1: All banks in Sweden, and many banks in europe have this as part of basic services. Others use SMS as part of the authentication chain. The SMS checksums are common in south america too. The US and Canada really do stand out in these sloppy security practices.
2: Yes, it clearly is. Due to the way the US system is setup, Blizzard, Steam etc are all serious credit card exposure risks, to the degree that I use one-time CC numbers for purchases through them.However, with the systems used here in europe, that risk is massively reduced. So, US banks choose to expose their customers to unnecessary CC fraud risk.
3: If 20-30 seconds extra time to give you massively increased security is such an inconvenience, measures like these would not have become so popular in europe, south america and asia. Hell, banks should love it because it'd reduce charge-back fraud too.