Want To Influence the World? Map Reveals the Best Languages To Speak
80 years ago the Lingua Franca for diplomacy was French. In fact, French dominated diplomacy from the 17th century until WW2. English didn't start getting used in non-English diplomatic circles until after WW1 (it was quite significant when the Treaty of Versailles was written in both English and French). French has been eclipsed by English, but it is still popular (it is the second most used language in the UN and the EU).
For science and technology, Latin used to dominate. Once people stopped publishing in Latin, three dominant languages appeared: English, French, and German. Which was dominant depended on the field being discussed. Before WW1, German may have been the largest of the three, but after WW1, English was noticeably more dominant (and has only continued to grow).
For business, the general rule is that whenever possible the seller speaks the buyers language. 80 years ago, there were several useful intermediate languages that could be used to facilitate business. The most common would be English, French, and Arabic. I don't know that German was used much outside of Europe and the few German colonies. French was probably the smallest here, since outside of Europe it was most spoken in Africa, where it had to compete with Arabic as a language of trade. There are plenty of other languages which are influential at a regional level, such as Chinese, Russian, Spanish, and Swahili, but these haven't had much of an impact globally. Due to its size and economic might, I expect that Chinese will become more influential in the future, and it will slowly become more significant outside of Asia. I don't see Spanish moving outside of Europe and the Americas, at least not in the short term.
How Intel and Micron May Finally Kill the Hard Disk Drive
You fail at reading comprehension. There is nothing in the summary that says those drives aren't possible, just that they have increased heat and (therefore) an increased rate of failure. This is one reason why average hard drive speeds haven't improved much in the last 15 years.
I once bought six Western Digital 10000 RPM drives for a RAID setup. Three of them failed within the first year. Two failed the next year (including one of the warranty replacements). I replaced them all with six of their 7200 RPM Red drives and other than one DOA that needed to be replaced, I haven't had a failure in almost two years. Sure, anecdotal evidence is purely anecdotal, but it backs up the summary. (Still pissed off about the DOA though.)
In the same time frame I have owned five SSDs, including an Intel SLC that is almost six years old (works great as a small root partition on my Linux box) and I have had only one failure (a 250GB OCZ Vertex Pro). And unlike the hard drives, the data was recoverable from the dead SSD (I could mount it read only, but it wouldn't mount writable). Other than the failed SSD and my laptop drive (no idea who made it), all of my SSDs have been Samsung or Intel drives, and I highly recommend both manufacturers.
Debian Talks About Systemd Once Again
I don't know about journald, but on Solaris the binary logging works using digital signatures. Each log message (and the prior log messages signature) is signed to ensure that the log message hasn't been tampered with, and that log messages haven't been removed. In the event of tampering, the log messages can still be read, but are flagged as untrustworthy. I understand that administrators prefer text messages (which is why our Solaris systems also logged to syslog), but for security auditors digitally signed binary logs are a godsend.
Pentagon Reportedly Hushed Up Chemical Weapons Finds In Iraq
There was never any question about whether Iraq had chemical weapons. After all, Saddam used them against Iran and his own people. The question has always been, "where are they now?"
The possible answers are that he still had them somewhere, that he gave them away, that he destroyed them, or that he had run out. Each of these answers presents problems. If he still had them, then where were they and who might still have access to them? If he gave them away, who did he give them to and why? If he destroyed them, why not let the West verify this and stop the sanctions (and also prevent an invasion)? If he used them all up, why didn't he make more? Saddam's actions suggest that he had something to hide, or that he wanted people to think that he had something to hide (I always liked the idea that he wanted Iran to believe he had them, but wanted to plant doubt in the US, and he couldn't pull off that balancing act).
I don't know if I believe the article, but it would be nice to have a conclusive answer one way or another.
How English Beat German As the Language of Science
This was very common. Germans emigrated in large numbers in the late 19th century, but you wouldn't know it today. In response to public outrage at unrestricted submarine warfare many Germans immigrants Anglicized their names, turning Schmidt into Smith, Wilhelm into Williams, and so on. Anglicization also happened in England, with the most notable case being the rename of Saxe-Coburg to Windsor (yes, the English royal family were Germans with blatantly German names).
