That's for concatenated hashes. As in, you hash the two hashes to form one number, usually by XOR'ing the numbers together. Which can be shown to increase the solution space considerably.
But that reduced the difficulty of breaking SHA1, since you now just need a collision for the length of a shorter MD5 hash.
I also believed that cosmic rays trouble were about gamma radiation, but TFA says it is all about neutron radiation.
This is yet another non binding resolution, by this fake parliament that has too much time to spend considering its small powers. As TFA says:
The Commission is not legally obliged to institute the Parliament's recommendations but it must state fair reasons for anything that's rejected.
Is there any treatment at all?
There is a flavor of autism called "regressive autism" with symptoms that disapear with gluten and casein eviction. Apart than that I am not aware of any treatment.
If you can read memory arbitrarily via this exploit
I understand the exploit lets the attacker discover the randomized addresses, and hence have the knowledge of where vulnerable stuff is loaded in memory. I suspect the notion of read protection bypass was added by the journalist.
where does that money come from?
Profits! Nowadays, low worker's income makes goods and service demand too weak. As a result, investments in real economy have low returns, and investors prefer to invest profits in speculative financial products. But without enough demand from real economy, these investments will bubble and burst, causing yet another financial crisis.
Wealth production is always somehow shared between labor and capital, and if one side takes to much to the other, things go bad. For 30 years, we went too far toward increasing capital's share. See for instance OECD report
I, for one, would believe in the EU as a valid social economic construction when it imposes a 24 hours work week, decreasing by 1 hour every year until full employment is achieved.
I fear you missed the whole point of the EU project: the designers wanted an optimum currency area, and think that the fastest way to achieve it was to destroy any regulation and welfare system.
The rest of the world bears no resemblance to the US - particularly not Europe
I am sorry to call you wrong: in most European countries (at least in France, since you cite it), social welfare is funded from employee gross salary. The contribution is mandatory and directly paid by the employer.
No one gets sick on Wednesdays.