k trees (for reference, Central Park is somewhere north of 800 acres), so that's pretty manageable. In addition, I'm willing to bet I can operate my trees for less money than you can operate your sequestration plant. Then, in X years, I can if I choose harvest these trees and turn them into lumber -- this, of course, does not release (all of) their carbon into the atmosphere. And I know this is subjective, but I tend to think trees (even tree farms) are more pleasant than industrial plants.
I'm not saying carbon sequestration plants are horrible ideas, but that trees probably win economically if the numbers you cite are in the right orders of magnitude.
top FSF's Richard Stallman Calls LLVM a 'Terrible Setback'
I am not an Apple fan, but despite his rants, Apple has done a lot for LLVM/Clang
I hate to break it to you, but Apple is not actually a person.
top Helicopter Rescue For All Passengers Aboard Antarctic Research Ship
Although the existing nuclear ice breakers are all in the Arctic and allegedly cannot cross the tropics under their own steam due to insufficient cooling.
Then why don't they go the other way?
top One-Armed UBR-1 Points the Way To Cheaper Robots
Now I can start my Robot Def Leppard!
top The Case of the Orca That Killed Its Trainer
You know they call them killer whales
But you seem surprised
When it pinned you down to the bottom of the tank
Where you can't turn around
It took half your leg and both your lungs
And I craved I ate hearts of sharks, I know you know it
I'm a man man man man, man man man eater
But still you're surprised, 'prised, 'prised, when I eat ya
People Gotta Lotta Nerve about a year and a half ago
top PeerJ, A New Open Access Megajournal Launches
For what it's worth, I was tangentially part of an effort in the University of Wisconsin Libraries to publish the open-access Journal of Insect Science. After perhaps a year of doing that, we looked at the actual costs and found that, IIRC, $30-$100/page are not actually unreasonable costs. Yes, there's a large variance.
"How," you ask, "could it possibly cost so much to produce an open-access journal? The author is working for free! The reviewers are working for free!" Well:
The reviewers are generally not particularly excited to spend their time reviewing papers. They often say "sure" and then just never do the work. So you need to keep on them, and swap them out for other editors when they flake out. You need to do this without giving them a sad. Different reviewers have different areas of expertise. So you need to match the content of the article to suitable reviewers. Your editor should do this, but probably isn't getting paid for that effort, and so you may need to keep on him/her to get that to actually happen. Your authors don't know how to use word processing tools or graphic design tools. You'll get horribly-formatted documents, figures as 36-DPI .GIFs, strange-looking Powerpoint god-knows-whats, and gigantic tables that will never look good anywhere. Your job is to either guess at what the authors meant to do, reformat materials, and send them back for approval, or get your authors to re-do their stuff. Authors also routinely ignore things like word count limits and organization guidelines. While you're primarily targeting the Web, a good-looking print copy is still widely-valued. So you probably need to handle your layout nightmares twice. Sometimes, people want to do Something Innovative with regard to data vis. After all, you're online, so you should be able to make this interactive, right? So, you need to decide if you want to try and implement this innovative thing (and what does that look like in print, anyhow?) or say "no, sorry, we can't make your research look super neat." Online repositories work best with specially-marked-up XML. There are tools and services that will do this for you, but they all cost time, money, or both. XSLT to turn your XML into HTML or PDF can be made to automatically give you a product that is not quite nice enough to present to the outside world -- there are usually some special cases that want hand-massaging. Both faculty and grad students can, at times, act like complete jerks and require a bunch of time in damage-control.
I could go on, but you get the idea. The bottom line was that we found PLOSOne's costs to be broadly reasonable (also: did you know you can essentially say "I don't want to pay" and... not pay?). Maybe it would be possible to undercut them by a factor of two with real work in process management, but generally: there's a bunch of grunt work turning researchers' paper submissions into a good quality journal. And you could get really fast at formatting, but time for catherding and massaging egos (so you don't lose your reviewers) scales linearly with the number of articles you publish.
top Geothermal Power Advances
So worries about "cooling off the Earth" are a tad ridiculous.
The big problem isn't cooling off the whole earth (which does have a truly staggering amount of heat stored in its crust and mantle). The problem is cooling off the area in the immediate vicinity of your borehole so that it's no longer hot enough to do useful work for you; since rock doesn't have particularly good thermal conductivity, this sadly happens a lot faster than you'd like. The power plant at The Geysers produces about half the electrical power that it did when it opened, as it depleted the geothermal energy on a local scale.
You can keep installing new power plants, but power plants are kind of expensive so that approach is problematic.
top Geothermal Power Advances
I thought of that too. Does anyone have any numbers on how many million years we can suck heat out of the ground before it becomes a problem?
Actually, a physics prof at UCSD did
a pretty thorough analysis of geothermal energy. The verdict: there are places in the country where it's great, but in the majority of the USA, it just isn't a particularly dense resource, so the energy return on investment (you need to dig a whole lot of really deep holes and stick a whole lot of pipe in the ground) is pretty meh.
It probably will (and should) be developed more, but will remain a niche source of energy county and world-wide.
top Altered Immune Cells Help Girl Beat Leukemia
In case you're thinking "yeah, cancer, big deal. People die every day" I welcome you to watch
Anthony Griffith on The Moth describe his personal experience with leukemia.