Ask Slashdot: Why Can't Google Block Spam In Gmail?
I agree. I can't remember the last time I had spam reach my Gmail inbox. Google is incredibly good at finding spam.
In fact, my complaint is the opposite, Gmail is too aggressive in flagging mail as spam. I get notifications from Fidelity about my account, and most emails are fine but things like dividend payments are consistently flagged as spam. I always flag them as "Not Spam", they match an existing filter, and I've even forwarded them to Google for review, but none of that has helped.
I occasionally have other emails incorrectly flagged as spam, but its pretty rare. The Fidelity messages aren't time critical, so this is more of an annoyance than a problem. I wish Google (or Fidelity) would get better at recognizing the difference between spam and legitimate emails that happen to be sent to a lot of people.
Where Intel Processors Fail At Math (Again)
Java also has a decimal type, though without operator overloading it isn't as pleasant to work with.
Fuel Efficiency Numbers Overstate MPG More For Cars With Small Engines
That's not surprising. The Prius has an Atkinson cycle engine which can be efficiently and quickly turned on and off, but it has a very low power density. This means that the Prius performs well when coasting (as it can turn off the gasoline engine when it doesn't need it), but poorly when accelerating hard. Most driving consists of short periods of acceleration and long periods of coasting, and the electric motor can handle a lot of the work for low speed acceleration and maintaining cruising speed, which means that the power density of the gasoline engine isn't very important for every day driving. However, if you are constantly accelerating hard, then the electric motor is wasted, the advantages of the Atkinson cycle engine are minimized and the disadvantages are maximized. If you keep it up for a long period of time, the Prius will not perform well at all. (The aerodynamic body would probably help when constantly accelerating hard, but I suspect its benefits would drop off as its speed increases.)
Dell Demos 5K Display
Most Linux desktop environments are DPI independent for fonts and toolkit controls, but it can be a bit hard to change as such things are often tied to your system theme. Of course, that doesn't help with scaling things like images. For many years now you could get desktop scaling using Compiz, but that requires hardware with good OpenGL support so few distributions use it. The current standard for things like 4K monitors is HiDPI (which Apple is calling Retina for marketing reasons).
The only Linux distribution I know with good support for HiDPI is Linux Mint Cinnamon. It even selects it automatically if it detects that your monitor exceeds a certain number of pixels per inch. The setting is in Settings -> General -> Desktop Scaling. I find that with HiDPI and a some tweaks to the default fonts, only web browsers don't display how I want them to (I prefer a 110% zoom for my web browser). Fortunately, changing the default zoom in Chrome works very well, it can even scale Flash content properly.
Other desktop environments that use Gnome libraries like Unity and Gnome Shell should have HiDPI working soon (if they don't already). It looks like KDE has HiDPI support, but they still have some issues to resolve. I'd expect the new KDE 5 desktop to work well.
Are Altcoins Undermining Bitcoin's Credibility?
Make sure that form is stamped five times, otherwise the head bureaucrat will summon the guards to bring him the form to fill out to have you taken away.
Ask Slashdot: What Recliner For a Software Developer?
The definition of First, Second, and Third World are not based on wealth, but on ideology. Second World countries are those that are industrialized and socialist (though in practice it referred only to communist governments).
You don't hear much about them because back in the early 90's there was this series of events that resulted in the collapse of most of the Second World. The independence of the Baltic states and the Ukraine, the fall of the Berlin Wall, and the collapse of the Soviet Union. You may have heard of some of these, as they were a big deal at the time.
The major Second World country to survive these events is China, but North Korea would also be considered a Second World nation. I've heard of a proposal that we repurpose the term Second World to refer to developing nations, which works well since it's the natural term for nations moving from Third to First World status, but this hasn't been adopted yet (probably because developing countries don't want to be associated with the old Soviet Union).
