You can make your argument about developer lock-in for Swift, but not Objective C.
And really [Objective C] in the above list exist only because Apple decided they wanted to try for developer lockin.
Objective C was developed by Brad Cox and Tom Love at their then company Stepstone. It was then used by NeXT for NextStep. It got into Apple only because NeXT was bought by Apple and NextStep was the basis for Mac OS X. It had nothing to do with developer lock-in.
A presidential pardon may be granted at any time, however, and as when Ford pardoned Nixon, the pardoned person need not yet have been convicted or even formally charged with a crime.
So, yes, Obama can pardon Snowden.
... the age of exploitation is over. And unless those people, companies, entities, with their Corporate Social Responsibilities, especially those with the power to influence vast masses, start putting the priorities of the Planet, which has so far given us the privilege - not right - to exist and be making all that $$$, it ain't going to benefit anyone.
You know that, at least in the US, the pro-business Republicans now control the Presidency and both houses of Congress, right? The age of exploitation is just getting started. (They even tried to get rid of their own independent ethics board.)
The problem with encryption is not that the police shouldn't have access to the data (with a warrant), it's that there's no way to grant only the police access. Those who want strong encryption believe keeping the data private from third parties is the greater good.
My current GF (who is, of all things, an orthodontist) is into this shit.
Get out while you still can (easily). Assuming you eventually marry her and have kids, do you want either arguments over whether to medicate your kids if they truly need some medication prescribed by a doctor or here secretly withholding medication from your kids and giving them quack remedies instead?
"Ignorance is the soil in which belief in miracles grows." -- Robert G. Ingersoll