WARNING: NSFW -- both for (IIRC) some rather strong language and the uncontrollable weeping that will consume you for the rest of the day.
top Ask Slashdot: Low Cost Way To Maximize SQL Server Uptime?
Yes, get some decent hardware that won't give you too much trouble -- but equally important: Set up procedures to ensure that when your database is down, you can still get work done. Test those procedures periodically; make sure your staff can run the restaurant when the system is down.
Hardware fails. Software fails. Unless you're willing to spend lots (and you've said you aren't), you're not going to build and test something ultra-reliable. You don't want your entire business on hold (with a restaurant full of customers) because some part of your POS has decided to crap itself.
top Senators To Unveil the 'Ex-Patriot Act' To Respond To Facebook's Saverin
Do you really think the solution to "rich people want to leave for somewhere more friendly" is "lets go after these guys"?
Our citizens have paid a lot of money for a substantial infrastructure, because that allows us to live and grow businesses safely. Would you have become rich without the roads and rails that let you get to your place of business, and your products to customers? If the police didn't maintain order? If the military wasn't around to keep safe, predictable boundaries? If you hadn't gotten that grant that got you started, or that University education?
If you use our expensive shit in order to get rich, and then leave the country to avoid paying the taxes that finance our expensive shit, that's freeloading. Our society should set up policies that discourage freeloading; otherwise, what's to prevent every rich person from doing the same?
top Elon Musk: Future Round-Trip To Mars Could Cost Under $500,000
(no slight to the Virgin / Scaled composites gang, but they're not doing heavy lift at the moment, but what they're doing is Steerman bi-plane rides on a much more awesome scale.)
Technically, they aren't. They certainly
plan to do that, but no one's currently flying commercial suborbital rocket missions.
top Is Jupiter Dissolving Its Rocky Core?
Never has an apostrophe made me so sad.
top Ask Slashdot: Statistical Analysis Packages For Libraries?
OK, this is a horribly shameless self-plug, but hey, it's directly relevant. I started two projects aimed at tracking reference statistics:
Libstats, which is PHP-based and open-source. I'm also one of the founders of Gimlet, which is hosted and closed-source, but provides a similar workfow.
If you're looking to spend some time delving in code, Libstats is looking for maintainers -- I'm no longer working in libraries, so it's largely orphaned.
top Re-evaluating the Benefits of Cancer Screening
Presumably for the reasons enumerated in the summary. Too many costly, and quite frankly terrifying, false positives.
More importantly, it's important that if you screen positive, the confirmatory tests and treatment yield a better outcome than doing nothing would have. Lots of people can point to a friend or relative for whom early detection treatment saved their life; however, if someone dies from the treatment of a cancer that would never have killed them, how will you ever know?
Cancer is dangerous, but it's important to remember that cancer
treatments are dangerous as well. People can and do die from complications from surgery and chemotherapy.
top Healthcare Law Appealed To Supreme Court
Except the Constitution explicitly gives congress the power to collect taxes.
The funny thing is that the "individual mandate" is actually structured as an income tax ($695/year or 2.5% of income, whichever is greater) -- having health insurance merely exempts you from the tax. There are no special criminal penalties for not having insurance. See
this article for more details.
It is not at all clear that it has the power to "mandate that individuals enter into contracts with private insurance companies for the purchase of an expensive product from the time they are born until the time they die".
Well, if you're a minor, you'll be covered by Medicaid. If you're a senior, you'll be covered by Medicare. So it's more accurate to say the government is "giving a tax exemption to people between the ages of 18 and 65, if they buy an expensive product from private insurance companies." Which is pretty definitely in their power.
Constitutional arguments against the mandate tend to be based on an incomplete understanding of the law. Which, given media coverage, is not surprising.
top Researchers Debut Proxy-Less Anonymity Service
Even if they went along with this "service", all it takes is one of the Four Horsemen of the Infoclypse
From what I've seen, two ponies and a small dog would probably be enough.
top The Birth of Optogenetics
They are already talking about the possibilities for therapy and behavior modification by optically stimulating specific brain circuits.
They can talk about it all they want, but until they invent a transparent skull, I'm not sure I see many practical applications.
There are conditions (Parkinson's, epilepsy, severe depression) in which people get electrodes implanted in their brains, with (sometimes) therapeutic benefits. Optical stimulation can be much more precisely targeted and controlled -- with good DNA delivery vectors, you can target specific cell types, or the neurons connecting two brain regions. Optical stimulation, I believe, also causes less cell damage than direct electrical stimulation.
It's not the kind of thing most people will ever need, but if you have a condition that will probably only respond to brain surgery, this has a lot of potential.
Clinical trials are probably a long way off, though.
top The Birth of Optogenetics
The summary is a bit remiss in not mentioning Karl Deisseroth's group at Stanford, who have really made this technique practical. I'm at a different (also good) neuroscience lab, and his group's work looks like magic to me -- they've crossed a lot of t's and dotted a lot of i's. It's really, really elegant, and has a lot of therapeutic potential in humans.
a great video showing optical control of a mouse's motor cortex, and the lab's main optogenetics page has some publications.
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