The First Person Ever To Die In a Tesla Is a Guy Who Stole One
How convenient that Harry's Automotive and Collision Center is right there!
A Box of Forgotten Smallpox Vials Was Just Found In an FDA Closet
According to Wikipedia, this is not quite true. Chinese did discover the practice in the 10th century, and reports on the practice were given to the Royal Society in 1700, but no action was taken.
The Ottomans learned it before the early 18th century, but we don't know for certain how or when it got there. They also reported on it to the Royal Society in 1714 and 1716, but nobody paid much attention until the wife of the British Ambassador to the Ottomans witnessed it and introduced it to Europe's ruling elite. It was introduced to America in 1721 by the Puritan minister Cotton Mather (of the Salem Witch Trials fame). He had heard of it from a Sudanese slave, but he was also familiar with the Royal Society reports and had been trying to get physicians to attempt the procedure.
We don't know when the procedure was introduced to Africa, but it was introduced via the Muslim world. We also don't know when it was introduced to India, who may have discovered it independently (but probably not).
What did we do before Wikipedia?
US Arrests Son of Russian MP In Maldives For Hacking
Maldives isn't a US territory. They used to be a UK one before they got their independence in 1965. Perhaps you were thinking of the Mariana Islands?
The Singularity Is Sci-Fi's Faith-Based Initiative
Jules Verne wrote Twenty Thousand Leagues Under The Sea in 1870. Submarines had been under development since the 17th century. The first military sub is usually credited to an American sub that failed to attach explosives to British ships during the American Revolutionary War. The first sub to sink another ship was a Confederate sub during the American Civil War, which was apparently too close to the explosion, causing it to sink as well.
The Confederate sub had ballast tanks, screw propulsion, and used a "torpedo" that was towed behind it. Everything was human powered, but very much recognizable as a precursor to modern submersibles.
I don't want to take away from Verne's accomplishments, but he didn't invent the sub, all he did was extrapolate and determine what a futuristic model might look like.
Ask Slashdot: What Should Every Programmer Read?
If you you do is write code, then you aren't a Software Engineer, you are a Programmer. An engineer is involved in requirements, specifications, design, and testing. On a good team, the experienced Software Engineers should also be consulted for process improvement, QA, and DevOps.
Heartbleed OpenSSL Vulnerability: A Technical Remediation
This has little to do with any C-specific. If you were re-using a buffer in some managed runtime, you would still see the same problem.
Most managed runtimes perform bounds checks, C does not. As a result, the same bug couldn't happen in Java or C#. Of course, bounds checks come with a cost, and one that most people wouldn't want from low level code, which means that C/C++ developers must be extra vigilant.
Book Review: Sudo Mastery: User Access Control For Real People
Linux can use ACLs, they just aren't the default. Simple permissions work most of the time, only use ACLs for those rare occasions where they are needed.
The Neuroscience of Computer Programming
The problem is probably with lexical analysis, when you break the stream of sounds or letters into words. When a language is fluently spoken there are few if any pauses between words, your brain adds those. It's possible to be familiar enough with a languages grammar and vocabulary to read without difficulty, but not yet familiar enough for your brain to subconsciously break sounds into words.
1.5 Million Pages of Ancient Manuscripts Online
The Library of Alexandria caught fire several times.
The first may have been when the Romans conquered Egypt. The Romans burned their own ships and much of the city caught fire, and the library may have been partially destroyed at this time.
A branch of the library may have been burned with the destruction of pagan temples when the Roman Empire outlawed paganism, but nobody knows how many (if any) books were lost. The main building was apparently not affected. And by the time paganism was made illegal in the Roman Empire, a concerted effort had been made to have copies of important documents in other libraries, including the worlds largest library at Constantinople. These other libraries were not burned (though it's entirely possible that some books in them were destroyed).
And it was finally destroyed by the Muslim army. There is a story that the Caliph ordered the burning of books stating that if they contradicted the Quran they are heretical, and if they did not then they are redundant. There are no contemporary sources for this story, so most historians doubt it. Whether or not this burning was deliberate, the destruction was complete and library was lost to history.